Acetal - A molecule with two single bonded oxygens attached to the same carbon atom.
Acetyl - A functional group with chemical formula -COCH3.
Achiral - A group containing atleast two identical substituents.
Acid anhydride - Hydrocarbon containing two carbonyl groups.Acyl group attached with carboxylate group.eg- RCOOCOR'
Acid halide - Acyl group with any halogen attached with carbon of carbonyl group.eg.- RCO-X(X=F,Cl,Br,I).
Acidity constant Ka -
Activating group - Any group which activate any molecule by increasing positive or negative charge on carbon atom.Mainly towards neucleophilic or electrophilic substitution reactions.
Activation energy - The energy required to reactants to cross energy barrier to undergo any chemical change.denoted by Ea.
Acyl group - A group having alkyl or aryl group with a carbonyl group RCO-
Adam's catalyst - A catalyst for hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis in organic synthesis. Also known as platinum dioxide
Addition reaction - A reaction where a product is created from the coming together of 2 reactants.
Alcohol - A saturated hydrocarbon chain with an -OH functional group.
Aldehyde - A hydrocarbon containing atleast one carbonyl gp having one hydrogen attached to it.(>C=O)
Aldol reaction - When two similar aldehydes are reacted with each other,a product having both aldehyde(>C=O) and alcohol() group is formed.This reaction is called aldol reaction.
Aliphatic - A non-cyclic, non-aromatic, hydrocarbon chain (e.g. alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes)
Alkane - A hydrocarbon with all the carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds.
Alkene - A hydrocarbon with at least one carbon-carbon bond is a double-bond.
Alkoxide ion - The conjugate base of an alcohol without the terminal H atom. For any alcohol R-OH, the corresponding alkoxide form is R-O-.
Alkyl - A hydrocarbon having formula CnH2n+1
Alkylation - Addition of alkyl group in a compound.
Alkyne - An unsaturated hydrocarbon containog triple bond.and having general formula CnH2n-2
Allyl - An alkene hydrocarbon group with the formula H2C=CH-CH2-
α Position - Carbon attached to a functional group is called α-carbon and the position is known as α position.
α-carbon - Carbon attached to a functional group is called α-carbon
Amide - A hydrocarbon containing amine group attached to acyl group. eg.- RCONH2
Amine - A simple hydrocarbon containing atleast one -NH2 group.
Amino Acid - A fundamental unit of polypeptides or proteins.having general formula-COOHRCHNH2.eg.- glysine, alanine etc.
Anti conformation -
Anti periplaner -
Anti stereochemistry -
Anti bonding molecular orbital - Molecular orbitals having higher energy than bonding molecular orbitals after combination of atomic orbitals.denoted by an astric over Sigma or pi notations.
Arene - Another name for an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Aromacity - A chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone.
Atomic mass - Total no of nucleon i.e. no. of proton and no. of neutrons.It is denoted by A.
Atomic number - Total no. of protons is called atomic no.
Axial bond - The bond parellel or anti parellel to axial coordinate passing center of gravity.
Azide synthesis - Dutt-Wormall reaction in which a diazonium salt reacts with a sulfonamide first to a diazoaminosulfinate and then on hydrolysis the azide and a sulfinic acid.
Delocalization - The ability of electrons to spread out among pi bonds to provide stabilization to electronically unstable areas of a molecule.
Diastereomers - Two or more isomers of a molecule which are not enantiomers of one another.
1,3 Diaxial interaction - The steric intereaction between two methyl or larger groups attached at the 1 and 3 cis positions of cyclohexanes. The cyclohexane is in a higher energy state in the ring flip conformation that results in both 1 and 3 positions being axial due to steric strain between the 2 groups. This strain does not exist when hydrogens are bonded at these positions.
Diels-Alder reaction -
Dipole moment -
Downfield - A term used to describe the left direction on NMR charts. A peak to the left of another peak is described as being downfield from the peak.
First order reaction - A reaction whose rate is determined by the concentration of only one of its reactants leading to a reaction rate equation of
Fischer projection -
Formal Charge -
Friedel-Crafts reaction -
Functional group - This is a specific group of atoms within a molecule that is responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of that molecule. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.
Glycol - A chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH groups). Also known as a Diol.
Glycolysis - The metabolic pathway that converts glucose, C6H12O6, into pyruvate, C3H5O3. This process usually occurs outside the mitochondria of a cell to help produce energy.
Grignard reagent -
Ground state - In electrons, the state where they have the least energy. Electrons that gain energy get "excited" and leave the ground state, now able to do more work. Moving electrons out of their ground state is a key part of photosynthesis, where plants create sugar from the sun, carbon dioxide, and water.
Heterocycle - A cyclic molecule with more than 2 types of atoms as part of the ring. (e.g. Furan, a 5-membered ring with four carbons and one oxygen, or a Pyran, a 6-membered ring with five carbons and one oxygen)
HOMO - Acronym for Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital.
Homolytic cleavage - Where bond breaks leaving each atom with one of the bonding electrons, producing two radicals.
Hybrid orbital -
Hydration - A chemical reaction in which a hydroxyl group (OH-) and a hydrogen cation (an acidic proton) are added to the two carbon atoms bonded together in the carbon-carbon double bond which makes up an alkene functional group.
Hybride shift -
Hydroboration - A reaction adding BH3 or B2H6 or an alkylborane to an alkene to produce intermediate products consisting of 3 alkyl groups attached to a boron atom. This molecule is then used in other reactions, for example, to create an alcohol by reacting it with H2O2 in a basic solution.
Hydrocarbon - A molecule consisting of hydrogens and carbons.
Hydrogen bond -
Hydrogenation - Addition of a hydrogen atoms to an alkene or alkane to produce a saturated product.
Hydrophilic - literally, "water loving". In chemistry, these are molecules that are soluble in water.
Hydrophobic - literally, "water fearing". In chemistry, molecules that aren't soluble in water.
Hydroxylation - A chemical process that introduces one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) into a compound (or radical) thereby oxidizing it.
Isomer - Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae. There are two main forms of isomerism: structural isomerism and stereoisomerism.
Isotope - The different types of atoms of the same chemical element, each having a different atomic mass (mass number). Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons (the same atomic number) but different numbers of neutrons.
IUPAC - Acronym for International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
IUPAC Nomenclature - The international standard set of rules for naming molecules.
Markovnikov's rule - States that "when an unsymmetrical alkene reacts with a hydrogen halide to give an alkyl halide, the hydrogen adds to the carbon of the alkene that has the greater number of hydrogen substituents, and the halogen to the carbon of the alkene with the fewer number of hydrogen substituents."
Mass number - The total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus
Mass spectrometry -
Meso compound -
Methylene group -
Molality - A measure of the concentration of a solute in a solvent given by moles of solute per kg of solvent.
Molarity - A measure of the concentration, given by moles of solute per liter of solution (solute and solvent mixed).
Mole - A measure of a substance that is approximately Avogadro's Number (6.022×1023) of molecules of the substance. More simply, calculate the molecule's atomic mass and that many grams of the substance is a mole.
Monomer - A small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer.
Saponification - The hydrolysis of an ester under basic conditions to form an alcohol and the salt of a carboxylic acid.
Saturated - A situation in which a compound has no double or triple bonds. Saturated can refer to the maximum amount of a solute being dissolved in a solution. Whether the context is chemical bonding or solutions will determine which meaning is appropriate.