Niw Englisch/Kapitel 1

This chapter will deal with the basic aspects of Niw Englisch word order. Further comments will be made in later chapters.

Word Order in Statements edit

Subject - Inflected Verb edit

In clauses that stand alone, a main clause, the subject commonly appears in the first position, followed by the inflected, or conjugated, verb. The inflected verb then takes the personal ending that agrees with the subject.

Þe Student rædeþ þat Dæȝblædd the student reads the newspaper
subject verb direct object

In modern English, an adverb may be placed between the subject and the verb. In Niw Englisch, this cannot be done. The verb must be the second element in the sentence.

ic ræde oft þat Dæȝblædd I often read the newspaper

Inverted Word Order - Element X-Inflected Verb-Subject edit

When you wish to emphasize information and to establish a topic of a sentence, elements other than the subject often appear in the first position. Those elements are most often adverbial expressions. For stylistic reasons, it is important for you to vary the elements in the first position in order to avoid beginning too many sentences with the subject when you write in Niw Englisch. Please note that in Niw Englisch, similar to how German works, does not set off such elements with a comma.

Heodæȝ rædeþ þie Lernestre þat Dæȝblædd Today the student is reading the newspaper
time verb subject direct object
In þem Gererdsaal etteþ manige Lerner Many students eat in the cafeteria
place verb subject

Other elements, such as the grammatical object or a participle, occasionally also occur in the first position. They may be used to connect sentences effectively, to respond directly to a previous statement, or to emphasize something.

Here Weiffreond besœkþ þie Lernestre morgen The student will visit her friend tomorrow.
direct object verb subject time expression
Gelernd hafþ schie þisse Wuke noȝht micel She hasn't studied much this week.
direct object verb subject time expression

When an element other than the subject of the sentence occurs in the first position, the inflected verb must remain in the second position. The subject follows the inflected verb. To summarize, the subject of a given statement typically appears first, but if anything else appears in the first position, the subject of the sentence must appear directly after the verb.

Gefremmung 1-1 edit

Understandung Identify the subject of each sentence below.

  1. Þen Lernryne hœdeþ Michael ælcen Tiwsdæȝ and Þunersdæȝ.
  2. Þie Friende besœkeþ Hannah om Wukenende.
  3. Æfens gæþ Kristina oft mid Hannah int Kino.
  4. Andi brœmþ om Sunnendæȝ seinen 30. Gebyrddæȝ.
  5. Þen Kaken bringeþ Erika and Katrina.
  6. Þie Gedrenke geholþ Kristine.

Gefremmung 1-2 edit

Geþiedung Restate the following sentences by using the bolded words at the beginning, following the grammar reviewed above.

Example: ic ga þissen Æfen mid Karl int Kino. -> Þissen Æfen ga ic mid Karl int Kino.