# OpenSCAD User Manual/2D Primitives

All 2D primitives can be transformed with 3D transformations. They are usually used as part of a 3D extrusion. Although they are infinitely thin, they are rendered with a 1 thickness.

**Note**: The try to substract with `difference()`

from 3D object will lead to unexpected results in final rendering.

### squareEdit

Creates a square or rectangle in the first quadrant. When `center`

is true the square is centered on the origin. Argument names are optional if given in the order shown here.

square(size = [x, y], center = true/false); square(size = x , center = true/false);

**parameters**:

**size**- single value, square with both sides this length
- 2 value array [x,y], rectangle with dimensions x and y

**center****false**(default), 1st (positive) quadrant, one corner at (0,0)**true**, square is centered at (0,0)

default values: square(); yields: square(size = [1, 1], center = false);

**examples**:

equivalent scripts for this example square(size = 10); square(10); square([10,10]); . square(10,false); square([10,10],false); square([10,10],center=false); square(size = [10, 10], center = false); square(center = false,size = [10, 10] );

equivalent scripts for this example square([20,10],true); a=[20,10];square(a,true);

### circleEdit

Creates a circle at the origin. All parameters, except r, **must** be named.

circle(r=radius | d=diameter);

**Parameters****r**: circle radius. r name is the only one optional with circle.- circle resolution is based on size, using $fa or $fs.

- For a small, high resolution circle you can make a large circle, then scale it down, or you could set $fn or other special variables. Note: These examples exceed the resolution of a 3d printer as well as of the display screen.

scale([1/100, 1/100, 1/100]) circle(200); // create a high resolution circle with a radius of 2. circle(2, $fn=50); // Another way.

**d**: circle diameter (only available in versions later than 2014.03).**$fa**: minimum angle (in degrees) of each fragment.**$fs**: minimum circumferential length of each fragment.**$fn**:**fixed**number of fragments in 360 degrees. Values of 3 or more override $fa and $fs.- If they are used, $fa, $fs and $fn must be named parameters. click here for more details,.

defaults: circle(); yields: circle($fn = 0, $fa = 12, $fs = 2, r = 1);

Equivalent scripts for this example

circle(10); circle(r=10); circle(d=20); circle(d=2+9*2);

#### EllipsesEdit

An ellipse can be created from a circle by using either `scale()`

or `resize()`

to make the x and y dimensions unequal.
See OpenSCAD User Manual/Transformations

equivalent scripts for this example resize([30,10])circle(d=20); scale([1.5,.5])circle(d=20);

#### Regular PolygonsEdit

A regular polygon of 3 or more sides can be created by using `circle()`

with $fn set to the number of sides. The following two pieces of code are equivalent.

circle(r=1, $fn=4);

module regular_polygon(order = 4, r=1){ angles=[ for (i = [0:order-1]) i*(360/order) ]; coords=[ for (th=angles) [r*cos(th), r*sin(th)] ]; polygon(coords); } regular_polygon();

These result in the following shapes, where the polygon is inscribed within the circle with all sides (and angles) equal. One corner points to the positive x direction. For irregular shapes see the polygon primitive below.

script for these examples translate([-42, 0]){circle(20,$fn=3);%circle(20,$fn=90);} translate([ 0, 0]) circle(20,$fn=4); translate([ 42, 0]) circle(20,$fn=5); translate([-42,-42]) circle(20,$fn=6); translate([ 0,-42]) circle(20,$fn=8); translate([ 42,-42]) circle(20,$fn=12); color("black"){ translate([-42, 0,1])text("3",7,,center); translate([ 0, 0,1])text("4",7,,center); translate([ 42, 0,1])text("5",7,,center); translate([-42,-42,1])text("6",7,,center); translate([ 0,-42,1])text("8",7,,center); translate([ 42,-42,1])text("12",7,,center); }

### polygonEdit

The function polygon() creates a multiple sided shape from a list of x,y coordinates. A polygon is the most powerful 2D object. It can create anything that circle and squares can, as well as much more. This includes irregular shapes with both concave and convex edges. In addition it can place holes within that shape.

polygon(points = [ [x, y], ... ], paths = [ [p1, p2, p3..], ...], convexity = N);

- Parameters

**points**- The list of x,y points of the polygon. : A vector of 2 element vectors.
- Note: points are indexed from 0 to n-1.

**paths**- default
- If no path is specified, all points are used in the order listed.

- single vector
- The order to traverse the points. Uses indices from 0 to n-1. May be in a different order and use all or part, of the points listed.

- multiple vectors
- Creates primary and secondary shapes. Secondary shapes are subtracted from the primary shape (like
`difference()`

). Secondary shapes may be wholly or partially within the primary shape.

- Creates primary and secondary shapes. Secondary shapes are subtracted from the primary shape (like

- default

- A closed shape is created by returning from the last point specified to the first.

**convexity**- Integer number of "inward" curves, ie. expected path crossings of an arbitrary line through the polygon. See below.

defaults: polygon(); yields: polygon(points = undef, paths = undef, convexity = 1);

#### Without holesEdit

equivalent scripts for this example polygon(points=[[0,0],[100,0],[130,50],[30,50]]); polygon([[0,0],[100,0],[130,50],[30,50]], paths=[[0,1,2,3]]); polygon([[0,0],[100,0],[130,50],[30,50]],[[3,2,1,0]]); polygon([[0,0],[100,0],[130,50],[30,50]],[[1,0,3,2]]); a=[[0,0],[100,0],[130,50],[30,50]]; b=[[3,0,1,2]]; polygon(a); polygon(a,b); polygon(a,[[2,3,0,1,2]]);

#### One holeEdit

equivalent scripts for this example polygon(points=[[0,0],[100,0],[0,100],[10,10],[80,10],[10,80]], paths=[[0,1,2],[3,4,5]],convexity=10); triangle_points =[[0,0],[100,0],[0,100],[10,10],[80,10],[10,80]]; triangle_paths =[[0,1,2],[3,4,5]]; polygon(triangle_points,triangle_paths,10);

The 1st path vector, [0,1,2], selects the points, [0,0],[100,0],[0,100], for the primary shape.
The 2nd path vector, [3,4,5], selects the points, [10,10],[80,10],[10,80], for the secondary shape.
The secondary shape is subtracted from the primary ( think `difference()`

).
Since the secondary is wholly within the primary, it leaves a shape with a hole.

#### Multi holeEdit

[Note: Requires version 2015.03] (for use of `concat()`

)

//example polygon with multiple holes a0 = [[0,0],[100,0],[130,50],[30,50]]; // main b0 = [1,0,3,2]; a1 = [[20,20],[40,20],[30,30]]; // hole 1 b1 = [4,5,6]; a2 = [[50,20],[60,20],[40,30]]; // hole 2 b2 = [7,8,9]; a3 = [[65,10],[80,10],[80,40],[65,40]]; // hole 3 b3 = [10,11,12,13]; a4 = [[98,10],[115,40],[85,40],[85,10]]; // hole 4 b4 = [14,15,16,17]; a = concat (a0,a1,a2,a3,a4); b = [b0,b1,b2,b3,b4]; polygon(a,b); //alternate polygon(a,[b0,b1,b2,b3,b4]);

#### Extruding a 3D shape from a polygonEdit

translate([0,-20,10]) { rotate([90,180,90]) { linear_extrude(50) { polygon( points = [ //x,y /* O . */ [-2.8,0], /* O__X . */ [-7.8,0], /* O \ X__X . */ [-15.3633,10.30], /* X_______._____O \ X__X . */ [15.3633,10.30], /* X_______._______X \ / X__X . O */ [7.8,0], /* X_______._______X \ / X__X . O__X */ [2.8,0], /* X__________.__________X \ / \ O / \ / / \ / / X__X . X__X */ [5.48858,5.3], /* X__________.__________X \ / \ O__________X / \ / / \ / / X__X . X__X */ [-5.48858,5.3], ] ); } } }

#### convexityEdit

The convexity parameter specifies the maximum number of front sides (back sides) a ray intersecting the object might penetrate. This parameter is needed only for correct display of the object in OpenCSG preview mode and has no effect on the polyhedron rendering.

This image shows a 2D shape with a convexity of 2, as the ray indicated in red crosses the 2D shapes outside⇒inside (or inside⇒outside) a maximum of 2 times. The convexity of a 3D shape would be determined in a similar way. Setting it to 10 should work fine for most cases.

### import_dxfEdit

[*Deprecated: import_dxf() will be removed in future releases. Use import() instead.*]

Read a DXF file and create a 2D shape.

**Example**

linear_extrude(height = 5, center = true, convexity = 10) import_dxf(file = "example009.dxf", layer = "plate");