### The operator equationEdit

The continuous Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator can be calculated explicitly for certain domains, such as a half-space, a ball and a cylinder and a shell with uniform conductivity *1*. For example, for a unit ball in *N*-dimensions, writing the Laplace equation in spherical coordinates one gets:

and, therefore, the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator satisfies the following equation:

- .

In two-dimensions the equation takes a particularly simple form:

The study of material of this chapter is largely motivated by the question of Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington Gunther Uhlmann: "Is there a discrete analog of the equation?"

### The network settingEdit

To match the functional equation for the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator of the unit disc with conductivity *1*, one needs to find a self-dual layered planar network with rotational symmetry. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator for such graph *G* is equal to:

where *-L* is equal to the Laplacian on the circle:

**Exercise(*).**Prove that the entries of the cofactor matrix of are ±1 w/the chessboard pattern.

The problem of finding the graph *G* then reduces to finding a Stieltjes continued fraction that is equal to *1* at the non-zero eigenvalues of *L*. For the *(2n+1)*-case, where *n* is a natural number, the eigenvalues are *0* with the multiplicity *1* and

with the multiplicity *2*. The existence and uniqueness of such fraction with *n* levels follows from our results on layered networks, see [BIMS].

**Exercise (***).**Prove that the continued fraction is given by the following formula:

**Exercise 2 (*).**Use the previous exercise to prove the trigonometric formula:

**Exercise 3(**).**Find the right signs in the following trigonometric formula

Example: the following picture provides the solution for *n=8* w/white and black squares representing *1*s and *-1*s.