Connect/DisconnectEdit

mysql -h <host> -u <user> -p<passwd>
mysql -h <host> -u <user> -p
Enter password: ********
mysql -u user -p
mysql
mysql -h <host> -u <user> -p <Database>

QueryEdit

 SELECT * FROM table
 SELECT * FROM table1, table2, ...
 SELECT field1, field2, ... FROM table1, table2, ...
 SELECT ... FROM ... WHERE condition
 SELECT ... FROM ... WHERE condition GROUP BY field
 SELECT ... FROM ... WHERE condition GROUP BY field HAVING condition2
 SELECT ... FROM ... WHERE condition ORDER BY field1, field2
 SELECT ... FROM ... WHERE condition ORDER BY field1, field2 DESC
 SELECT ... FROM ... WHERE condition LIMIT 10
 SELECT DISTINCT field1 FROM ...
 SELECT DISTINCT field1, field2 FROM ...

 SELECT ... FROM t1 JOIN t2 ON t1.id1 = t2.id2 WHERE condition
 SELECT ... FROM t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON t1.id1 = t2.id2 WHERE condition
 SELECT ... FROM t1 JOIN (t2 JOIN t3 ON ...) ON ...
 SELECT ... FROM t1 JOIN t2 USING(id) WHERE condition

ConditionalsEdit

 field1 = value1
 field1 <> value1
 field1 LIKE 'value _ %'
 field1 IS NULL
 field1 IS NOT NULL
 field1 IN (value1, value2)
 field1 NOT IN (value1, value2)
 condition1 AND condition2
 condition1 OR condition2

Data ManipulationEdit

 INSERT INTO table1 (field1, field2, ...) VALUES (value1, value2, ...)
 INSERT table1 SET field1=value_1, field2=value_2 ...

 LOAD DATA INFILE '/tmp/mydata.txt' INTO TABLE table1
 FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"' ESCAPED BY '\\'

 DELETE FROM table1 / TRUNCATE table1
 DELETE FROM table1 WHERE condition
 -- join:
 DELETE FROM table1, table2 WHERE table1.id1 = table2.id2 AND condition

 UPDATE table1 SET field1=new_value1 WHERE condition
 -- join:
 UPDATE table1, table2 SET field1=new_value1, field2=new_value2, ...
 WHERE table1.id1 = table2.id2 AND condition

BrowsingEdit

 SHOW DATABASES
 SHOW TABLES
 SHOW FIELDS FROM table / SHOW COLUMNS FROM table / DESCRIBE table / DESC table / EXPLAIN table
 SHOW CREATE TABLE table
 SHOW CREATE TRIGGER trigger
 SHOW TRIGGERS LIKE '%update%'
 SHOW PROCESSLIST
 KILL process_number
 SELECT table_name, table_rows FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA = '**yourdbname**';
 $ mysqlshow
 $ mysqlshow database

Create / delete / select / alter databaseEdit

 CREATE DATABASE [IF NOT EXISTS] mabase [CHARACTER SET charset] [COLLATE collation]
 CREATE DATABASE mabase CHARACTER SET utf8
 DROP DATABASE mabase
 USE mabase

 ALTER DATABASE mabase CHARACTER SET utf8

Create/delete/modify tableEdit

 CREATE TABLE table (field1 type1, field2 type2, ...)
 CREATE TABLE table (field1 type1 unsigned not null auto_increment, field2 type2, ...)
 CREATE TABLE table (field1 type1, field2 type2, ..., INDEX (field))
 CREATE TABLE table (field1 type1, field2 type2, ..., PRIMARY KEY (field1))
 CREATE TABLE table (field1 type1, field2 type2, ..., PRIMARY KEY (field1, field2))
 CREATE TABLE table1 (fk_field1 type1, field2 type2, ...,
   FOREIGN KEY (fk_field1) REFERENCES table2 (t2_fieldA)
     [ON UPDATE] [CASCADE|SET NULL|RESTRICT]
     [ON DELETE] [CASCADE|SET NULL|RESTRICT])
 CREATE TABLE table1 (fk_field1 type1, fk_field2 type2, ...,
   FOREIGN KEY (fk_field1, fk_field2) REFERENCES table2 (t2_fieldA, t2_fieldB))
 CREATE TABLE table IF NOT EXISTS (...)

 CREATE TABLE new_tbl_name LIKE tbl_name
   [SELECT ... FROM tbl_name ...]

 CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE table (...)

 CREATE table new_table_name as SELECT [ *|column1, column2 ] FROM table_name

 DROP TABLE table
 DROP TABLE IF EXISTS table
 DROP TABLE table1, table2, ...
 DROP TEMPORARY TABLE table

 ALTER TABLE table MODIFY field1 type1 
 ALTER TABLE table MODIFY field1 type1 NOT NULL ... 
 ALTER TABLE table CHANGE old_name_field1 new_name_field1 type1
 ALTER TABLE table CHANGE old_name_field1 new_name_field1 type1 NOT NULL ...
 ALTER TABLE table ALTER field1 SET DEFAULT ...
 ALTER TABLE table ALTER field1 DROP DEFAULT
 ALTER TABLE table ADD new_name_field1 type1
 ALTER TABLE table ADD new_name_field1 type1 FIRST
 ALTER TABLE table ADD new_name_field1 type1 AFTER another_field
 ALTER TABLE table DROP field1
 ALTER TABLE table ADD INDEX (field);
 ALTER TABLE table ADD PRIMARY KEY (field);

 -- Change field order:
 ALTER TABLE table MODIFY field1 type1 FIRST
 ALTER TABLE table MODIFY field1 type1 AFTER another_field
 ALTER TABLE table CHANGE old_name_field1 new_name_field1 type1 FIRST
 ALTER TABLE table CHANGE old_name_field1 new_name_field1 type1 AFTER another_field

 ALTER TABLE old_name RENAME new_name;

KeysEdit

 CREATE TABLE table (..., PRIMARY KEY (field1, field2))
 CREATE TABLE table (..., FOREIGN KEY (field1, field2) REFERENCES table2 (t2_field1, t2_field2))
 ALTER TABLE table ADD PRIMARY KEY (field);
 ALTER TABLE table ADD CONSTRAINT constraint_name PRIMARY KEY (field, field2);

create/modify/drop viewEdit

 CREATE VIEW view AS SELECT ... FROM table WHERE ...

PrivilegesEdit

 CREATE USER 'user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

 GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON base.* TO 'user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
 GRANT SELECT, INSERT, DELETE ON base.* TO 'user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
 REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES ON base.* FROM 'user'@'host'; -- one permission only
 REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES, GRANT OPTION FROM 'user'@'host'; -- all permissions

 SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('new_pass')
 SET PASSWORD FOR 'user'@'host' = PASSWORD('new_pass')
 SET PASSWORD = OLD_PASSWORD('new_pass')

 DROP USER 'user'@'host'

Main data typesEdit

TINYINT   (1o: -127+128) 
SMALLINT  (2o: +-65 000)
MEDIUMINT (3o: +-16 000 000) 
INT       (4o: +-2 000 000 000)
BIGINT    (8o: +-9.10^18)
  Precise interval: -(2^(8*N-1)) -> (2^8*N)-1
  /!\ INT(2) = "2 digits displayed" -- NOT "number with 2 digits max"
INT NOT NULL auto_increment PRIMARY KEY -- auto-counter for PK
FLOAT(M,D) DOUBLE(M,D) FLOAT(D=0->53) 
  /!\ 8,3 -> 12345,678 -- NOT 12345678,123!
TIME (HH:MM) YEAR (AAAA) DATE (AAAA-MM-JJ) DATETIME (AAAA-MM-JJ HH:MM; années 1000->9999)
  TIMESTAMP (like DATETIME, but 1970->2038, compatible with Unix)
VARCHAR (single-line; explicit size)  
TEXT (multi-lines; max size=65535) 
BLOB (binary; max size=65535)
  Variants for TEXT&BLOB: TINY (max=255) MEDIUM (max=~16000) LONG (max=4Go)
 Ex: VARCHAR(32), TINYTEXT, LONGBLOB, MEDIUMTEXT
ENUM ('value1', 'value2', ...) -- (default NULL, or '' if NOT NULL)

Contents

Forgot root password?Edit

$ /etc/init.d/mysql stop
$ mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &
$ mysql # on another terminal
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET password=PASSWORD('nouveau') WHERE user='root';
## Kill mysqld_safe from the terminal, using Control + \
$ /etc/init.d/mysql start

Repair tables after unclean shutdownEdit

mysqlcheck --all-databases
mysqlcheck --all-databases --fast


Loading dataEdit

mysql> SOURCE input_file
$ mysql database < filename-20120201.sql
$ cat filename-20120201.sql | mysql database