# Past LSAT Explained/PrepTest 12

October 2001 Form 1LSS51

## Section I Logical Reasoning

### Question 01

IDENTIFY

This is a Main Point/Conclusion question.

This is a long stimulus discussing human technology and Mars. The author is arguing in favor of research on how to change the Martian climate.

ANALYZE

Your job is to find the main conclusion of the argument. All the points are leading you to endorse the Project Mars- Make it Livable. Why? The author is saying that even if the effort fails to produce the end result, we will gain something.

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect. This is only a premise of the argument. It only restates the first sentence of the passage. For this choice to be correct the stimulus should look like this:

It is probably within the reach of human technology to make the climate of Mars inhabitable. After several centuries of efforts, humans built great temples and cathedrals that were deemed impossible when they began. As the human triggered global warming shows that humans are capable of changing the climate of Earth, we are more than capable to change the climate of Mars, which is only a fraction in size compare to Earth.

(B) Incorrect. This is another point discussed in the passage. The sentence 2 states that "It might be several centuries before...". For this choice to be correct, the passage should look like:

It is probably within the reach of human technology to make the climate of Mars inhabitable. But some of the world's great temples and cathedrals took centuries to build and it might take more than that to alter the climate of Mars. Based on the current technology we have available, we estimate that it would take 1000 years of continuous efforts before the Martian climate becomes similar to the climate of Earth.

(C) Incorrect. This is an analogy mentioned in the passage. This statement is too un-conclusion like to be considered the main point. Rarely an argument is constructed to argue that A is like B. One is a traditional construction project while the other is space science project.

(D) Correct. The sentence 3 nicely expresses the main point. Note that the main point is located in the middle of the passage.

(E) Incorrect. This is a premise that preempts any counterargument that the effort to change climate is wasted. OK, the isuccess rate is so low that we may never succeed but we will learn something along the way that is worthwhile. Good.

The claim that some temples and cathedrals took centuries plays which of the following roles in the argument?

(A) Provides an example of a project that took a long time to complete

Which of the following weakens the argument?

(B) Any human effort to influence the climate of Mars is so destructive to the planet that it makes it even less inhabitable.

### Question 02

IDENTIFY

This is a first part of Dual question. You need to identify the hidden assumption.

ANALYZE

The key to look for is the link between the premises and conclusion. If you severe that link, the argument collapses. The structure of the argument is like:

```AT has v so AS should have v too.
AT and AS are not same so AT can't represent the aspect of AS that is different.
If AT cannot represent the interests of AS, then AS should have v.
```

A and B are different. Sentence 4 say "If adults cannot represent the interests of adolescents.."

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect. This is a sweeping claim that has inadequate support in the passage. There are people other than adolescents and adults such as infants. Moreover, your instinct should tell you that this argument is not true in reality because minors usually do not have the right to vote.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Correct.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

The main point of the argument is that

Adolescents should be allowed to vote.

If the statement above is true, which of the following must be true?

(B) If adults cannot represent the interests of adolescents and adolescents are not allowed to vote, the interests of adolescents will not be represented.

(C) Though superficially different, adults and adolescents are similar in one crucial aspect.

### Question 03

IDENTIFY

This question is a Method of Argument question.

Same as the question 02.

ANALYZE

The sentence 2 says "Admittedly". The author concedes that they are not the same.

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect. The passage is not about proving that adults and teenagers are different.

(B) Incorrect. Nowhere there is any clarification. For this choice to be true, the passage should say something like "Admittedly, adults include anyone over the age of 18 while adolescents are anyone between 12 to 18."

(C) Incorrect. This choice is tempting but see Sentence 2 actually weakens the main point. AT and AD aren't same so why give AD what AT has?

(D) Incorrect. It addresses a point but it does not distract. The point is actually relevant.

(E) Correct.

Additional Questions The main point of the argument is that Adolescents should be given the right to vote just like adults.

### Question 04

IDENTIFY

This is a discrepancy question.

Not being close to market or raw material can be reason for businesses to leave while high business tax isn't. That is strange. So your job is to find the reason why is so.

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect. So what? The share in the city's revenue does not explain anything.

(B) Correct. This statement converts high tax rate into a plus. So tax wasn't bad after all.

(C) Incorrect. Pay attention to the word "sometimes". You don't expect the businesses to stick with the city for eternity. They could leave the city for some other reason. This is not a communist country.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 05

• plagiarism
• cite

IDENTIFY

This question is a Strengthen question.

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Correct.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 06

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 07

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 08

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 09

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 10

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 11

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 12

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 13

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 14

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 15

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 16

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 17

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 18

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 19

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 20

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 21

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 22

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 23

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 24

IDENTIFY This question is .

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 25

IDENTIFY This question is a Formal logic question.

ANALYZE

shy < actor < exuberant < extrovert

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Correct.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

### Question 26

IDENTIFY This question is a Method of Argument question.

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect.

(B) Incorrect.

(C) Incorrect.

(D) Incorrect.

(E) Incorrect.

## Section IV Logical Reasoning

### Question 01

IDENTIFY

This is a Conclusion question.

For decaf coffee, people prefer robusta (inferior) over arabica (superior). Making decaf coffee involves removing some coffee flavor.

ANALYZE

Your job is to draw a valid inference based on the passage.

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect. The passage does not discuss the world output of arabica beans. Out of the scope.

(B) Incorrect. This is factually true but not necessarily supported by the passage. You must not draw any conclusion based on your prior knowledge. Moreover, It does not explain why people prefer robusta over arabica when it comes to decaf coffee.

(C) Incorrect. This choice is not supported by the passage. Be careful with the word "exclusively".

(D) Correct. Sound reasonable.

(E) Incorrect. The passage mentions nothing about which is more pricey. (In reality, arabica is more expensive.) So not supported.

### Question 02

• guidance counselor
• career counselling

IDENTIFY

ANALYZE

CHOOSE

### Question 08

IDENTIFY

This is a strengthen question.

A history book contains inconsistencies and the author argues that it is because the author used info from divergent sources.

ANALYZE

You need to find the choice that strengthens the argument.

CHOOSE

(A) Incorrect. This choice is, tempting but contains ambiguous word "generally". What if authors sometimes do not reconcile discrepancies and leave then as they are?

(B) Incorrect. This is irrelevant. The inconsistencies may not be apparent to the laymen but obvious to professional historians.

(C) Correct. If the author used sources that contained consistencies, then the inconsistencies are not due to the use of divergent sources. So this must be true.

(D) Incorrect. Even if the author did not know that the inconsistencies could arise, the argument still holds. The fact that the inconsistencies occurred as a result of the historian's practice of using several sources does not change.

(E) Incorrect. OK, but so what?