Niw Englisc is based on the same pronouns of Old English, carried forward today:
Note: it is grammatically correct to use ȝit when referring to two people as a pair, rather than ȝiȝ.
Note: Third person pronouns agree in gender with the noun they reference, be it masculine, feminine, or plural.
- He is an Hund. It is a dog.
- Scie is ane Rose. It is a rose.
In these cases, the pronoun used (he, scie) agrees with the grammatical gender of the noun, even though modern English uses 'it' in both cases.
Question Words: Who? What?Edit
These words are similar to modern English, but with the question word agreeing in gender to the noun referenced. Who is used with persons, and What with things.
- Ƕa is scie? Who is she?
- Ƕat is þat Þing? What is that thing?
This pronoun can be translated as "the" or "that"
This demonstrative pronoun can be translated as "this" indicating something close by the speaker, as opposed to "þe" or further, "ȝon."
This demonstrative pronoun can be translated as "that one (over there)" and indicates a farther distance than 'þe' either spatially or conversationally.
- Ic was in ȝoner Burg. I was in that city over there.
- Ic was in ȝoner Burg, na þisser Burg. I was in that city over there, not this city.
- Scie sprak ȝestern um ȝon Auto, and um þis Auto todæȝ. She spoke about that car yesterday, and this car today.
This is an adjective that acts like a demonstrative. It is used like English 'each' or German 'jeder'.
- Ælc Auto hæfþ AC. Each car has AC.
- Innen ælces Huses findeþ man Glowperen. Inside of each house one finds lightbulbs.
Every one, EverythingEdit
- Every car is white: Æȝƕilc Auto is ƕeit.
- All cars can drive on the road: Æȝƕilce/Alle Autos kunneþ on þer Raad faren. Usually all is used to emphasize the group as a whole, while æȝƕilc emphasizes each individual of that group.
- Declined like an adjective:
- Æƕæðer: someone, any one
- Æniȝ: any
- Nan: none
- Næniȝ: none, not any
- Ƕæðer: which of two?
- Ƕilc: which of many?
- Ilc: the same; used with the definite article (þeilc, þesilcen, þemilcen)
- Naƕæðer: neither (of two)
- Natƕilc: someone (unknown)
- Swilc: such, the same, the like
- Þilc: such; (closer to the speaker, more concrete than 'swilc')
- Declined like pronouns:
- Geƕa: everyone
- Natƕa: someone (unknown)