Observing the Sky from 40°N/Sources and references

Introduction edit

Stars edit

Star, Stellar classification, Double star, Binary star, Multiple star, Variable star, Constellation, Ecliptic on Wikipedia, (http://www.en.wikipedia.org). Informations were verified on the following books and publications:

  • Fred Schaaf, The Brightest Stars: Discovering the Universe through the Sky's Most Brilliant Stars, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2008. 288 ISBN 978-0-471-70410-2.
  • Harris, S. (1980). Location of HII regions in molecular clouds. Giant molecular clouds in the Galaxy; Proceedings of the Third Gregynog Astrophysics Workshop: 201-206.
  • I. Baraffe, G. Chabrier, F. Allard, P. H. Hauschildt (1997). Evolutionary models for metal-poor low-mass stars. Lower main sequence of globular clusters and halo field stars. Astronomy and Astrophysics 327: 1054.
  • M. S. Oey, C. J. Clarke (2005). Statistical Confirmation of a Stellar Upper Mass Limit. Astrophysical Journal 620 (43): 1054.
  • H. M. Johnson (1957). The Kinematics and Evolution of Population I Stars. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 69 (406): 54.
  • S. E. Woosley, A. Heger, T. A. Weaver (2002). The evolution and explosion of massive stars. Reviews of Modern Physics 74 (4): 1015–1071.
  • Martin Schwarzschild, Structure and Evolution of the Stars, Princeton University Press, 1958. ISBN 0-691-08044-5.
  • Robert G. Aitken, The Binary Stars, New York, Dover Publications Inc., 1964.
  • C. J. Lada; N. D. Kylafits, The Origin of Stars and Planetary Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0-7923-5909-7.
  • Heintz, W. D. (1978). Double Stars. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht. p. 17. ISBN 9027708851.

Deep sky objects edit

Open cluster, Globular cluster, Bright nebula, H II region, Reflection nebula, Supernova remnant, Planetary nebula, Galaxy, Milky Way on Wikipedia, (http://www.en.wikipedia.org). Informations were verified on the following books and publications:

  • E.V.P. Smith, K.C. Jacobs, M. Zeilik, S.A. Gregory, Introductory Astronomy and Astrophysics, Thomson Learning, 1997. ISBN 0-03-006228-4.
  • Galactic Dynamics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey., 1997.
  • The Gravitational Million-Body Problem: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Star Cluster Dynamics, Cambridge University Press., 2003.
  • Dias, W. S.; Alessi, B. S.; Moitinho, A.; Lépine, J. R. D. (July 2002). New catalogue of optically visible open clusters and candidates. Astronomy and Astrophysics 389: 871-873. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361:20020668.
  • Trumpler R.J. (1930). Preliminary results on the distances, dimensions and space distribution of open star clusters. Lick Observatory bulletin no. 420, Berkeley : University of California Press: 154–188.
  • S. M. Percival, M. Salaris, D. Kilkenny (2003). The open cluster distance scale - A new empirical approach. Astronomy & Astrophysics 400: 541-552. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361:20030092.
  • Humphreys, R. M. (giugno 1970). The space distribution and kinematics of supergiants. Astronomical Journal 75 (602). DOI:10.1086/110995.
  • de Zeeuw, P. T.; Hoogerwerf, R.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Blaauw, A. (gennaio 1999). A HIPPARCOS Census of the Nearby OB Associations. The Astronomical Journal 117 (1): 354-399. DOI:10.1086/300682.
  • (1996). The kinematics of globular clusters, apocentric distances and a halo metallicity gradient. Astronomy and Astrophysics 313: 119–128.
  • Sigurdsson, Steinn (1992). Planets in globular clusters? Astrophysical Journal 399: L95-L97.
  • Harris, W. E. (1976). Spatial structure of the globular cluster system and the distance to the galactic center. Astronomical Journal 81: 1095–1116.
  • Geisler Doug, Wallerstein George, Smith Verne V., Casetti-Dinescu Dana I. (September 2007). Chemical Abundances and Kinematics in Globular Clusters and Local Group Dwarf Galaxies and Their Implications for Formation Theories of the Galactic Halo. The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 119: 939-961. DOI:10.1086/521990.
  • Allison, Mark (2006), Star clusters and how to observe them, Birkhäuser, pp. 56–8, ISBN 9781846281907.
  • Anderson, L.D. (2009) The molecular properties of galactic HII regions. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 181: 255–271. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/181/1/255.
  • Franco, J. (1990) On the formation and expansion of H II regions. Astrophysical Journal 349: 126–140. DOI:10.1086/168300.
  • James B. Kaler (1997). Cosmic Clouds -- Birth, Death, and Recycling in the Galaxy, Scientific American Library, Freeman, New York, 1997.
  • Woosley, Stan; Hans-Thomas Janka (December 2005). The Physics of Core-Collapse Supernovae. Nature Physics 1 (3): 147–154. doi:10.1038/nphys172.
  • Frankowski, Adam; Soker, Noam (November 2009), Very late thermal pulses influenced by accretion in planetary nebulae, New Astronomy 14 (8): 654–8, doi:10.1016/j.newast.2009.03.006.
  • Hora, Joseph L.; Latter, William B.; Allen, Lori E.; Marengo, Massimo; Deutsch, Lynne K.; Pipher, Judith L. (September 2004), Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Observations of Planetary Nebulae, Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 154 (1): 296–301, doi:10.1086/422820.
  • Jordan, S.; Werner, K.; O'Toole, S. J. (March 2005), Discovery of magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae, Astronomy & Astrophysics 432 (1): 273–9, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041993.
  • James Binney, Michael Merrifield, Galactic Astronomy, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-00402-1.
  • Sidney Bergh, The Galaxies of the Local Group, Cambridge, USA, Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-65181-6.
  • Linda S. Sparke, Galaxies in the Universe: An Introduction, Cambridge, USA, Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-59740-4.
  • James Binney, Galactic Dynamics, 2nd ed. Princeton University Press, 2008. ISBN 0-691-13027-2.
  • W. Chen, N. Gehrels, R. Diehl, D. Hartmann (1996). On the spiral arm interpretation of COMPTEL ^26^Al map features. Space Science Reviews 120: 315–316.
  • G. Battaglia, A. Helmi, H. Morrison, P. Harding, E. W. Olszewski, M. Mateo, K. C. Freeman, J. Norris, S. A. Shectman (2005). The radial velocity dispersion profile of the Galactic halo: Constraining the density profile of the dark halo of the Milky Way. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 364: 433–442.
  • Vallée, Jacques P. (April 2008). New Velocimetry and Revised Cartography of the Spiral Arms in the Milky WAY—A Consistent Symbiosis. The Astronomical Journal 135 (4): 1301-1310. DOI:0.1088/0004-6256/135/4/1301.
  • Eisenhauer, F.; Schödel, R.; Genzel, R.; Ott, T.; Tecza, M.; Abuter, R.; Eckart, A.; Alexander, T. (2003). A Geometric Determination of the Distance to the Galactic Center. The Astrophysical Journal 597: L121–L124.
  • Gustavo (January 2008). Spiral Structure in the Outer Galactic Disk. I. The Third Galactic Quadrant. The Astrophysical Journal 672 (2): 930-939. DOI:10.1086/524003.
  • Sato, Mayumi; Hirota, Tomoya; Reid, Mark J.; Honma, Mareki; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Iwadate, Kenzaburo; Miyaji, Takeshi; Shibata, Katsunori M. (April 2010). Distance to G14.33-0.64 in the Sagittarius Spiral Arm: H2O Maser Trigonometric Parallax with VERA. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 62 (2): 287-299.

Maps and tables edit

Hemispherical maps and monthly maps edit

The maps are created using Perseus astronomical simulation software and are adapted and retouched for the specific purpose. Although Perseus is a proprietary software, ELItalia (the company that developed the software) "authorizes any usage of the data supplied or generated with the software. The copyright of images or documents generated with the software belongs to the user who takes them." (from Copyright.txt file included on installation).

Tables edit

The tables include data and informations taken from the following books and publications:

  • Tirion, Rappaport, Lovi, Uranometria 2000.0 - Volume I - The Northern Hemisphere to -6°, Richmond, Virginia, USA, Willmann-Bell, inc., 1987. ISBN 0-943396-14-X.
  • Tirion, Rappaport, Lovi, Uranometria 2000.0 - Volume II - The Southern Hemisphere to +6°, Richmond, Virginia, USA, Willmann-Bell, inc., 1987. ISBN 0-943396-15-8.
  • Cragin, Lucyk, Rappaport, The Deep Sky Field Guide to Uranometria 2000.0, Richmond, Virginia, USA, Willmann-Bell, inc., 1987. ISBN 0-943396-38-7.
  • Tirion, Sinnott, Sky Atlas 2000.0, 2nd ed. Cambridge, USA, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-933346-90-5.
  • Hirshfeld, Sinnott, Ochsenbein, Sky Catalogue 2000.0 - Volume 1 - Stars to Magnitude 8.0, 2nd Ed. Cambridge, USA, Cambridge University Press, 1991. ISBN 0-933346-63 Invalid ISBN.8.
  • Hirshfeld, Sinnott, Sky Catalogue 2000.0 - Volume 2 - Double Stars, Variable stars and Nonstellar Objects. Cambridge, USA, Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-933346-38 Invalid ISBN.7.
  • Tirion, The Cambridge Star Atlas 2000.0, 3rd ed. Cambridge, USA, Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-80084-6.
  • Sinnott, NGC 2000.0 Cambridge, USA, Cambridge University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-933346-51 Invalid ISBN.4.
  • Stephen James O'Meara, Deep Sky Companions: The Messier Objects, Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 0521553326.
  • Stephen James O'Meara, Deep Sky Companions: The Caldwell Objects, Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0521553326.
  • Stephen James O'Meara, Deep Sky Companions: Hidden Treasures, Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 0521837049.

Selected areas of sky edit

Pleiades, Hyades on Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org). Informations about other objects are verified on the following books and publications:

  • Reipurth, B. et al., Handbook of Star Forming Regions, Volume I: The Northern Sky, ASP Monograph Publications, 2008. ISBN 1583816704.
  • Reipurth, B. et al., Handbook of Star Forming Regions, Volume II: The Southern Sky, ASP Monograph Publications, 2008. ISBN 1583816712.
  • Goyette, J.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Pitts, M.; Gabel, J. (May 2001). The History of the Local ISM: The Last 50 Million Years. American Astronomical Society, 198th AAS Meeting, #65.01; Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 33: 884.
  • Lindblad, P. O.; Grape, K.; Sandqvist, A.; Schober, J. (April 1973). On the kinematics of a local component of the interstellar hydrogen gas possibly related to Gould's Belt. Astronomy and Astrophysics 24: 309-312.
  • David Barrado y Navascués, John R. Stauffer (October 1998). Stellar Activity in Coeval Open Clusters: Praesepe and the Hyades. The Astrophysical Journal 506: 347-359. DOI:10.1086/306241.
  • Elena Franciosini, Sofia Randich, Roberto Pallavicini (2003). Is Praesepe really different from the coeval Hyades cluster? The XMM-Newton view. Astronomy & Astrophysics 405: 551-562.
  • Abt HA, Willmarth DW. (1999). Binaries in the Praesepe and Coma star clusters and their implications for binary evolution. Astrophysical Journal 521: 682-690.

All the photographs of astronomical objects are available on Wikimedia Commons (http://commons.wikimedia.org) and have free licenses, as works done by NASA and ESO.