October 7th Massacre/Printable version

October 7th Massacre

The current, editable version of this book is available in Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection, at

Permission is granted to copy, distribute, and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.


Bloodstains on a house in Be'eri after the October 7th Massacre
A burnt residential building in Be’eri after the Massacre

On Saturday, October 7th, 2023, Hamas together with other terrorist organizations launched a surprise attack from Gaza. The attack started with the launch of at least 3,000 rockets to Israel, as well as incursions[1]. Hamas breached the Gaza-Israel barrier and massacred 1,139 people[2][3]: 695 Israeli civilians (including 36 children), 71 foreign nationals, and 373 members of the security forces[4]. 250 Israeli civilians and hostages were taken, including women and children.[5][6] There is also evidence of sexual assaults.[7][8]

The day, which was labeled as the Black Saturday (Hebrew: השבת השחורה) [9]or the Simchat Torah Massacre (הטבח בשמחת תורה)[10], was labeled as the bloodiest in Israeli history, and the deadliest for the Jews since the Holocaust.[11]

According to several international law and genocide studies experts, Hamas's assault amounted to genocide.[12][13][14] Legal and genocide experts have condemned the attack,[15][16] saying it represents a serious violation of international law. They argue that Hamas carried out these actions with the intent to destroy the Israeli national group.[14][13][17][12] Some commentators point to Hamas's founding charter, which advocates for the destruction of Israel, contains antisemitic language, and, according to certain researchers, implies a call for the genocide of Jews. This has led to suggestions that the 7 October attacks were an effort to fulfill this agenda.[18][19][20][21]

This wikibook is intended to summarize the events that happened during the Black Friday in the communities impacted by this attack.


  1. "מתקפת הפתע על ישראל: לפחות 250 נרצחים, עשרות חטופים ובני ערובה". גלובס (in Hebrew). 2023-10-08. Archived from the original on 2024-05-04. Retrieved 2024-05-04.
  2. "Israel revises death toll from Oct. 7 Hamas assault, dropping it from 1,400 to 1,200". Times of Israel. 11 November 2023. https://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-revises-death-toll-from-oct-7-hamas-assault-dropping-it-from-1400-to-1200/. 
  3. "Israel revises Hamas attack death toll to 'around 1,200'". Reuters. 10 November 2023. https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/israel-revises-death-toll-oct-7-hamas-attack-around-1200-2023-11-10/. 
  4. "Israel social security data reveals true picture of Oct 7 deaths". France 24. 15 December 2023. https://www.france24.com/en/live-news/20231215-israel-social-security-data-reveals-true-picture-of-oct-7-deaths. 
  5. "Hamas says it has enough Israeli captives to free all Palestinian prisoners". Al-Jazeera. 7 Oct 2023. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2023/10/7/hamas-says-it-has-enough-israeli-captives-to-free-all-palestinian-prisoners. 
  6. Yonah, Jeremy (19 October 2023). "IDF working on rescue ops for over 200 Israeli hostages in Gaza". Jerusalem Post. https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/article-769274. 
  7. "Evidence points to systematic use of rape and sexual violence by Hamas in 7 October attacks | Israel-Gaza war | The Guardian". amp.theguardian.com. Archived from the original on 4 February 2024. Retrieved 2024-02-04. By cross-referencing testimonies given to police, published interviews with witnesses, and photo and video footage taken by survivors and first responders, the Guardian is aware of at least six sexual assaults for which multiple corroborating pieces of evidence exist. Two of those victims, who were murdered, were aged under 18.
    At least seven women who were killed were also raped in the attack, according to Prof Ruth Halperin-Kaddari, a legal scholar and international women's rights advocate, from her examination of evidence so far. The New York Times and NBC have both identified more than 30 killed women and girls whose bodies bear signs of abuse, such as bloodied genitals and missing clothes, and according to the Israeli welfare ministry, five women and one man have come forward seeking help for sexual abuse over the past few months.
  8. "New signs emerge of 'widespread' sexual crimes by Hamas, as Netanyahu alleges global indifference". AP News. 2023-12-05. Archived from the original on 12 December 2023. Retrieved 2024-02-04. Such accounts given to The Associated Press, along with first assessments by an Israeli rights group, show that sexual assault was part of an atrocities-filled rampage by Hamas and other Gaza militants who killed about 1,200 people, most of them civilians, and took more than 240 hostages that day.
  9. Waghorn, Dominic (23 October 2023). "This is a dangerous moment in Israel-Hamas war – and the rest of the world is holding its breath". Sky News. https://news.sky.com/story/this-is-a-dangerous-moment-in-israel-hamas-war-and-the-rest-of-the-world-is-holding-its-breath-12983870. 
  10. Herzl, Tova (20 October 2023). "אל תשתמשו במילה "שואה" בקשר לטבח" (in Hebrew). Ynet. https://www.ynet.co.il/news/article/b1h48wc11t. 
  11. "Was Hamas' attack the bloodiest day for Jews since the Holocaust?". JTA. 8 October 2023. https://www.jta.org/2023/10/08/israel/was-hamas-attack-the-bloodiest-day-for-jews-since-the-holocaust. 
  12. a b Watch, Genocide (2023-10-19). "Genocide Emergency Alert: Israel and Gaza". genocidewatch. Retrieved 2023-12-07.
  13. a b WINER, STUART (15 October 2023). "Hamas actions are war crimes, could constitute genocide – international law experts". Times of Israel. https://www.timesofisrael.com/hamas-actions-are-war-crimes-could-constitute-genocide-international-law-experts/. 
  14. a b "Deadly Hamas Rampage Constitutes 'International Crime of Genocide,' Hundreds of Legal Experts Say" (in en). Haaretz. https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/2023-10-16/ty-article/hamas-deadly-rampage-constitutes-crime-of-genocide-hundreds-of-legal-experts-say/0000018b-37d1-d450-a3af-7fddda070000. 
  15. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Anat; Sella, Adam (2023-12-04). "What We Know About Sexual Violence During the Oct. 7 Attacks on Israel" (in en-US). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/12/04/world/middleeast/oct-7-attacks-israel-hamas-sexual-violence.html. 
  16. "Israel investigates an elusive, horrific enemy: Rape as a weapon of war" (in en). Washington Post. 2023-11-25. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/11/25/israel-hamas-rape-sexual-violence/. 
  17. Watch, Genocide (2023-10-18). "Legal Experts: Hamas committed War Crimes, Genocide". genocidewatch. Retrieved 2023-12-07.
  18. "How the term "genocide" is misused in the Israel-Hamas war". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2023/11/10/how-the-term-genocide-is-misused-in-the-israel-hamas-war. 
  19. Bayefsky, Anne F.; Blank, Laurie R. (March 22, 2018). Incitement to Terrorism. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-35982-6. The governing charter of Hamas, "The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement," openly dedicates Hamas to genocide against the Jewish people.
  20. Breedon, Jennifer R. (2015–2016). "Why the Combination of Universal Jurisdiction and Polical Lawfare Will Destroy the Sacred Sovereignty of States". Journal of Global Justice and Public Policy. 2: 389. The Hamas Charter not only calls for the militant, perhaps genocidal, liberation of Palestine (e.g., "raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine"), but also demonstrates anti-Semitic, murderous intent.
  21. Tsesis, Alexander (2014–2015). "Antisemitism and Hate Speech Studies". Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion. 16: 352. For Jews, the Holocaust remains a real concern in an age when Hamas, a Palestinian terrorist organization, continues to advocate genocide in its core Charter.


Kibbutz Alumim is famous for its white houses, rows of handsome winged trees, and well-kept wide green lawns. The Kibbutz however looked very different after the events of October 7th. Abandoned vehicles were scattered, some of them were burned, and others pierced by bullets. On the night of Simchat Torah the Kibbutz members attended synagogue and did not suspect what was about to happen in less than 12 hours.[1]

A terrorist who participated in the attack on Alumim and was arrested by arrested by the security forces told that the Hamas leaders commanded to commit atrocities including murder and rape. He admitted the plan was to go from house to house, from room to room, throw grenades, and kill everyone including women and children. The Hamas also approved abusing and dismembering the dead bodies.[2]

On October 7th at 6:30 in the morning The holiday peace was disturbed by alarms and intense explosions from the Iron Dome batteries in the area. The residents got out from their beds and went to their shelters. Being accustomed to such events, they were not excited, however this time it was not as usual - the alarms went on and on.[1]

When Rafi Babian, a resident of Alumim as well as security officer of the Sdot Negev Regional Council, heard the alarms and the Iron Done batteries nonstop, he understood that something out of the ordinary is happening. So he made sure his family was in the shelters, and organized to go to the council's headquarters to activate the emergency center. He approached the Saad junction, and saw there a bullet-ridden car. The driver waved with his injured hand and yelled that there are terrorists in the junction. As he got closer, he saw a van with a machine gun shooting everyone in the area. The junction was full of people running away from the music festival in Re’im forest in their way north. They stopped on the sideways due to alarms, and Rafi started sending them east since it was impossible to pass the junction.[1]

At 6:45, the army ordered to raise the standby squad. At 7:00, ten terrorists arrived at the main gate on motorcycles. They rode to the back gate, and broke in. Once in, the terrorists started shooting indiscriminately at vehicles that passed. They hit about 20 cars. Two of them stormed the cars and shot the passengers. One of the terrorists got hit, either by from one of his friends or by a soldier. This group of terrorists retreated.[1]

At 8:00, terrorists were detected at the residence of the foreign workers. The standby squad started shooting at them, however the terrorists entered the residence and started murdering the Nepalese and Thai workers. 16 of them were killed and 8 were taken hostages to Gaza. Eyal Rein, the security coordinator of the kibbutz, testified: “Unfortunately, we were unable to save them. They are our employees, we know each and every one by name.”[1]

At 8:30, the terrorists set on fire the nearby milking parlor, and murdered all of the dairy workers. The haystacks were also set on fire. 700 cows were left without milking or food. Some of them died when the roof collapsed. Cows that are not milked develop inflammations and infections. At 8:45, the terrorists destroyed a shed with equipment worth hundreds thousands of shekels.[1]

A report was received at 9:00 about terrorists in Gan Hadar at the western part of the Kibbutz. The standby squad hurried to the area. Zvika, who directed the operation from the command room in the heart of the kibbutz, told the following about the battle:[1]

There began the heroic battle of the squad against dozens of terrorists who tried to break out from there towards the kibbutz houses. We managed to kill two terrorists, including the commander of the force, and prevent the terrorists from entering the houses. If they crossed that line, God forbid, there would be a disaster like in the other kibbutzim.[1]

Eyal testified about the battle:[1]

The terrorists broke through the fence and entered the kibbutz. Here we were already in front of them. This battle saved the kibbutz. We spotted a terrorist - we shot, we spotted another one - we shot. They shot at us. We managed to take down the first, followed by the second. The third tried to retreat towards the plantation. We took some friends up to the top floor of the prep school, and from there we were able to snipe at them. In this battle we killed three terrorists. In total we killed 15-20 terrorists and more. Some of them were discovered only the next day in all kinds of places.[1]

Zvika added:[1]

In this battle, three members of the squad were injured. One of them received a bullet in the chest and turned back to receive treatment at the clinic. The other was slightly injured. A third member, Eran, said 'I was hurt but I keep fighting'. He continued for another two hours until we evacuated him.[1]

Michaela works as a midwife in Soroka Hospital in Be’er Sheva, however on this day, she worked as a medic on a battlefield. She testified about the events:[1]

I heard a shot but ran to get a first aid kit. I was operating on automatic and I didn't think about the fact that I was putting myself at risk. If I knew what was going on under my house, it is not clear if I would function. They brought the first wounded man and I see that it is my neighbor. I started to treat him and saw an injury to his hands, a bullet or shrapnel. After half an hour they brought another wounded man, much more seriously, with three gunshot wounds in the back. I called the doctor to get instructions. My husband and my father-in-law, an IDF invalid from the six days, who did not agree to stay in the shelter, helped me. He helped me, washed the wounded and helped put them in the evacuation vehicle.[1]

Preparations were made for evacuating the wounded, and one of the members took his personal car and drove with a medic to Netivot. On the way out, they got shot by terrorists and the medic was slightly injured. At 11:30, another injured person came to Michaela’s house. This was Eran, who as mentioned above kept on fighting even after his injury. Michaela told about him:[1]

He continued to fight for another four hours with three bullets in his thigh. At first he didn't feel hurt because of the adrenaline in his blood. I forced him to evacuate. My husband gave me his personal weapon and said 'let my father watch over you'. He loaded Eran onto the car and started driving. When he reached Netivot, the brakes and the engine began to emit smoke, and they were extinguished with a fire extinguisher. After Eran was evacuated to Soroka, my husband had to wait three hours until they let him come back.[1]

After this battle, the squad started searching for any remaining terrorists.[1]

At 12:00, another terrorist group was identified on cameras, this time in the avocado groves in the west of the Kibbutz. The squad arrived to the area and they were assisted by soldiers in an armored vehicle who arrived.[1]

At 12:15, one of the residents reported the injury of her husband. The couple was in the shelter when terrorists started shooting at their doors. Soldiers rushed and eliminated these terrorists. Another terrorist shot at another house and the resident was injured by the shrapnel.[1]

Two terrorists who didn't manage to cross the fence returned to the plantations. In the scans anothe terrorist was found lying and waiting. He raised his hands and was taken by the soldiers.[1]

At 12:30, dozens of other terrorists arrived at the Kibbutz. This time to the packing house at the south-east of the Kibbutz. A helicopter eliminated most of them.[1]


  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Tuchfeld, Michael (2023-10-13). "כיתת כוננות מול עשרות מחבלים: הקרב שהציל את קיבוץ עלומים". מקור ראשון (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2024-05-31.
  2. "הזוועה הבלתי נתפסת | הודאות המחבלים: ערפנו ראשים, הצתנו בתים על יושביהם". ערוץ 7 (in Hebrew). 2023-10-23. Archived from the original on 2024-06-01. Retrieved 2024-06-01.

Re’im Music Festival

Supernova Sukkot Gathering was a weekend-long outdoor trance music festival that began on 6 October 2023[1][2] and was produced by an organizer called Nova[3][4] (also referred to as Tribe of Nova).[5] It was the Israeli edition (pre-festival event) of Universo Paralello, a psychedelic trance festival started 23 years prior in Bahia, Brazil.[2] It took place in the western Negev desert,[4] approximately 5 km from the Gaza–Israel barrier, near kibbutz Re'im.[3]

At 6:22, alarms were heard in the party, where 4,400 people were present. At 6:24, the district commander decided to close the party, and the police started evacuation. Meanwhile, terrorists infiltrated the complex, and at 6:27 started shooting at Re’im junction. The commander of the station and an officer who was in the area returned fire. At 8:00, the Yamas police unit joined to the fighting. The terrorists also entered the nearby kibbutz Re’im. At 8:30, Yoav unit joined the battle. At 9:00, the Israeli Border Police started evacuating injured people, and at 10:03 a multiple casualty incident was declared. At 14:00, the police declared full control on the party complex. 364 civilians were murdered in the party complex, 40 were taken as hostages. 15 policemen were killed in the battle as well as in the process of evacuating civilians. In the nearby kibbutz Re’im, the battle continued until 21:00.[6]

On the morning of October 8th, a woman who was searching her friend in the aftermath of the festival filmed a video which later became viral and was known as “the woman in the black dress”. In the video, a woman was seen lying on her back with her dress torn. Her face was unrecognizable and her eyes were covered by her right hand. Many people commented, trying to figure out if the woman is their relative. Her family recognized her as Gal, who was murdered in the festival with her husband. When terrorists approached her while she was stuck in a traffic jam of people trying to flee the festival, she wrote her last WhatsApp message to her family: “You don’t understand”.[7]

Israeli police officials believe that Gal was raped, a claim supported by video evidence and verified by the New York Times. Sexual assaults by Hamas terrorists against Israeli women were not isolated events but a general pattern which repeated in all places they attacked.[8]

Sapir, an accountant, has been one of the key witnesses. She recounted the events to investigators as well as to the New York Times. On October 7th at 8 AM, she was near route 232 and 4 miles southwest of the party, bonding under the branches of a bushy tamarisk tree. She fell faint after getting shot in the back. After that she covered herself with dry grass and laid still.[8]

Cars, motorcycles, and trucks pulled up near the hiding place. She testified seeing about 100 men getting out of the vehicles. They passed assault rifles, grenades, and small missiles, and attacked women.[8]

A young woman with copper hair was the first victim Sapir witnessed. Her pants were pushed down to her knees and blood ran down her back. One man pulled her hair and forced her to bend over, while another penetrated her and stabbed her every time she flinched.[8]

Another woman, who also got raped by a terrorist, was “shredded into pieces” by another one who sliced off her breast. They started to throw her breast and play with it until it fell in the road. They then sliced her face, and the woman fell out of view. She provided photographs, and police officials who heard the testimony released a video with her face blurred. A 22-year old security consultant named Yura can be seen in one of Sapir's photos hiding in the same spot. He didn’t lift his head much, but also describes terrorists raping and murdering women.[8]

Sapir can hardly sleep since this day. She frequently wakes up at night covered in sweat and with her heart beating. She also struggles with a painful rash that spread across her torso. She told about this day the following:[8]

That day, I became an animal. I was emotionally detached, sharp, just the adrenaline of survival. I looked at all this as if I was photographing them with my eyes, not forgetting any detail. I told myself: I should remember everything.[8]

During the same morning, a young Israeli by the name of Raz Cohen, who also took part in the festival, was hiding in another location near Route 233. He hid in a dried-up streambed about a mile southwest of the party area. He saw a white van pull up in front of him, and 5 men in civilian clothes dragged a young naked woman out of the van. All the terrorists carried knives, and one of them carried a hammer. Raz testified the following:[8]

They all gather around her. She’s standing up. They start raping her. I saw the men standing in a half circle around her. One penetrates her. She screams. I still remember her voice, screams without words. Then one of them raises a knife, and they just slaughtered her.[8]

One of Raz’s friends by the name of Shoam Gueta also hid in the same streambed. He testified seeing at least 4 men getting out of the van and attacking a woman. They were giggling, talking, and shouting. One of them repeatedly stabbed her and “literally butchering her”.[8]

The first volunteer medical arrived at the site hours later. They testified seeing dead bodies of women without underwear and with their legs spread. Some of them were tied. Jamal Waraki, a ZAKA volunteer could not get the image of a woman with her hands tied, half naked, with her underwear below her knees, and bent over.[8]

Yinon Rivlin, one of the producers of the festival, lost 2 brothers in it. He hid from the terrorists, and later went to the parking to search for survivors. He saw near the highway a young woman with no underway or pants, lying on her stomach with her legs spread apart. Her vagina area was slashed open.[8]


  1. "Tribe Of Nova Proudly Presents Supernova Sukkot Gathering, Universo Paralello Israel Edition, 6-7 October 2023." [21 June 2023?]. eventer. Accessed 2 November 2023.
  2. a b Bain, Katie (8 October 2023). "At Least 260 People Dead After Attack At Israeli Electronic Music Festival". Billboard. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  3. a b Morris, Loveday; Piper, Imogen; Sohyun Lee, Joyce; George, Susannah (8 October 2023). "How a night of dancing and revelry in Israel turned into a massacre". The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2023/10/08/israel-festival-attack-gaza-militants/. 
  4. a b Borschel-Dan, Amanda (7 October 2023). "Thousands flee rocket and gunfire at all-night desert 'Nature Party'; dozens missing". The Times of Israel. https://www.timesofisrael.com/thousands-flee-rocket-and-gunfire-at-all-night-desert-nature-party-dozens-missing/. 
  5. Gilmore, Grant (8 October 2023). "Hundreds Reportedly Killed at Trance Festival in Israel". EDM Identity. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  6. Levi, Liran (2023-11-18). "המבלים שהסתתרו, השיחות למשטרה, הרציחות: דקה אחר דקה מהטבח במסיבה". Ynet (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 2024-05-14. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  7. ""ראיתי מחבלים אונסים ומעבירים נשים ביניהם": העדויות, והסיפור המזעזע של "האישה בשמלה השחורה"". Ynet (in Hebrew). 2023-12-28. Archived from the original on 2024-05-18. Retrieved 2024-05-18.
  8. a b c d e f g h i j k l "'Screams Without Words': How Hamas Weaponized Sexual Violence on Oct. 7". New York Times. 2023-12-28. Archived from the original on 2024-05-18. Retrieved 2024-05-18.


Sderot, a city of more than 30,000 people[1], was struck by rockets at 6:30 in the morning of October 7th.[2] Hamas gunmen entered the town and engaged in firefights with local police units and civilians.[3] Many civilians were murdered on the street and in homes in the surprise attack.[4][5] The residents of the city received instructions to lock the doors and windows of their homes, and not to open the door when knocked.[6]

On the same day, a group of 13 elderly people were on the way to a vacation in the Dead Sea. According to the report by two surviving individuals[citation needed], a wheel of their minibus was punctured on the way, so they stopped in Sderot. When they heard an alarm, they ran to a locked shelter and thus remained outdoors. The survivors describe two white vans containing gunmen who shot at them. One of the survivors reportedly lay on the ground near a woman who was shot, where he pretended to be dead. The second survivor from the group, a worker from Moldova named Nikolai, ran to the house of a local family after the first alarms, and stayed there for nearly 2 days.[7]

Reuven, a police volunteer testified about these events.[citation needed] After the first alarm, he reported seeing a minibus near the library with one wheel missing, and many old people near a locked shelter. After seeing a van shoot at them, he returned fire and survived. He later took shelter in another house before joining Shin Bet forces in the area. They reported witnessing dead bodies near the road and searching for attackers.[7]

Keren Roitman Hazan, a 35 year-old Sderot resident, said she heard the first alarms, which went on for 20 minutes, while preparing for her morning jog. She took videos of assailants riding in the city, as well as images of the elderly people murdered near the library, before taking shelter with her children. The following day, rockets hit the electricity and water infrastructure, with the cellular infrastructure already hit already the previous day.[citation needed] She therefore fled in their car with her children, instructing them to lower their heads below the window line and cover them with pillows. She testified to seeing many cars covered in blood and getting shot at while driving.[8]

Assailants also attacked the police station of Sderot, and there was heavy fighting. At one point the fighters from the police station reportedly called, saying, “we are both seriously injured, there are terrorists on the roof with us. We are in combat. We are out of ammunition.” The fighting intensified both on the roof and near the entrance of the police station, continuing for 24 hours,[citation needed] after which the assailants eventually took control of the police station. A decision was made[by whom?] to demolish the station, and a heavy exchange of fire[by whom?] started after a bulldozer started demolishing parts of the station. The station eventually caught fire. IDF tanks as well as other armored vehicles were brought[by whom?] to the area.[6]

It was suspected that the last terrorist in the station managed to escape,[6] and on the morning of October 8th, the mayor instructed residents to stay locked in their homes.[9] After the attackers were eliminated, Hamas continued firing rockets nonstop on Sderot.[citation needed] The residents were later evacuated to hotels in the Dead Sea, Eilat, and Jerusalem.[10]


  1. "Regional Statistics". www.cbs.gov.il. Retrieved 2024-05-08.
  2. Glazer, Hilo (20 October 2023). "A Handful of Israeli Officers Saved 90 New Recruits From Hamas Terrorists. They Paid With Their Lives". Haaretz. https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/2023-10-20/ty-article-magazine/.premium/a-few-idf-officers-saved-90-trainees-from-hamas-terrorists-they-paid-with-their-lives/0000018b-4da2-dc3c-a5df-ddaadf370000. 
  3. "Footage emerges of 'gunmen in Sderot'". BBC. 7 October 2023. https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-67037808. 
  4. Awad, Ammar; Lubell, Maayan (2023-10-07). "Gunmen in homes, captives abducted leave Israelis in shock" (in en). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/gunmen-homes-captives-abducted-gaza-leave-israelis-shock-2023-10-07/. 
  5. Ramsay, Stuart (9 October 2023). "Israel-Hamas War: Some escaped on foot, but many were killed or taken hostage - city left in shock". Sky News. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 2023-10-09.
  6. a b c Turjeman, Meir; Temari, Liran; Tzuri, Matan (2023-10-08). "כ-20 שעות קרב בתחנת שדרות: הושגה שליטה מלאה, 10 מחבלים חוסלו". ynet (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2024-05-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. a b Shaulov, Ronnie Green (2023-11-09). "התמונה האחרונה של ניצולי השואה - רגע לפני הטבח בשדרות: "הרגו את כולם"". Ynet (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 2024-05-08. Retrieved 2024-05-08.
  8. "תושבת הדרום על אירועי השבת השחורה: "התנהלנו כמו בסיפור של אנה פרנק"". מעריב (in Hebrew). 2023-11-21. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  9. ""יכול להיות שיש עוד מחבלים שהתחבאו ומחכים לתת לנו עוד מכה"". Mako (in Hebrew). 2023-10-08. Retrieved 2024-04-05.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. "תושבי שדרות מתפנים: "לילדים קשה, חוששים מהמחבלים - אבל נחזור ובגדול"". Walla. 2023-10-15. Archived from the original on 2023-12-04. Retrieved 2024-05-04.