Public-Private Partnership Policy Casebook/I-77 HOT Lanes

SummaryEdit

The I-77 Express Lanes project, currently under construction with an estimated completion date of mid-2018, consists of building 27 miles of two High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes in each direction in the median of Intestate 77 between the intersection with Interstate 85 in Charlotte (Mecklenburg County) and Exit 36 near the northern suburb of Mooresville (Iredell County), North Carolina. These lanes will be in addition to the existing two general-purpose lanes in each direction. The North Carolina Department of Transportation, which owns the highway, is procuring the design, construction, operation, maintenance and financing of the Express Lanes as a public-private partnership (P3) with I-77 Mobility Partners, a Special Purpose Vehicle headed by Spain-based infrastructure concessionaire Cintra S.A. The project has survived lawsuits and ongoing vocal opposition from citizens' groups who would rather see more general-purpose lanes added, and has been formally opposed by the elected legislatures of the two counties and five incorporated towns along the route, though the Charlotte City Council supports it.

BackgroundEdit

The general purpose of the I-77 Express Lanes (or HOT Lanes) project is to increase traffic flow and ease congestion within the Charlotte, N.C. area I-77 corridor. It will allow for more direct travel points between the immediate metropolitan area and points north, providing an alternative roadway should users elect to pay the per use toll.

In 2004, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) opened the state's first High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes along the I-77 corridor in Charlotte.[1] The corridor is a major growth area for the state but transportation and congestion issues have only grown worse since the HOV lanes were adopted, leading to the need for innovative ways to improve the infrastructure.

An increase in commercial and residential demand have presented a unique problem to deal with along this particular stretch of roadway. Funding limitations, restrictions regarding right-of-way, and local opposition create a complex challenge for the state. The most viable solution to deal with such challenges aims to ensure a sustainable climate of economic growth as well as a more stable transportation route.

NCDOT identified a number of benefits of the Express Lanes project:[2]

  • Decreased fuel consumption and shortened commute time for drivers
  • Increased carpooling and transit incentives
  • Reliable travel times, especially during peak times
  • Revenue generation to assist in paying for congestion relief along the I-77 corridor

I-77 is part of the Eisenhower Interstate System spanning from Columbia, S.C. northwest to Cleveland, Ohio. While the interstate passes through major metropolitan areas such as Charlotte N.C. and Charleston W. Va., its main route is through rural and mountainous areas.[3]

Project AreaEdit

The proposed Express Lane route will run adjacent to the existing two general purpose lanes along the existing I-77 corridor. Two express lanes will run north and south along I-77 in between Charlotte and Exit 28, just outside of Moorseville. One Express Lane in either direction will run from Exit 28 to Exit 36 to minimize environmental impacts on Lake Norman, which sets to the north of Charlotte. By converting the current HOV lanes to Express Lanes, a greater volume of vehicles will travel more quickly through the north corridor. During each trip, motorists will be able to decide if they want to use the Express Lanes, the general purpose lanes or a combination of both to allow for a more efficient drive.[4] The total length of the lanes will run a 26-mile stretch of I-77.

Map of LocationEdit

Close-Up Map of the I-77 Express Lanes Project Corridor

Charlotte, N.C. Area Map


Annotated List of ActorsEdit

Charlotte Regional Transportation Planning Organization: Regional intergovernmental body which supports the project (largely thanks to the City of Charlotte holding the majority of votes on its Board of Directors) and has included it in its long-term transportation plan for the region.

Cintra, S.A. (Concesiones de Infraestructuras de Transporte) : One of the world's largest developers of transportation infrastructure, particularly toll roads. Parent company of I-77 Mobility Partners. Based in Madrid, Spain.

City of Charlotte, N.C.: Southern terminus of the I-77 Express Lanes. The majority of the City Council supports the project.

Federal Highway Administration: Division of the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) responsible for overseeing the Interstate Highway System and providing formula funding to states from the Highway Trust Fund. Also the provider of the Transportation Infrastructure Finance Innovation Act (TIFIA) loan for the Express Lanes project.

I-77 Mobility Partners: The private Special Purpose Vehicle created as a subsidiary of Cintra to construct, operate and collect revenue from the Express Lanes. Contractor with NCDOT.

Iredell County, N.C.: One of two counties in which the section of I-77 with Express Lanes is located. Located directly north of Mecklenburg, with Statesville the county seat. The majority of the county's Board of Commissioners opposes the project.

John "Mac" McAlpine V: Director of Electronics and Development Engineer at Michael Waltrip Racing and former minister at Charlotte's Pleasant Hill Presbyterian Church who has organized other regional business leaders to lobby state legislators in opposition to the Express Lanes.[5]

Kurt Naas: A civil engineer and owner of A-Line Corporation residing in Cornelius, N.C. and founder of Widen I-77 who is a vocal opponent of the Express Lanes project and is often quoted in press reports.

Mecklenburg County, N.C.: One of two counties in which the section of I-77 with Express Lanes is located, and the county in which Charlotte (the county seat) is located. The majority of the county's Board of Commissioners opposes the project.

North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT): State agency responsible for building and maintaining state roads, including Interstate highways. The owner of I-77 and future owner of the Express Lanes, and the public partner in the P3.

Pat McCrory: Current Governor of N.C. and former Mayor of Charlotte, who supports the Express Lanes project, while many of his fellow elected Republicans oppose it.

Town of Cornelius, N.C.: Located at the northern end of Mecklenburg County, immediately west of Davidson, along I-77 between Charlotte and Mooresville. The majority of the Town Council opposes the project.

Town of Davidson, North Carolina: Located at the northern end of Mecklenburg County, along I-77 between Charlotte and Mooresville. The majority of the Town Council opposes the project.

Town of Huntersville, N.C.: Located in Mecklenburg County, just north of Charlotte along I-77. The majority of the Town Council opposes the project.

Town of Mooresville, N.C.: Located in Iredell County, the northern terminus of the I-77 Express Lanes. The majority of the Town Council opposes the project.

Widen I-77: Organization of citizens who oppose the I-77 Express Lanes project, and favor instead adding more free lanes to the congested section of the highway. The organization has sued to stop the project.[6]

Timeline of EventsEdit

  • 2007-2009 - NCDOT, the South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT), MUMPO and CDOT form the Fast Lanes Study to determine where traffic improvements could help minimize congestion over a 10-county area surrounding Charlotte. The study finds the I-77 corridor located just north of the Charlotte area, as a "high priority."[7] [8]
  • July 2010 - NCDOT conducts a Feasibility Study to look at converting existing I-77 HOV Lanes into Express Lanes while also lengthening existing general-purpose lanes.[9]
  • March 2011 - NCDOT says the I-77 Express Lanes project will be a public-private partnership (P3), citing private funding would allow the project to be constructed faster than the public option.
  • July 2011 - The Charlotte Regional Transportation Planning Organization (CRTPO) amends its 2035 Long-Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) to include Express Lanes on the corridor.
  • June 2012 - NCDOT explores the use of variable tolling on the Express Lanes to address long-term congestion issues and minimize public funding for the project.[10]
  • May 2013 - Four potential bidders are shortlisted and attend over 70 meetings throughout the year with NCDOT officials. The meetings produce numerous draft proposals with bidders conducting independent analyses to ensure they can meet the project requirements of generating enough revenue in the long-term to offset the initial investment.[11]
  • March 31, 2014 - Bids are due and are reviewed through 200 pass/fail criterion.[12]
  • April 11, 2014 - Cintra is announced as the bid winner with a total investment of $647 million, requiring only a $95 million contribution from NCDOT and federal monies.[13]
  • June 26, 2014 - Project reaches commercial close.[14]
  • December 2014- Cintra and NCDOT achieve financial close.[15]
  • January, 20 2015 - Opposition group Widen I-77 files an injunction to halt construction on I-77, citing the inequity of the Express Lanes project and the need to widen the road without the use of tolls.[16]
  • March 5, 2015 - A State Superior Court judge denies the injunction filed by Widen I-77, allowing permit acquisition and right-of-way movements to commence in the summer as scheduled.[17]
  • August 2015 - Permit acquisition begins on Section 1 of the project.
  • August 6, 2015 - Republican state legislators file a bill that would put Mecklenburg County and four municipalities in northern Mecklenburg (all of whose leaders oppose the HOT lanes) on the hook for contractual damages, rather than NCDOT (up to $100 million in penalties for breaking the contract), as state sales taxes would be withheld from the local governments. The City of Charlotte, which has supported the Express Lanes, would not have to pay the penalty — only jurisdictions whose elected leaders have opposed them would have to pay.[18]
  • Mid-2018 - Projected projection completion date (3.5 years from financial close date). However, the agreement requires the project be completed by January 7, 2019 to avoid any penalty.


Timeline partially adopted from NCDOT[19]

Narrative of the CaseEdit

Since the initial HOV Lanes were constructed, North Carolina has only provided "minor widening" on this existing area of I-77. The reasoning is due to the state's stagnant gas tax revenues. A more prolonged solution to manage congestion was determined necessary given Charlotte is an area where population has grown over 30 percent from 2001 to 2010. Projections are for the population to more than double over the next two decades, to 4.8 million people.[20]

In 2009, a Fast Lanes study determined the I-77 corridor in Charlotte and surrounding Mecklenburg County as a candidate for Express Lanes. The concept works a bit differently than the traditional HOV restriction, charging a toll for lanes separated from general purpose routes. This particular corridor serves as the sole interstate connection between Statesville and other populated areas to the north from Charlotte, therefore it is forecasted congestion will only increase due to population demands.[21]

The construction of new lanes is the optimal solution in providing long-term relief for the area's traffic woes. The physical and financial constraints of the corridor demanded a more long-term solution instead of piecemeal fixes over an exhausted timeframe.

Public opinion polls conducted two years ago show 56 percent of phone respondents favor a HOT Lane option as opposed to a statewide gas tax increase.[22] Additionally, a 30-day public comment period was held in early 2013 to gauge a possible toll construction instead of adding more general purpose lanes. Many respondents were concerned about noise and traffic increases in the suburbanized Lake Norman area. Others were very vocal that the money was a waste and it was unfair for this area of the state to have a 50-year toll establishment in place.[23]

Four bidders were shortlisted for the project. All bids were weighed against more than 175 criterion such as: an assurance that private equity would be supplied under the agreement; compliance with all federal toll regulations; availability to provide surety letters from lenders; favorable ratings from two credit rating agencies; and necessary financial capacity information.[24]

The partnership with Cintra, the winning bidder, through I-77 Mobility Partners, will streamline the construction of additional I-77 lanes. North Carolina would not have sufficient funds to complete the project for at least 20 years if the project was not a public-private partnership. The public-private partnership enables NCDOT to improve travel time on I-77 now by leveraging new funds through Cintra’s investment.[25]

A public private partnership between NCDOT and I-77 Mobility Partners allows the construction of the I-77 Express Lanes and infrastructure improvements to advance significantly sooner than would have been possible under traditional public provision. I-77 Mobility Partners will manage design, construct, finance and operate the project. NCDOT will own the road and will ensure that the standards set forth in the contract are met. [26]

The proposal calls for NCDOT to remain owner of the roadway. Cintra will manage design, construction, finance, and operation. NCDOT will ensure all contract obligations are fulfilled at all specified times. In the event of a default by Cintra, North Carolina will be given 50-60 cents on the dollar and all future toll revenue. Additionally, if the revenue forecasts fall significantly lower than expected, the state may contribute up to $75 million over the 50-year term, about $100 million less than the alternative publically contributed amount.

Despite backing from NCDOT, the project has become unpopular with some citizens and municipal governments. This is largely due to the hesitation to publicize an exact toll amount drivers will need to pay. Widen I-77 is currently in the midst of a lawsuit with Cintra regarding the legality of the concession agreement, arguing I-77 Mobility Partners will incur project delays and localities opposing the agreement will be responsible for penalty payments if overrun occurs.

Project SegmentsEdit

The project is broken into three sections:

Southern Section (I-3311-C)Edit

This section extends from the Brookshire Freeway near Tryon St. onto I-77 N for approximately two miles, and along I-277 from I-77 to N. Brevard St. in North Charlotte. This portion requires right-of-way acquisition, along with current HOV lane conversion and new Express Lanes next to the existing general-purpose lanes.

The design includes a flyover bridge providing direct access from I-77 to I-277. The southbound lanes of I-77 narrowed during construction of the existing HOV Lanes will also be widened, resulting in two Express Lanes in each direction.

Central Section (I-5405)Edit

The central section begins at the I-85 interchange (Exit 13) and continues approximately 15 miles to Catawba Ave.(Exit 28). It includes converting the existing HOV Lanes to Express Lanes, allowing for two Express Lanes in each direction.

Northern Section (I-4750AA)Edit

Beginning at the Catawba Ave. interchange and continuing approximately nine miles to State Route 150 (Exit 36), this section will feature one Express Lane in each direction, but no HOV Lanes.

Project Structure and FinanceEdit

Total estimated project cost: $655 million

Actor Amount
NCDOT $95 Million[27]
I-77 Mobility Partners $248 Million
TIFIA Loan $189 Million
PAB $100 Million[28]
NCDOT Construction Funding $120 Million[29]


  • $95 million down payment by NCDOT[30]
  • $248 million down payment by I-77 Mobility Partners
  • $189 million Transportation Infrastructure Finance Innovation Act (TIFIA) loan from the Federal Highway Administration. I-77 Mobility Partners will not have to make any payments on this loan until 2023, and the first principal payment is not due until 2033.
  • $100 million in Private Activity Bonds (PABs) bought by private investors[31]
  • $120 million spent by NCDOT to build two entry & exit ramps connecting with the Express Lanes as a "Bonus Allocation."[32]

The project is a revenue contract, as opposed to an Availability Payment contract, meaning that I-77 Mobility Partners is responsible for collecting toll revenue and will keep all the revenue to recuperate its capital and operating costs and provide returns to its shareholders and bondholders.

NCDOT will have to pay I-77 Mobility Partners $75 million if toll revenues fall short of the minimum amount specified in the contract. However, the special purpose vehicle (SPV) would lose about $250 million of its own equity if the company went into default, but the state would have to pay much of its outstanding debt.[33]

A report by the credit rating agency DBRS placed the total public and private debt incurred by the project at more than $300 million through 2037.[34]

NCDOT stated its maximum contribution from traditional state funding would be $170 million. Bidders requested additional state and federal funds beyond that number and/or requested that some contract requirements be relaxed. NCDOT determined the public contribution was reasonable and would not be increased.

TollingEdit

Electronic signage placed overhead before each entry point will display the current toll rate for that particular segment of road. There are two proposed designated entry and exit points along the Express Lanes corridor with four additional merge points onto the Express Lanes from general purposes lanes.

Dynamic pricing, based on current traffic demand, will provide a more predictable travel time. As traffic levels and demand increase on the Express Lanes, the toll rate will increase.[35] Once the traffic volume drops, the price goes down.

Drivers will have two payment options at the toll gantries while using the Express Lanes:

  • NC Quick Pass Drivers: Drivers who buy a N.C. Quick Pass transponder and install it on their front windshield will have the charge for the use of the Express Lanes billed to the driver's account, managed by the North Carolina Turnpike Authority. N.C. Quick Pass transponders (known as E-ZPassFlexTM) will be equipped with a switch that drivers will use to indicate whether they are operating the vehicle as a single-occupant (SOV) or with at least three occupants (HOV) to qualify for an HOV-free trip. Note that vehicles using transponders without this switch, such as the NCQuickPassTM hard-case, sticker-tag, bumper-mount or an regular E-ZPassTM transponder (without a switch), will be charged to use the Express Lanes.[36]
  • In addition, drivers can use the Express Lanes without a transponder since overhead tolling equipment will capture their license plate and a bill will be sent to the vehicle's registered owner's address, who can then pay the bill via mail, phone, or online. Note that only drivers with the switch-enabled transponder and driving a vehicle carrying three or more people will be able to use the Express Lanes has HOV-free.[37]

"The initial one-way, peak-hour tolls for the full length of the commute will be about $10. In 20 years, HOT tolls are estimated to be about $20," or about 90 cents per mile.[38]

Clear Identification of Policy IssuesEdit

Will the Express Lanes ease congestion?Edit

NCDOT maintains that "As other motorists opt to take the Express Lanes, congestion in the general-purpose lanes will lessen, making the commute more efficient for those relying on the free lanes, as well."[39] But opponents of the project argue that the Express Lanes will not in fact ease the chronic congestion on this section of I-77, which is one of its stated purposes. Ray Duncombe, a member of the organization Widen I-77 says that toll lanes rely on the free lanes being congested to make money, so if congestion lessons, fewer drivers will be willing to pay the tolls. "[T]oll lanes have shown to only carry 6-20% of the traffic carried by free lanes because most people aren’t willing or able to pay the fees," Duncombe maintains. He adds that the burden of acquiring an NC Quick Pass transponder will also deter drivers of high-occupancy vehicles from using the lanes.[40]

"Express toll lanes make sense when an expressway is projected to have a long-term congestion problem due to ongoing economic growth and cannot be widened indefinitely," argues the Reason Foundation's Robert Poole in support of the project. “Assuming continued economic growth and congestion, each lane could well be at 800 cars/hour — or 4,000/hour for the five inbound lanes. Under the express lane alternative, the two express lanes each way could handle 1,800 cars each, and the three regular lanes 800 each, for a total rush-hour throughput of 6,000 cars/hour — 50 percent more than the nonpriced alternative."[41] Tolling the extra capacity on I-77 rather than making it free reduces the effect of induced demand -- the observed phenomenon that added capacity on a road quickly fills up as drivers previously deterred from using the road by congestion will use it, and that expanded capacity drives new development along the highway that then generates more traffic -- by putting a price on drivers' time. If a driver decides it is worth the toll price to save time, he or she will pay, thus easing congestion on the free lanes, but not to the point where it becomes not worth it to use the toll lanes at any non-zero price.

Duncombe also argues that a major source of congestion and road wear on I-77 is big, heavy, slow trucks, as I-77 has the highest truck density of any highway in the state and is a feeder route to I-81, the East Coast's busiest freight trucking corridor, and connects to the new intermodal freight transfer center being built at Charlotte Douglas International Airport. Trucks, however, will not be able to use the Express Lanes, and will not be able to use them even if the state takes them over in the future as they are built to a lower standard than the free lanes.[42]

Are enough drivers willing to pay the tolls, and to what extent are taxpayers on the hook?Edit

One of opponents' main points of contention is that the project will cost the state a good deal more than NCDOT and project backers estimate, and much more than it would have cost to add free lanes to I-77 and fund other needed transportation projects in the Charlotte area. The project's bond rating is evidence that there is some merit to these concerns. The state's sale of bonds in May 2015 "included securities maturing in June 2026 yielding 3.72 percent, or about 1.4 percentage points over benchmark munis, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. An index of 10-year BBB revenue-backed munis yielded 3.27 percent that day, Bloomberg data shows. Fitch Ratings graded the bonds BBB-, one step above junk, citing the project’s vulnerability to less traffic during economic downturns and the area’s “limited familiarity with tolling.” DBRS Ltd. graded the securities BBB, one step higher."[43]

By contrast, Duncombe cites a claim that "[c]omparable free lanes from miles 20 to 28 where the congestion exists are estimated to cost $120 million." He cites the examples of some of the country's most patronized HOT lanes, each of which generates less in toll revenue annually than I-77 Mobility Partners estimates will be needed in order to break even. HOT lanes in Los Angeles, Miami and Houston "take in $41, $15, and $9 million in toll revenue a year respectively. In the first year of operation the I-77 toll lanes would need to take in $34 million ... just to break even. In the second year, that number climbs to $41 million." He also notes that the state would be penalized for canceling the contract, even if it does so before construction begins.[44]

NCDOT asserts "the public gets more than $500 million of infrastructure for a relatively small taxpayer investment of $88 million," and that “[s]hould [I-77 Mobility Partners] default, the road is still widened, and the state gets the project for roughly half the cost, along with all future revenue.” But the agency admits that "[i]f the private developer’s toll revenue falls short, the DOT could contribute an additional $75 million." However, "The state said that I-77 Mobility Partners would lose roughly $250 million of its own equity in the case of any default. The DOT said that’s a significant incentive not to default." NCDOT also defends its agreement to pay much of the company's outstanding debt if it defaults, explaining that “[i]t is standard in the project finance lending market for there to be a floor on lenders’ potential loss.”[45]

Do the Express Lanes preclude adding more free lanes later?Edit

Duncombe asserts that not only does the construction of the Express Lanes leave NCDOT with hardly any room to add additional free lanes later, but also that adding free lanes would disincentivize drivers from using the toll lanes, cutting into the concessionaire's revenue. And the fact that the state must pay penalties to the company if revenues fall short gives the state a strong disincentive to add free lanes.[46] This argument is only relevant if one believes that adding free lanes will actually reduce congestion, versus falling victim to the induced demand phenomenon discussed earlier.

Concerns about revenues going overseasEdit

Many opponents, as is the case in other US infrastructure P3s where foreign companies like Cintra are involved, raise objections to the revenues collected from American toll-payers going overseas. They claim that the money should instead be reinvested in the local economy. However, even though a foreign company is managing the project, much of the toll revenue will in fact remain in the US, in the form of dividend payments to American investors, wages paid to local construction and operating workers, and payments to local equipment suppliers and subcontractors. Only a small portion of toll revenue will accrue as profit to Spain-based Cintra.

Logistical problems with the design of the Express LanesEdit

Critics have raised concerns about the limited points of access to and egress from the Express Lanes as they are currently designed. There will only be two points at which the Express Lanes will have direct access to on-ramps and off-ramps. Otherwise, there will only be a few points at which Express Lane users will be able to merge in and out of the free lanes. Duncombe maintains this will make traffic even slower in both the toll and free lanes as drivers exiting the toll lanes will have to merge across the free lanes to exit the highway.[47]

"The numerous logistical problems due to restricted access include: no direct exit from toll lanes to regional hospitals and emergency rooms, unknown remedies for emergency evacuations, and the inability to avoid blocked lanes when accidents occur," maintains Mecklenburg County Commissioner Jim Puckett. "Most "There is no direct exit from toll lanes to housing developments and retail centers built using current I-77 exits," he adds, claiming that the project fails to serve planners' intent of providing easier highway access to new activity centers.[48]

Discussion QuestionsEdit

1. Are Express Lane Tolls the best method to alleviate traffic problems in this case? Why or why not?

2. Why would outside groups, such as Widen I-77, oppose the plan to toll the highway?

3. Did NCDOT have a justification to use the funds devoted to the I-77 project somewhere else? Was the opportunity cost too much?

4. Are the proposed tolls for the Express Lanes too high or too low?

5. Do you foresee the upcoming trial between Widen I-77 and the project sponsors as halting any further project completion?

Additional ReadingsEdit

Full Feasibility Study from 2010

North Carolina General Assembly Report

Mecklenburg-Union Metropolitan Planning Organization FAQ

Charlotte Regional Transportation Planning Organization

Complete References of Cited (primary and secondary) Documents (with hyperlinks as appropriate)Edit

BloombergBusiness. “No Easy Pass for North Carolina’s First Privately Run Toll Lanes.” Online Journal. BloombergBusiness, June 29, 2015. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-06-29/no-easy-pass-for-north-carolina-s-first-privately-run-toll-lanes.

Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/.

"Feasibility Study FS-0510A." I-77 HOV Improvements from Fifth Street to I-85. Accessed 10 October 2015. http://ww.charmeck.org/fastlanes/PDFs/FeasibiltyStudy(FS-0510A).pdf

Harrison, Steve. “Toll Lane Default Deal for I-77 Is under Scrutiny.” Charlotte Observer. August 18, 2015, sec. Local. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article31384736.html.

Harrison, Steve, and Jonathan McFadden. “Bill Would Make County, Towns Pay for I-77 Toll Cancellation Penalty.” Charlotte Observer. August 6, 2015, sec. Local. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article30344061.html.

"I-77 HOT Lanes Project Report to the North Carolina Joint Legislative Transportation Oversight Committee." Accessed 9 October 2015. http://www.ncleg.net/documentsites/committees/JLTOC/2013-14_Biennium/Required_Reports/I-77Report.4-25-14.pdf

"I-77 Payment Information." Accessed 8 October 2015. http://www.i77express.com/project-overview/payment-information/

Mecklenburg-Union Metropolitan Planning Organization, and North Carolina Department of Transportation. “I-77 HOT Lanes FAQs.” Cornelius.org. Accessed September 29, 2015. http://www.cornelius.org/DocumentCenter/Home/View/117

Nass, Kurt. “Point counterpoint: I-77 toll lanes.” Online Magazine. Business Today, July 7, 2015. http://businesstodaync.com/point-counterpoint-i-77-toll-lanes/

North Carolina Department of Transportation. “I-77 Express Lanes.” NCDOT. Accessed September 29, 2015. http://www.ncdot.gov/projects/i-77expresslanes/

North Carolina Department of Transportation. "I-77 Express Lanes." NCDOT. Accessed September 29, 2015. http://www.ncleg.net/documentsites/committees/JLTOC/2013-14_Biennium/Required_Reports/I-77Report.4-25-14.pdf

North Carolina Department of Transportation. “NCDOT Announces Public-Private Partnership Project to Improve I-77 Traffic Flow in Charlotte Area.” Accessed 9 October 2015. https://apps.ncdot.gov/NewsReleases/details.aspx?r=9720

North Carolina Department of Transportation. “NCDOT Announces Financial Close on I-77 Express Lanes Project.” Accessed 9 October 2015. https://apps.ncdot.gov/newsreleases/details.aspx?r=11161

Poole, Robert. “An Argument For Toll Lanes on I-77.” Online Magazine. Carolina Journal Online, July 30, 2015. http://www.carolinajournal.com/daily_journal/display.html?id=12260

Puckett, Jim. “An Argument Against Toll Lanes for I-77.” Online Magazine. Carolina Journal Online, July 31, 2015. http://www.carolinajournal.com/exclusives/display_exclusive.html?id=12262

Rochelle, Rodger. “I-77 Express Lanes Project: Project Update.” Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Department of Transportation, October 2014. http://www.letsgetmoving.org/images/uploads/pages/NCDOT-I-77-Managed-Lanes-Project-Oc’17’14.pdf

Samuel, Peter. "NC/I-77 HOT lanes north out of Charlotte get regional OK, P3 procurement underway. Toll Road News. May 29, 2013. http://tollroadsnews.com/news/nci-77-hot-lanes-north-out-of-charlotte-get-regional-ok-p3-procurement-underway

Sprague, Megan. “McCrory in Mooresville: ‘We Can’t Delay the I-77 Toll Lanes’.” Mooresville Tribune. June 14, 2015, sec. Local News. http://www.mooresvilletribune.com/news/mccrory-in-mooresville-we-can-t-delay-the-i-/article_808eac42-11f0-11e5-978d-cf8ed0d49ec7.html

Whisenant, David. “Judge denies injunction to halt I-77 toll lane project.” WBTV, March 5, 2015. http://www.wbtv.com/story/28276150/judge-denies-injunction-to-halt-i-77-toll-lane-project

Yochum, Dave. “McAlpine helps put brakes on I-77 tolls.” Online Magazine. Business Today, June 9, 2015. http://businesstodaync.com/mcalpine-helps-put-brakes-on-i-77-tolls/

  1. http://ww.charmeck.org/fastlanes/PDFs/FeasibiltyStudy(FS-0510A).pdf
  2. http://www.ncdot.gov/projects/I-77ExpressLanes/
  3. http://www.interstate-guide.com/i-077.html
  4. http://www.ncdot.gov/projects/I-77ExpressLanes/
  5. http://businesstodaync.com/mcalpine-helps-put-brakes-on-i-77-tolls/
  6. http://wideni77.org
  7. http://www.ncdot.gov/projects/I-77ExpressLanes/
  8. http://www.ncleg.net/documentsites/committees/JLTOC/2013-14_Biennium/Required_Reports/I-77Report.4-25-14.pdf
  9. http://ww.charmeck.org/fastlanes/PDFs/FeasibiltyStudy(FS-0510A).pdf
  10. http://businesstodaync.com/point-counterpoint-i-77-toll-lanes/
  11. http://www.ncdot.gov/projects/I-77ExpressLanes/
  12. http://www.letsgetmoving.org/images/uploads/pages/NCDOT-I-77-Managed-Lanes-Project-Oc'17'14.pdf
  13. https://apps.ncdot.gov/NewsReleases/details.aspx?r=9720
  14. http://www.letsgetmoving.org/images/uploads/pages/NCDOT-I-77-Managed-Lanes-Project-Oc'17'14.pdf
  15. https://apps.ncdot.gov/newsreleases/details.aspx?r=11161
  16. http://www.wect.com/story/27898080/lawsuit-filed-attempts-to-stop-i-77-toll-lanes
  17. http://www.wbtv.com/story/28276150/judge-denies-injunction-to-halt-i-77-toll-lane-project
  18. Harrison, Steve, and Jonathan McFadden. “Bill Would Make County, Towns Pay for I-77 Toll Cancellation Penalty.” Charlotte Observer. August 6, 2015, sec. Local. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article30344061.html.
  19. http://www.ncdot.gov/projects/I-77ExpressLanes/
  20. http://tollroadsnews.com/news/nci-77-hot-lanes-north-out-of-charlotte-get-regional-ok-p3-procurement-underway
  21. http://www.ncleg.net/documentsites/committees/JLTOC/2013-14_Biennium/Required_Reports/I-77Report.4-25-14.pdf
  22. http://tollroadsnews.com/news/nci-77-hot-lanes-north-out-of-charlotte-get-regional-ok-p3-procurement-underway
  23. http://www.crtpo.org/PDFs/I-77/I-77_HOT_HOV_Lanes/PublicCommentsReceived(2013_04_April).pdf
  24. http://www.ncleg.net/documentsites/committees/JLTOC/2013-14_Biennium/Required_Reports/I-77Report.4-25-14.pdf
  25. North Carolina Department of Transportation. “I-77 Express Lanes.” NCDOT. Accessed September 29, 2015. http://www.ncdot.gov/projects/i-77expresslanes/.
  26. http://www.ncleg.net/documentsites/committees/JLTOC/2013-14_Biennium/Required_Reports/I-77Report.4-25-14.pdf
  27. Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/
  28. Harrison, Steve. “Toll Lane Default Deal for I-77 Is under Scrutiny.” Charlotte Observer. August 18, 2015, sec. Local. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article31384736.html
  29. Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/
  30. Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/.
  31. Harrison, Steve. “Toll Lane Default Deal for I-77 Is under Scrutiny.” Charlotte Observer. August 18, 2015, sec. Local. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article31384736.html.
  32. Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/.
  33. Harrison, Steve. “Toll Lane Default Deal for I-77 Is under Scrutiny.” Charlotte Observer. August 18, 2015, sec. Local. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article31384736.html.
  34. Harrison, Steve. “Toll Lane Default Deal for I-77 Is under Scrutiny.” Charlotte Observer. August 18, 2015, sec. Local. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article31384736.html.
  35. http://www.ncdot.gov/projects/I-77ExpressLanes/
  36. http://www.i77express.com/project-overview/payment-information/
  37. http://www.i77express.com/project-overview/payment-information/
  38. Puckett, Jim. “An Argument Against Toll Lanes for I-77.” Online Magazine. Carolina Journal Online, July 31, 2015. http://www.carolinajournal.com/exclusives/display_exclusive.html?id=12262.
  39. North Carolina Department of Transportation. “I-77 Express Lanes.” NCDOT. Accessed September 29, 2015. http://www.ncdot.gov/projects/i-77expresslanes/.
  40. Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/.
  41. Poole, Robert. “An Argument For Toll Lanes on I-77.” Online Magazine. Carolina Journal Online, July 30, 2015. http://www.carolinajournal.com/daily_journal/display.html?id=12260.
  42. Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/.
  43. BloombergBusiness. “No Easy Pass for North Carolina’s First Privately Run Toll Lanes.” Online Journal. BloombergBusiness, June 29, 2015. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-06-29/no-easy-pass-for-north-carolina-s-first-privately-run-toll-lanes.
  44. Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/.
  45. Harrison, Steve. “Toll Lane Default Deal for I-77 Is under Scrutiny.” Charlotte Observer. August 18, 2015, sec. Local. http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article31384736.html.
  46. Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/.
  47. Duncombe, Ray. “10 Things You Don’t Know about the Toll Lanes Planned for I-77 North.” Blog. Charlotte Agenda, August 11, 2015. http://www.charlotteagenda.com/12520/10-things-you-dont-know-about-the-toll-lanes-planned-for-i-77-north/.
  48. Puckett, Jim. “An Argument Against Toll Lanes for I-77.” Online Magazine. Carolina Journal Online, July 31, 2015. http://www.carolinajournal.com/exclusives/display_exclusive.html?id=12262.