Mirad/Print version


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What is Mirad?

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Glojo mir ebdao ácana dadè. (accented version)
Glojo mir ebdao yacana dadey. (unaccented version)
Soon the world will converse through a common tongue.

Mirad ( aka Unilingua ) is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published by Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad is categorized by constructed language afficionados as philosophical because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the wordstock of Mirad is considered a priori, that is, there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is "from scratch", yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations logically, mnemonically, and consistently.
For some odd reason, the author of this language called it the Latinesque name "Unilingua." In this revision of the language, the name will be the more internally consistent Mirad (pronounced mee-RAHD), which means world language (mira = world's + d = speech.) The proximity to the Russian word for 'world' (мир) is pure coincidence; the vocabulary of Mirad, as stated above, is not based on or related to any existing human language.

Orthography and Pronunciation

Orthography and Pronunciation


The Mirad alphabet has both lower-case and upper-case letters. The alphabet has the same base letters as Latin or English, except that the letters Qq, Xx, and Yy are considered non-native and are used only in foreign names and borrowings. Also, the letters Hh and Ww are additional to Agapoff's original Unilingua alphabet and are unique in that they have no inherent semantic values; they are used for various grammatical-only purposes. A unique feature of Mirad is that every native letter is a semantically- or functionally-significant atom in the language and can be thought of as a brick in word-building. See Word-building
The order of the native alphabet is as follows:
a á à â b c d e é è ê f g h i í ì î j k l m n o ó ò ô p r s t u ú ù û v w z
The above lower-case letters can also be represented as upper-case letters. In Unicode representations and indexing, the uppercase graphemes precede the lowercase values. Uppercase letters are used much as in American English, that is, for the first letter in sentences, proper nouns, etc. See #Orthography for more details. As mentioned above, the Mirad graphemes Ww and Hh are additional to the letters in the original Unilingua and are used to form the passive voice of verbs and the correlative deictics, respectively. Foreign names and borrowings sometimes also incorporate Hh, Qq, Xx, and Yy.


The following letters are classified as consonants:
b c d f g h j k l m n p r s t v w z
*Note: The author of Unilingua did not include the letters Hh or Ww as native graphemes. They have been added in Mirad in order to encompass word structures not included by Agapoff, in addition to interjections and foreign names. See more on this under #Vowels.


Vowels, or more accurately, vowel nuclei consist of plain vowels and iotated vowels, that is, vowels that have a y-glide sound (iota) before, after, or around them. A synonym of iotated is palatalized.
The plain vowels are (only miniscules listed here):
a e i o u
The iotated vowel nuclei are:
á é í ó ú   (pre-iotated)
à è ì ò ù   (post-iotated)
â ê î ô û   (circum-iotated)
Note: The author of Unilingua used non-Roman letters to represent some of the pre-iotated vowels (я = á, е = é, ø = ó, and ю = ú. The author employed a hacek (called ille in French) over the vowel to represent post-iotation (ă = à, ě = è, etc.). This revised Mirad textbook, however, uses the acute accent (as in French été) for the pre-iotated vowels, the grave accent (as in French père) for the post-iotated vowels, and the circumflex accent (as in French fête) for the circum-iotated vowels. It must be remembered, however, that á, ô, and other iotated vowels are considered single vowels or vowel nuclei in any analysis of the language, not dipthongs or tripthongs). In other words, the accents are merely graphemic devices to distinguish vowels qualitatively, and thereby semantically.



Despite Agapoff's idiosyncratic system of punctuation, the punctuation symbols and usage in Mirad are just like those of American English.


Capitalization in Mirad follows the same rules as in English. European learners need to be especially careful to capitalize the first letter of the names of languages, nationalities, and inhabitants, which in most European languages are left in lowercase.
Note the following examples. The words are all capitalized because the root word is the name of the country China:
KinaChinese (people or nation) [adj.]
KinadChinese (language) [n.]
KinadaChinese (language) [adj.]
Kinadèin Chinese [adv.]
KinutChinese person
Kinadaerto speak Chinese (pronounced: kee-nah-dah-EHR)
Kinaderto utter in Chinese
Kinadrerto write Chinese
KinadrunChinese writing
Kina vidrunChinese calligraphy
Kinadéderto read Chinese
KinénaChinese-like [adj.]
Kinénàin the Chinese way [adv.]
Kin-Amerika véaniSino-American relations
Kinconithings Chinese (pronounced: keen-SOH-nee)
Kinaserto sinofy (pronounced: kee-nah-SHEHR)
KintunSinology (pronounced: keen-TOON)


Consonant sounds

This chart shows the closest phonetic approximations of the Mirad consonant graphemes in English and some other familiar languages, along with the exact value in IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet):
graphemeIPAEnglishAmerican SpanishFrenchComment
csseehacegarçonWatch out! Sounds like "s".
gggoogomagantAlways hard.
hhhowjota--Closer to the English value.
jʒmirage--jourAs in "Dr. Zhivago.
rr--toro--Dental flap or trill
sʃshed--chaiseA fricative "sh" sound!
Note! Be very careful that the c and the s are not pronounced as their English or European equivalents. Think of the c as being the French c cedilla (ç).

Simple vowel sounds

a as in Spanish la (IPA:/a/)
e as in French thé (IPA:/e/)
i as in Spanish sí! (IPA:/i/)
o as in Spanish no (IPA:/o/)
u as in Spanish tú (IPA:/u/)

Pre-iotated vowel sounds

These vowels are pronounced the same as the simple vowel above, but with a y-glide at the beginning.
á is like ya as in English yacht
é is like ye as in German jeder or English yes
í is like yi as in French yippie or English ye (without the final y-glide)
ó is like yo as in German Joga or English yo-yo (without the final w-glide)
ú is like yu as in German Juli or English unit

Post-iotated vowel sounds

These vowels are pronounced like the simple vowels, but with a y-glide at the end.
à is like ay as in English Thai
è is like ey as in English fey
ì is like iy as in English see
ò is like oy as in English boy
ù is like uy as in English fooey

Circum-iotated vowel sounds

These vowels are pronounced with a y-glide at both the beginning and end.
â is like yay as in English yikes!
ê is like yey as in English yea!
î is like yiy
ô is like yoy
û is like yuy
Note the difference in pronunciation between , which is pronounced like A-ya as in Spanish "playa", and àa, which sounds like AY-a as in English diagram.)

Syllabification and Stress

A closed syllable is one that ends in a consonant or a y-glide (i.e., a post- or circum-yodified vowel). A syllable consists of [C]V[C], where V, the vowel nucleus, can begin or end with a y-glide, but contain only one of the set of vowels [aeiou], and where C consists of one or two homorganic consonants, i.e. [bcdfgjknpstvz]+[lrwy].
The rule for stress is: If a word ends in a closed syllable, then the last syllable receives the stress, otherwise, the penultimate (next-to-last) syllable receives the stress.
manàMA-naywith light
Kinadaeki-na-DA-espeaks Chinese
Kinadki-NADChinese (language)
HàfaHAY-fa(Israeli town of) Haifa
gracergra-SERto be extreme

Every vowel in Mirad is given its full syllabic pronunciation, even when juxtaposed in what English or European speakers might consider dipthongs:
spellingpronunciationmeaningsyllable count
daòDA-oywithout saying2


Taxonomic codification of letters

The consonants of root words are taken from a conceptual ontology matrix. For example, all root words beginning with the consonant t have something to do with human beings. Root words containing the consonant j relate somehow to time.
For example, the following words all contain the consonant p, which indicates motion:
zíp travel
jap precedence
tóáp step
zòp regression
pán jump
teap visit
mamp flight
Similarly, the following words all end in the consonant l, which indicates liquid:
mil water
vafil wine
mal gasoline
meil mud
vozil paint
teabil tear
Again, the following words all end in the consonant m, which indicates place, space, location, or position.:
tom residence
cem table
dénam library
tilam bar
epem parking lot
mem country

Semantic codification of vowels

The vowels in root words have various qualitative and quantitative values based on the following scales:

Qualitativenegative 1positive 1neutralpositive 2negative 2

The opposite of a word can often be produced by simply changing a vowel to the "opposing" vowel.

  • The vowels "a" and "o" are opposites in the "series 1".
  • The vowels "i" and "u" are opposites in the "series 2."

ab onob off
man lightmon shade
aga bigoga little
án togetherón apart
iga fastuga slow
íga hardúga soft

Throughout the Mirad word construction scheme, the vowel e always has a neutral or medial value:

éb between
éz inside
eza moderate
ge equal
zem middle
ev if
je during
eb at
ve maybe
In hierarchical codification, the vowel o indicates the zeroth or toplevel element of an organization. In a qualitative codification, it has a negative slant. As a prefix, this vowel can also "nullify" a concept as in the following examples:

tel foodotel hunger
gela sameogela different
tadca marriedotadca unmarried
es functionoes malfunction

Hierarchical codification with ordinal vowels

Root words related hierarchically or organizationally differ only in their ordinal vowels. By ordinal vowels is meant that the vowels have inherent numerical values (o 0, a 1, e 2, etc.). The zeroth element of any hierarchy always contains the ordinal vowel o. For example, the words for royalty differ only by an enumerative vowel which determines the rank:

ordinal valueroyal rank
1adeb emperor
2edeb king
3ideb prince
4udeb marquis
5ádeb count
6édeb duke
7ódeb lord

For further illustration, we can look at how the concept human being is hierarchically codified using ordinal vowels, where the larger the numeric value of the ordinal vowel, the lower the element is in the semantic hierarchy:

human being
tob human
tab body
teb head
tib trunk
tub arm
tób leg

Scalability With Contrasting Vowels

Words can be semantically constructed along the qualitative scale of "postive", '"neutral", and "negative" through the use of vowels imbued with these values. In Mirad, there are two qualitative vowel series:


As implied in the above table, root words with a contrast as semantically opposite with those with o and roots words with i contrast with those with u. Words with e are in the middle between the two extremes. The second series does sometimes lack a middle value. For example:

1va yesve maybevo no
1vay certainlyvey possiblyvoy not
1aza strongeza moderateoza weak
2zi rightze middlezu left
2fia goodfea neither good nor badfua bad
2iga fastega moderateuga slow

Vectorial codification

On the vectorial (or: directional, geo-spatial) scale, the vowels have the following general values (see later for a more detailed explanation):

a o
up/north/ahead down/south/back
i u
right/east/straight left/west/crooked

Some examples:

áb upéb betweenób down
ab oneb atob off
zi rightze in the middlezu left
áber to raiseéber to containóber to lower

In the following examples, the vowels i/u and e take on directional values with respect to the doer of the action:

bier to takenier to consumedier to askpier to leaveiper to go awayiber to receive
beer to keepneer to conserveder to saypeer to stayeper to stopeber to stop
buer to givenuer to supplyduer to suggestpuer to arriveuper to comeuber to send

Natural (geological) codification

On the natural scale, the vowels have the following values:

asky/airmampar aircraft, map wind (current)
eland/soilmempar car, mep road
isea/watermimpar ship, mip river
oundergroundmompar subway, mop tunnel
uouter spacemumpar spaceship, mup galaxy

Semantic nuancing

Semantic nuances and gradations of quality of words are reflected through the "lengthening", that is, addition of a harmonic subordinal vowel to the ordinal vowel, yodification (adding y) of the ordinal vowel, or the addition of one in a series of intensifying (l, r) or distinguishing (c, s, v, f, etc.) consonants, or any of the above techniques in combination. In this scheme, pre-yodification signals a semantic intensification, while post-yodification indicates a weakening or mitigation of sense. A doubling of the vowel usually indicates another kind of lessened strength of the corresponding single-vowel word. Here are some examples:

Post-yodification deintensifies the semantic value of the base word in much the same way as the suffix -ish sometimes mitigates the value of an English adjective.

ama hotàma warm
oma coldòma cool
ima wetìma humid
at vage I wantat vàge I'd like
at ége I mustat yège I should
moza blackmòza blackish
e twoè half
gla veryglà somewhat
mar sunmàr star
ifer to loveìfer to like
bók painbôk ache
tom residencetòm home
dom citydòm town
din storydìn tale
pener to seizepèner to catch
pon restpòn pause

Pre-yodification is sometimes used to intensify the semantic value of the base word:

om coldóm ice
am heatám fire
ga more most
pener to seizepéner to strike
pot animalpót wild animal
vaa affirmativeváa true
ab onyab above
ze in the middle of through
ib awayíb far
bok illnessbók pain
paner to movepáner to jump

The consonant extenders "l" and "r" are sometimes used to intensify the semantic value of the base word.

bók painblók agonybrók torture
vag desirevlag yearningvrag craving
éga necessaryégla urgentégra critical
péner to hitpénler to beatpénrer to smash
fúder to offendflúder to insultfrúder to outrage
dier to requestdiler to begdirer to demand

The ordinal vowel can be extended with a homorganic subordinal vowel in order to add an element of "lengthening" or some other nuance to the meaning of the base word:

bok illnessbook fatigue
vager to wantvaager to desire
dob statedoob nation
dab governmentdaab administration
tob bodytoob gender
din storydiin recitation
béler to retainbéeler to conserve
mil watermiil dew

Here are some examples where all these techniques are employed:

derived wordmethod of derivation
bok illnessnormal
bòk ailmentpost-yodification (mitigation)
book fatiguelengthening
boòk lassitudepost-yodification (mitigation)
bók painpre-yodification (intensification)
bôk achepost-yodification (mitigation)
bóok sufferinglengthening
blók agonyL-intensification (1st order)
brók tortureR-intensification (2nd order)

derived wordmethod of derivation
vager to wantnormal
vlager to yearn forL-intensification (1st order)
vrager to craveR-intensification (2nd order)
vaager to desirelengthening
vàger to wish forpost-yodification (mitigation)
vaàger to aspire tolengthening

The consonants l, r, and c are used to differentiate nuances of words, usually in a positive degree of strength. Other consonants can also be used for derivation.

derived word
va yes
vaa positive
vala sure
vàla certain
vaala safe
vara evident
vàra manifest
valda certified
vàca secure
váa true
váya genuine
váca correct
vâca right
vába regular
vâba statutory
váva exact
válva perfect
váfa precise
váta fair
váma real
váama virtual
vâma actual
váda frank
vála authentic

Mnemonic and analogic association

Mnemonics is used to the fullest to associate root words and concepts. For example, the words "neigh", "hehaw", "bark", and "meow" in Unilingua all contain a hint of the animal name with which these are associated. For example:

animalsound verb
épet dogépeder to bark
apet horseapeder to neigh
ápet pigápeder to squeal
ípet catípeder to meow
apat cockapader to crow
pat birdpader to tweet
epèt cowepèder to moo

Two or more words are often joined into a single compound, producing a new concept, where the separate elements are suggestive of the meaning of the resulting compound. In some cases, words overlap much like portmanteau words in English (breakfast + lunch = brunch). (Note, for euphony, if the final consonant of the first root word is the same as the initial consonant of the second root word, one of the consonants is dropped.)

first conceptsecond conceptcompound
il liquidpan motionilpan wave
teac- to seeper to goteaper to visit
dom citymep waydomep street (not dommep)
kum sidemep waykumep sidewalk
acrossmep wayzèmep bridge
throughmep wayzémep thoroughfare
elám ironmep wayelámep railroad
mag firemeb mountainmagmeb volcano
tóáb footper to gotóáper to walk
mic windownof clothmicof curtain
mac floornof clothmacof carpet
bik carenof clothbikof bandage
teb headnof clothtef hat
új- to closenof clothújof fold
tom homenof clothtomof tent
nun merchandisepar vehiclenunpar truck
pat birdij beginningpatij egg
án togetheriv joyániv festival
oj futurenac moneyojnac credit
ej presentnac moneyejnac cash
relativenaz valuevénaz coefficient
ke- to seekbier to takekebier to choose
job timebier to takejobier to borrow
dop militarybier to takedopbier to conquer
nuc paymentbier to takenucbier to purchase
ko- to hidebier to takekobier to steal
tel foodtam housetelam restaurant
mag fireil liquidmagil oil
mam skymil watermamil rain
mir planetnod pointmirnod pole
mam skynid linemamnid horizon
mar lightnid linemarnid ray
nof clothyazser to flattennofyazser to iron
taob fleshtel foodtaol meat
taob fleshfab treefaob wood
faob woodcyeb containerfaocyeb barrel
ápet pigtel meatápel pork

The following example of compounding with the root word mep (way, route, road) shows the efficiency of Unilingua compounding:

first conceptcombined concept
kum sidekumep sidewalk
tóáb walktóámep walkway
dom citydomep boulevard
dom citydomèp avenue
dom citydomeap street
éb betweenébdomeap alley
acrosszèmep bridge
throughzémep thoroughfare
óg- shortógmep shortcut
oiz indirectoizmep byway
yoz outyozmep exit
éz inézmep entrance
íz beyondízmep detour
úz aroundúzmep beltway
ig- fastigmep expressway
ouj- no-endoujmep cul-de-sac
nùc feenùcmep toll road, turnpike
agal- mainagalmep main road
anog- primaryanogmep highway
ogal- minorogalmep back road
vó- wrongvómep blind alley
áb highábmep raised highway
mom undergroundmomep subway
elám ironelámep railroad
tóáp- to walktóámep walkway
par vehicleparmep driveway
-et littlemepet path, lane
iz- directizmep straightaway
-án collectivemepán network

Root words

Root words are divided into two groups:

  • 1st group: nouns.
  • 2nd group: prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and verbs, that is, all other words.

Root words of the 1st group (nouns)

All noun root words are composed of three letters:

  • The first, a consonant, called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel, called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant, called the generic



Table of consonant semantic values

consonantclassifier (1st group)generic (1st group)classifier (2nd group)
borgan, illness, bodyorganismgesture, manner
panimal, vehicletravelmovement
cthing, furnitureformmaking, c hundred
sactionactiondoing, action, thing
dsocietypersonsaying, writing
thuman beingpersonknowing
fvegetationtextiles, materialsquality
vplant, colorcloth, linenquality, truth
g  quantity, size, speed
k  weight, volume
z jewels, precious, art, colordirection
l element, liquid, foodl ten
mcosmos, natureplace, building, metalml million
nmerchandise, containersabstractioncounting
r machine, instrumentmr billion

The letter w does not have semantic value, only grammatical value as the sign of the passive voice. The letter h also has no semantic value; it merely forms the correlative deictics or determinants.

Table of vowel numeric values

vowelnumeric value

Table of vowel geo-positional values

a above, superior, north
e center, middle, equator
o below, inferior, south
u left, west
i right, east

Table of vowel vectorial values

vowelfree movementcontact movementpositionexamples
a on onto up/northab (on), aper (mount), aber (apply)
á up onto  áb (up), áper (climb), páer (rise)
o under, off underneath down/southob (under), ober (remove), boer (support)
ó down down to   óper (descend), póer (fall)
u near to left/westuper (come), puer (arrive)
ú toward until  úb (near), úper (approach), púer (reach)
i away from right/eastiper (go away), pier (leave)
í far off off  íb (away), íber (take away), píer (originate)
e between at center/middleeb (at), eper (stop), peer (remain)
é in into   éz (in), éber (contain), béer (detain)

Table of vowel geo-specific values

askymap windmam skymal air
elandmep roadmem earthmel soil
iwatermip rivermim seamil water
oundergroundmop tunnelmom minemol mineral
unaturemup galaxymum spacemul matter

Table of vowel temporal values (for verbs)

apastpa went, paa had gone, pao will have gone, pae has gone
epresentpe goes, pee is going, pea has been going, peo will be going
ofuturepo will go, poa would go, poe is about to go
uuntensedpu go!, that (one) go

Root words of the 2nd group (non-nouns)

All words of the 2nd group, which are word roots other than noun roots, are composed of two letters, either a consonant-vowel combination like za or a vowel-consonant combination like az, not counting grammatical endings like the adjectival suffix -a or the verbal infinitive suffix -er.

Vowel oppositions in 2nd group root words

Root words with iu opposition :

fia goodfua bad
via beautifulvua ugly
fía bravefúa afraid
vía cleanvúa dirty
ifa lovable ufa hateful
iva happy uva sad
ífa modestúfa proud
íva freeúva dependent
iga fastuga slow
íga hardúga soft
gia sharpgua dull
gía difficultgúa easy
ika fulluka empty
kia obliquekua lateral
kíaheavykúa light
íka solidúka fragile
íba farúba near
since up to
iza straightuza crooked
zia rightzua left
íz beyondúz around
all overzúa round

Root words with ternary vowel opposition aeo and ieu:

aza strongeza mediumoza weak
áza flatéza concaveóza convex
áz alongéz inóz out
za frontze middlezo behind
ahead across back
záa wide throughzóa narrow
aga bigeg- repeatoga small
ága longég- mustóga short
va yesve maybevo no
and, both or, either nor, neither
vager to wantveger may, canvoger to renounce
av forev ifov against
váa truevéa relativevóa false
áva innocentév- to judgeóva guilty
ga morege equalgo less
also as but, except
gáa fatgéa moderategóa thin
gla verygle ratherglo slightly
gra toogre justgro insufficiently
most average least
kaer findkeer seekkoer hide
kyaer changekéer fluctuatekóer stay fixed
aker wineker playoker lose
áker to expectéker to tryóker to be surprised
ja beforeje duringjo after
aj pastej presentoj future
early on time late
-a past tense-e present tense-o future tense
ab oneb atob off
áb aboveéb betweenób below
ijer to beginejer to lastujer to end
tijer to be borntejer to livetujer to die

2nd Group Root Word Matrix

Two-way i/u opposition

In 2nd group root words, the vowel i signals a positive value, while the contrasting vowel u indicates the negative or opposite value:

fia goodfua badvia beautifulvua ugly
ifa dearufa hatefuliva happyuva sad
fía bravefúa afraidvía cleanvúa dirty
ífa modestúfa proudíva freeúva bound
gia sharpgua dullkia obliquekua lateral
gía difficultgúa easykía heavykúa light
iga fastuga slowika fulluka empty
zia rightzua leftiza straightuza curved
zí- all aroundzú- roundíz- beyondúz- around
ij- beginuj- endíj- openúj- close
ib fromub toíb farúb near
ib- receiveub- sendíb- take awayúb- bring
bi- takebu- give away toward
bin- pullbun- pushbín- ...bún- touch
ip- go (away)up- comeíp- escapeúp- approach
pi- departpu- arrivepí- originatepú- reach
pin- grabpun- throwpín- seizepún- assault

Three-way a/e/o opposition

Some 2nd group root words exhibit a three-way contrast where a is the base or positive value, e the middle or in-between value, and o the negative or opposite value:

va yesve maybevo no
váa truevéa relativevóa false
av forev ifov against
áva innocentév- judgeóva guilty
ga morege equalgo less
gla manygle severalglo few
gra too manygre just enoughgro too few
most enough least
gáa fatgéa moderategóa thin
aga bigeg againoga small
ága longég- mustóga short
ka- findke- searchko- hide
ká- changeké- waverkó- stay
ak- winek- playok- lose
ák- expecték- tryók- be surprised
za frontze middlezo back
záa wideyzé throughzóa narrow
aza strongeza averageoza weak
áza flatéza concaveóza convex
áz alongéz inóz out
ja beforeje duringjo after
early on time late
aj pastej presentoj future
ab oneb atob off
ab- applyeb- keepob remove
áb aboveéb betweenób lower
áb- liftéb- containób- lower
ba- lean onbe- carrybo- hold up
bar- pressbel- keepbol- support
bá- erectbé- laybó- hang
ban- shakeben- holdbon- calm
ap- get onep- stayop- get off
áp- ascendép- interveneóp- descend
pan- movepen- seizepon- rest
pá- jumppé- standpó- fall
pán- surgepén- attackpón- dive

The following table shows how some of the 2nd group root words can be expanded on through various word-building techniques:

fia good
fi well
fian goodness
fila delicious
fira excellent
fìla exquisite
fieca happy
firsa perfect
fiser to improve
fider to congratulate
fiader to praise
flider to eulogize
frider to brag
fiàsener to favor
fibéna polite
gafia better
gafi better (adv.)
gafif moreso
gafira famous
gafifer to prefer
ísfira useful
fiíser to utilize
fua bad
fura cruel
fula malignant
fùra ferocious
fueca unhappy
flua wicked
fluica sinister
frueca furious
fuvára jeolous
fu ill
gafua worse
gafu worse (adv.)
fuser to spoil
fuscer to bother
fuder to curse
furser to pollute
fùser to debase
fuáser to deteriorate
fulser to damage
fuecer to get angry
fluecer to get irritated
fruicer to grow furious
fun fault
fùn vice
fuùn sin
dofùna immoral
via beautiful
viá pretty
vila magnificent
vira marvelous
vria luxurious
viaga somptuous
vifa elegant
vìfa chic
vifia charming
videréna eloquent
vikaeá admirable
viser to adorn
viber to garnish
viaber to decorate
viaser to embellish
viraser to dazzle
vua ugly
vuá vile
ifa lovable, beloved, dear
ifbier to enjoy
ifbuer to please
ifiber to derive pleasure from
ifca pleasant
ifcla charming
ìfa dear
ìfciona gracious
ifcra delightful
ifra adorable
ifla tender
ìfala cute
ifta nice
ifla nice
ifrana passionate
ìfsrea seductive
ifer to love
ìfer to like
ifcer to be pleased
ifcler to be charmed
ifcrer to be delighted
ifser to please
ifsler to charm
ifsrer to delight
iifper to stroll
ifi thanks
ifider to thank
ifcaler to enjoy
ufa hateful
ufla disagreeable
ufcea unpleasant
ufta mean
ufer to hate
ùfer to dislike
ufuer to despise
ufcer to be displeased
ovufer to avenge
iva gay
ìva joyous
ivla glad
ìvla content
ivra excited
ivalsa amused
ivca funny
ivcla comical
ivaser to rejoice
ivraser to excite
ìvler to satisfy
ivalser to amuse
ivàlser to entertain
ivader to joke
ivlaser to content
uva sad
ùva melancholy
uvla lugubrious
uvca dramatic
uvcra tragic
uvder to complain
uvdlier to lament
uvceuzer to sigh
uvteucer to whine
vónùvuser to regret
ébuvader to pity
uvbaner to move
ébuvlacer to have compassion
uvalser to bore
uvuser to chagrin
ùvuser to punish
uvluser to afflict

Ordinal vowel codification of hierarchical nouns

Nouns that are related to one another in a hierarchy or organization can be codified using the ordinal feature of vowels. The o vowel (zero value) is used for the topmost element.


Individual elements can be further subdivided into a secondary classification by the addition of an ordinal vowel to the right of the first vowel:

tuebupper arm
tuóbfinger nail
tóóbtoe nail

A further, tertiary subdivision can be achieved by prefixing an ordinal vowel to the base:

ituúbmiddle finger
utuúbring finger
ótuúblittle finger

A convenient classification is possible by prefixing an ordinal vowel to the base without any primary or secondary enumeration:


Forming concepts by compounding ("portmanteau")

New concepts can be formed by compounding simple words. If the generic (final) consonant of the first word matches the classifier (initial) consonant of the following word or his consonantally homorganic with it, the latter is suppressed for convenience and ease of pronunciation:

concept 1concept 2compound
dom citymep roaddomep boulevard
pat birdtub armpatub wing
teb headbók paintebók headache
tep mindbook fatiguetebook boredom

In cases where two ordinated nouns with the same classifier and generic consonants are combined, the vowels are combined:

concept 1concept 2compound
mil watermal gasmial vapor
mel soilmil watermeil mud

When you wish to form a word composed of words of the same consonantal classification, and the ordinal vowel is o, the o is replaced with the ordinal vowel of the determinant:

concept 1concept 2compound
edob kingdomdeb leaderedeb king
udob principalitydeb leaderudeb prince

Two singleton words often join by replacing the generic (final) consonant of the first word with the generic consonant of the second word, producing a melded concept somewhat like portmanteau words in English ("breakfast" + "lunch" "brunch").

concept 1concept 2compound
tob mannof clothtof clothes
tóáb footnov tissuetóáv sock
teb headnof clothtef hat
tib trunknof cloth)tif vest
tób legnof clothtóf pants
tuób handnof clothtuóf glove
teib nosenov tissueteiv handkerchief

Making nouns and pronouns "feminine"

The "feminine" counterpart of a noun or pronoun is obtained by post-yodifying the ordinal vowel (i.e. adding a y glide):

taf suittàf dress/outfit
tóáv socktóâv stocking
tef pantstèf skirt
néf carrying casenêf purse
it heìt she
tob mantòb woman
apet horseapèt mare
tad husbandtèd wife

Codifying nuances of words

There are several ways of deriving related words with slightly different nuances from the original word:

The l extender is used for a comparatively stronger sense, while the r extender is used for an even stronger (strongest) sense:

ga moregla very muchgra too much
úzbaer squeezeúzbaler pinchúzbarer crush
buer givebuler grantburer bestow
ika fullikla packedikra overflowing
aker winakler vanquishakrer triumph
dier askdiler beseechdirer demand

The post-yodifying y extender is used for what usually amounts to a diminutive connotation:

vager wantvàger wish
fuf pipefùf tube
nas pricenàs cost
tep mindtèp spirit
din storydìn tale
cin imagecìn mark
ciun signciùn signal
sen actionsèn act

Pre-yodification of a root vowel often imparts an intensified sense to the word. In any even, the normal and pre-yodified forms are usually related semantically. Compare:

bok maladybók pain
pan motionpán jump
beer to remainbéer to detain
aper to get onáper to get up
pet animalpét reptile
otata unholyótata diabolical
vua uglyvúa dirty
go less least
ga more most
ze in the middle though
ijer to beginíjer to open

Noun-forming derivational suffixes


Here is a list of suffixes that are added to word bases to form derived nouns:

suffixmeaningbasederived noun
etsubdordinativeted fathertedet son
andeadjectival nominalizer (-itude, -ity, -hood, -ness)iva happyivan happiness
endeverbal nominalizer (-ing, -tion, -ance)azvader to confirmazvaden confirmation
ongeneral abstract nominalizerc- to becon thing
unnominalizer of resultnú- to producenúun product
atperson (-er)óga youngógat youngster
utagent (-ist)ces- to buildcesut builder
tutexpert (-ologist)mem earthmemtut geologist
tunscience (-ology)mil watermiltun hydrology
indoctrine (-ism)tot godtotin theism
arinstrumentp- to gopar vehicle
irmachinevís- to cleanvísir vacuum cleaner
uraparatusmagc- to burnmagcur stove
ambuildingtel- to eattelam restaurant
emspacevab grassvabem prairie
imroommagél- to cookmagélim kitchen
áncollectionnac moneynacán fund
agenetive/ablative case (of/from)at Iata my
udative/locative case (in/at/on/to)tam housetamu at home
ipluralizerdén bookdéni books
agaugmentativetam housetamag palace
àgaugmentative affectivetam housetamàg nice big house
ágaugmentative pejorativetam housetamág big ugly house
ogdiminutivetam housetamog hut
ògdiminutive affectivetam housetamòg cottage
ógdiminutive pejorativetam housetamóg shack
obinfantiletob human beingtobob child


Following is a detailed description of the nominalizing derivations suffixes:

The -et suffix

The -et suffix is used to form nouns of the same nature, lineage, or composition of a lesser importance:

ted fathertedet son
fab treefabet bush
nac moneynacet change
fub branchfubet shoot
táb grandfathertábet grandson

The -an suffix

The -an suffix is used to form a noun of quality or state from an adjective or noun:

ama hotaman heat
iva beautifulivan beauty
fia goodfian goodness
ted fathertedan fatherhood
dat frienddatan friendship
odat enemyodatan enmity

The -at suffix

The -at suffix is used to form the word for a person described by the adjective base.

iktila drunkiktilat a drunkard
iva happyivat a happy person
ofísa hypocriticalofísat hypocrite
tuja deadtujat dead person

The -ut suffix

The -ut suffix is used to form the agent for the action described by the verb base "one who does x" or the fabricator of something described by the noun base "one who makes x":

kobier to stealkobiut thief
tóáfser to make shoestóáfsut shoemaker
teaper to visitteaput visitor
deuzer singdeuzut singer

The -tut suffix

The -tut suffix is used to form the specialist -ologist or student of something:

tun sciencetut scientist
memtun geologymemtut geography
dad languagedadtut linguist

The -ob suffix

The -ob suffix is used to form the child or younger version of something:
tob mantobob child
apet horseapetob pony
rapat lionrapatob lion cub
tot godtotob son of god

The -ar suffix

The -ar, ir, or -ur suffix on a verb base is used for an instrument/tool, machine, or apparatus, respectively.

álber to liftálbur elevator
álber to liftálbar lever
álbir to liftálbir fork lift
víarer to sweepvíarar sweeper
ilújer to plugilújar faucet
kácanerto transformkácanur transformer
drecer to writedrecar pencil

The -en suffix

The -en suffix is used on a verb base for the verbal noun -ing, -ence, -ment, -tion:

ecer to existecen existence
iber to receiveiben reception
béer to detainbéen detention
otamser to demolishotamsen demolition

The -un suffix

The suffix -un is used on a verb base for the concrete result of an action:
vyarer to sweepvyarun sweepings
gorfer to teargorfun a tear, a rip
teacer to seeteacun view
zéfser to make glass jewelryzéfsun glass jewelry

The -án suffix

The suffix -án is used on a noun base for collections or groupings:
fab treefabán forest
cir machinecirán machinery
meb mountainmebán mountain range
tolar food dishtolarán dishes
mep roadmepán network
aco hundredacoán century
dún worddúnán glossary
tam housetamán block (of houses)
màr starmàrán constellation

The -ag suffix

The -ag suffix is used on a noun base for augmentatives "big ...":
tom residencetomag palace
mapil stormmapilag tempest
mep roadmepag highway

The -àg suffix

The suffix -àg is used on a noun base for affectionate augmentatives "big old...":
tam housetamàg big old house
cim chaircimàg big old chair

The -ág suffix

The suffix -ág is used on a noun base for pejorative augmentatives "big ugly...":

apet horseapetág nag
pem carpemág jalopy
teb headtebág blockhead
tob mantobág brute
pot animalpotág beast
tòb womantòbág hag

The -og suffix

The suffix -og is used on a noun base for diminutives "little...":
tam housetamog cottage
dén bookdénog booklet

The -òg suffix

The suffix -òg is used on a noun base for affectionate diminutives "sweet little...":
épet dogépetòg doggie, pooch
tòb ladytòbòg little old lady
tèbos kisstèbosòg peck

The -óg suffix

The suffix -óg on a noun base for pejorative diminutives "dirty little..."
tebzan facetebzanóg mug
tob mantobóg wretched fellow

The -in suffix

The suffix -in is used on a word base for a philosophy or doctrine -ism:
òtota godlessòtotin atheism
adoba republicanadobin republicanism
fob vegetablefobin vegetarianism
ísfrana utilitarianísfranin utilitarianism

Adjective-forming derivational suffixes


-arelating tomoj nightmoja nocturnal
-aapast participletuj- to dietujaa dead (also: tuja)
-eapresent participleabdab- to dominateabdabea dominant
-ènaliketobob childtobobèna childish
-èatending toda- to talkdaèa talkative
-oafuture participletuj- to dietujoa moribund
-wua-able, -ibletel- to eattelwua edible
-àa-ous, -y, -ful, havingmaf cloudmafàa cloudy
-òa-lessmaf cloudmafòa cloudless
-ika-ful, full ofnac moneynacika rich
-uka-less, devoid ofnac moneynacuka poor

Note: -àa/-òa is synonymous with -ika/-uka. The latter is a new addition to Unilingua author Agapoff's original grammar.


The -a suffix

The ending -a is used to mean having to do with, in the state of. This is the most common way to form an adjective from a noun:

tej lifeteja vital
tuj deathtuja mortal, dead
moj nightmoja nocturnal
tob mantoba human
yab upyaba upper

In Agapoff's original work on Unlingua, the termination a was also used to form the past passive participle of verbs (ota = unknown). In this work, the proposed termination for past passive participle is waa or more simply, wa (ex: otwa = unknown). See #Verbs for more on this.

active infinitivepassive past participleexample
ter to knowtwa knownCa twa ad meir ce yaza. It was known that the earth is flat.
fiser to improvefiswa improvedFiswa nyun improved product
ifer to loveifwa loved, beloved, dearIfwa ted... Dear Father...

The -éna suffix

The ending -éna on nouns is used to give the idea of like, having the nature of:

tobob childtobobéna childish, infantile
ted fathertedéna paternal, fatherly
bilíg cheesebilígéna cheesy

The -éa suffix

The ending -éa is used on verb bases to mean tending to:

tuser persuadetuséa persuasive
oceser destroyoceséa destructive
abdaber dominateabdabéa dominating
daer talkdaéa talkative

The -ea suffix

The ending -ea is used on verb bases to form the present participle '-ing, -ant':

tejer livetejea living, alive
tujer dietujea dying
abdaber dominateabdabea dominant

The -wua suffix

The ending -wua is used on verb bases to mean able to be ...ed '-able':

teler eattelwua edible
teacer seeteacwua visible
tiler drinktilwua potable

The -àa suffix

The ending -àa is used on noun bases to mean full of, having, carrying... '-ous, -y'. This comes from , meaning with. It is synonymous with -ika 'full', presented further on.

meg rockmegàa rocky
miek sandmiekàa sandy
meb mountainmebàa mountainous

The -òa suffix

The ending -òa is used on noun bases to mean devoid of, without, un-...ed. This comes from , meaning without. It is synonymous with -uka 'empty', presented further on.

taéb hairtaébòa hairless, bald
tec meaningtecòa meaningless
toc feelingtocòa numb

The -ika suffix

The ending -ika full is used on noun bases to mean full of '-ful, -ous, -y'. This suffix is synonymous with -àa.

ilpaan waveilpaanika wavy
nas moneynasika rich
mil watermilika watery, aqueous
voz colorvozika colorful

The -uka suffix

The ending -uka empty is used on noun bases to mean the devoid of '-less'. This suffix is synonymous with -òa and the opposite of -ika and -àa.

nas moneynasuka poor
voz colorvozuka colorless, bland
teuc tasteteucuka tasteless, insipid
nánut populationnánutuka unpopulated, deserted

Adverb-forming derivational suffixes

The -à suffix

Change the adjectival ending -a to to form an adverb:

yufa proudyufà proudly
teacèa visibleteacèà visibly
uva saduvà sadly

    • Use on noun bases to form an adverbial postpositional phrase mean with...:

ìfcion graceìfcionà with grace
at meatà with me
úf prideúfà with pride

The -ò suffix

Use on a noun to mean without...:

nas costnasò cost-free
seuc noiseseucò noiselessly
et youetò without you

The -è suffix

Use on a noun to mean by, by way of, through, via...:

pam planepamè by plane
ìt herìtè by her
ésag hard workésagè through hard work
Paris ParisParisè via Paris

Verb-forming derivational suffixes


cerintransitive stative verb infinitive ("to be/become")
sertransitive dynamic verb infinitive ("to do/make")
perintransitive verb of motion infinitive ("to go")
bertransitive verb of gesture infinitive ("to put")


The -er suffix

The suffix er is used on noun bases to form a verb infinitive.

tej lifetejer to live
tuj deathtujer to die
túj sleeptújer to sleep
ij beginningijer to begin
íj openingíjer to open
tíj wakeningtíjer to waken
új closingújer to close
tém residencetémer to reside
drén printdréner to print

The -cer and -ser suffixes

The ending -cer be/become is used to create intransitive verbs from nouns and adjectives where the intransitive form contrasts significantly with the transitive form. If the adjective is a base, the -a ending is dropped unless 1) the resulting consonant combination would be difficult; or 2) the meaning is literal as opposed to metaphorical, in which case the dropped -a version is taken as metaphorical. For example, aga big becomes either agacer, meaning literally to become big, or agcer, meaning metaphorically to grow, as in Vab agce ga igà adjobu mamile. The grass grows faster when it rains.

The ending -ser do/make/act/cause is employed to form transitive verbs. In a few cases like teacer/teaser, the opposition of -cer vs. -ser is semantic in nature. In these cases, -ser imparts a more dynamic meaning. In a few other cases, -ser is used to form the causative form of a verb, meaning to make/have/cause/let someone do something.

adjectiveintransitive verbtransitive verb
aga bigagacer to get bigagaser to magnify
aga bigagcer to growagser to grow
ígza sourígzacer to grow sourígzaser to make sour
íva freeívcer to go freeívser to liberate
teab eyeteacer to seeteaser to look
man lightmancer to shinemanser to illuminate
ábta vertical, uprightábtacer to stand upábtaser to erect
ázta incumbant, reclinedáztacer to lie downáztaser to lay down
óbta sitting, settledóbtacer to sit down, settleóbtaser to set down

The -per and -per suffixes

  • The ending -per is used for intransitive verbs of motion (going).
  • The ending -ber is used for transitive verbs of gesture (putting):

baseintransitive verbtransitive verb
áb upáper to riseáber to raise
ón apartónper to go apartónber to separate
ob offoper to get offober to take off
eb ateper to stopeber to stop
ika fullikper to fill upikber to fill up

Forming numbers

Cardinal numeric adjectives

The cardinal numeric adjectives 0-9 are formed from the ordinal vowels. The tens are formed with the extension consonant l, the hundreds with the consonant c, the thousands with r, the millions with ml, and the billions with mr.

Numbers composed with aro (1,000), amlo (1,000,0000), and amro (1,000,000,000) retain the o and are spelled separately from the rest of the numbers with a space.

numbernumeral adjective
0o zero
1a one
2e two
3i three
4u four
5ó five
6á six
7é seven
8í eight
9ú nine
10alo ten
11ala eleven
12ale twelve
13ali thirteen
14alu fourteen
15aló fifteen
20elo twenty
21ela twenty-one
22ele twenty-two
30ilo thirty
31ila thirty-one
100aco one hundred
101aca one hundred one
123aceli one hundred twenty-three
200eco two hundred
1000aro one thousand
1089aro ílú
2348ero iculí
10000aloro ten thousand
12487aleru ílé
1000000amlo one million
6058720ámlo ólíro écelo

Ordinal numeric adjectives

The ordinal numeric adjectives are formed by adding -a to the cardinal number:

a 1aa first
e 2ea second
i 3ia third
alo 10aloa tenth
aci 103acia one hundred third (pron: a-CI-a)

Ordinal numeric substantives

When ordinal numbers are used substantively, the letter t is appended for persons and the letter c for things:

The first shall be last.Aati co ujnati.
The second in the series.Eec anána.

Collective numeric substantives

Collective (or: multiplicative) substantives of the cardinal numbers are formed by adding on.

a oneaon single/whole/unit/solo
e twoeon double/couple/pair/duo/twosome
i threeion triple/trio/threesome
u fouruon quadruple/foursome/quartet
ó fiveóon quintuple
é sevenéon sevenfold
é sevenjubéon week
alo tenalon tenfold
alo tenjabalon decade
ale twelvealeon dozen
aco hundredacon hundredfold
aco hundredaconè percent
aco hundredjabacon century
aro thousandaron thousandfold
aro thousandaroni thousands

Collective numeric prefixes

Prefixes having a collective (or: multiplicative) numeric meaning are expressed as:

a onean- single, mono-, unianzúc unicycle
e twoen- double, bi-, di-, duo-enzúc bicycle
i threein- triple, tri-inzúc tricycle
u fourun- quadruple, quad-, tetra-unkum tetrahedron
ó fiveón- quintuple, penta-óngun pentagon
alo tenalon- tenfold, deca-alonjab decade
aco hundredacon- hundredfold, hecato-, cent-aconjab century
aro thousandaron- thousandfold, kilo-aronkín kiloliter

Fractional numeric substantives

Fractional numeric substantives are formed by adding on to the corresponding fractional numeral. The on is dropped in prefixed forms of the fractions:

a oneàon unit, wholeà- holo-àcin hologram
e twoèon halfè- semi-, demi-ètot demigod
i threeìon thirdì- terci-ìgana terciform
u fourùon quarterù- quatri-ùser to quarter
alo tenalòon tenthalò- deci-alòser to decimate
aco hundredacòon hundredthacò- centi-acònog centrigrade
aro thousandaròon thousandtharò- milli-aròkík milligram

Frequentative numeric adverbs

Adverbs of frequency are formed with the root jig, meaning frequency, rate:

o zeroojigu never
a oneajigu once
e twoejigu twice
i threeijigu thrice, three times
co hundredacojigu a hundred times
od whatodjigu? how often, at what rate?
ge samegejigu at the same rate, as often
ga moregajigu more often
go lessgojigu less often
ud thisudjigu this often
id thatidjigu that often
gla muchglajigu very often
glo littleglojigu infrequently
glà ratherglàjigu rather often

Numeric adjectives of order or rank

nap order, rank

o zeroonapa zeroth
a oneanapa primary, first, original
e twoenapa secondary, second-ranking
i threeinapa tertiary, third-ranking
u fourunapa quaternary, fourth-ranking'
za frontzanapa front-ranking, ahead
zo backzonapa behind, trailing
ja beforejanapa former, foregoing
jo afterjonapa next, following
ij beginningijnapa first, original
uj endujnapa last, final
lo un-lonapa random, unordered

Numeric adjectives of degree

nog degree, grade, stage

a oneanoga primary
e twoenoga secondary
i threeinoga tertiary
u fourunoga quaternary

Numeric adjectives of base or bit

Add -na:

o zeroona zero-basedonet zero, null
a oneana unary, onlyanet unit
e twoena binaryenet bit
i threeina ternary 
u fouruna quaternary 
ú eightúna octalúnet octet, byte
alo tenalona decimal 
alé sixteenaléna hexadecimalalénet 16-bit byte

Numeric prefixes

If cardinal numeric morphemes are used as prefixes, -n is added, unless the base to which it is being attached already begins with that letter:

rootnumeric adjective
kunid edgeenkunida double-edged
nid lineanida single-lined
nag dimensionenaga two-dimenesional
nég spaceenéga double-spaced
tep mindantepa single-minded
neg levelenega split-level
mep wayanmepa one-way
voz coloranvoza monochrome
can formancana uniform
tooc sexentoocifa bisexual
tot godantotina monotheistic
izan directionenizana bidirectional

Numeric Expressions

Distance/size measurements (zák = meter)

(zág is width, ág is length, ag is size, íban is distance, ábag is height, óbag is depth, gán is girth):

zák meterIt ca á záki íb. He was 5 meters away.
arozák kilometerCe eli arozáki bú dom. It is 23 km. to (until) the city.
aroyzák millimeterCizo alo aroyzáka nid. Draw a ten mm. line.
acozák centimeterOdgan acoyzáki ága ce? How many cm. long is it?

Weight measurements (kík = gram)

(kín is weight, kíncer is to weigh):

kík gramOdgan kíki id kínce? How many grams does that weigh?
arokík kilogramAt vage u arokíki vâba. I want five kg. of grain.
aròkík milligramMez kínce e aròkíki. The crystal weighs two milligrams.

Volume measurements (nék = liter)

(néd is volume):

nék literOdganu néki it ébe? How many liters does it hold?
aronék kiloliterAt vage u aronéki vâba. I want five kilos of grain.
arònék milliliterÉzbo e arònéki mila. Insert two ml. of water.

Math expressions

(gaber to add, gober to substract, garer to multiply, gorer to divide, gecer to equal):

A gab a gece e.One plus one equals two.
U gob a gece i.Four minus 1 equals three.
E gar u gece ó.Two times four equals eight.
Alo gor e gece á.Ten divided by two equals five.
E veg e gece u.Two to the second power equals four.
E nod u.Two point five (2.5)
U gab a èon or u a èonà5 1/2

Clock time expressions ( jób = hour)

The international 24-hour clock is used.

Odjób ce?What time is it? (lit: Which hour is [it]?)
Ce a jób.It's one o'clock.
Ce ali jób alá.It's 1:15 PM.
Ce i jób ilo.It's 3:30 AM.
Ce á jób gob alo.It's ten 'til five. (lit: five hours minus ten)

Calendar expressions

Od ce uda jud?What's today's date?'
Udjub ce alá jiub aroúcúli.Today is 16 April 1993.
Ted puo jo i jubi.Father will arrive in two days.
Nunam íjwe yada juebu.The store opens on Mondays.
Nunam íjwo zoa juebu.The store opens on Monday (next).
Zajibu mamila gá ádjoba.Last month it rained the most ever.
Ju zajub!Until tomorrow!
Gla dropeki swa je jabi aroúco.There were many wars during the 1900s.
Zoyejubánu juebu at so ivsej.On monday of next week I will give a party.

Age expressions (jag = age)

Odjaga et ce?How old are you?
At ce ele jaga.I am 22 years old.
At upta úlo jaga tob.I met a 90-year-old man.

Forming chemical element names

To form words for chemical elements, use the following method: The first letter is the ordinal vowel for the number of electrons. The next letters are:

  • m for metals
  • mc for nonmetals
  • al for gases
  • il for liquids

electron count type Mirad English
47metalulém silver
13metalalim aluminum
26metalelám iron
15nonmetalelómc phosphorus
6nonmetalámc carbon
1nonmetal gasamc hydrogen
7nonmetal gasémcal azote
8nonmetal gasímcal oxygen
80metal liquidílomil mercury

Codifyng new words based on mnemonics and analogy

Sometimes a word or group of words can have a connection with the meaning of a derived word. Such words are formed from this derived word by changing the generic final root consonant or sometimes other consonants of this word:

teub mouth< teb head
teud utteranced say
teuz voicez precious/art,etc.
deuz songd speak/write

taéb hairtab human body
faéb leaffab tree
vocaéb petalvoc flower
potaéb manepot animal
pataéb featherpat bird
petaéb furpet land animal
upetaéb fleeceupet sheep
pitaéb finpit fish

taób skin tab human body
taóf leathernof cloth
faób barkfab tree
fáób rindfáb fruit
pitaób scalespit fish
petaób hide, peltpet animal

cim chairbimer to sit
cum bedbumer to lie
cem tablebemer to sit down at the table

teacer to seeceacer to appear
beacer to keep watch
neacer to target
teaper to visit
izeacer to show
váleacer to check
óneater to discern
ágeacer to contemplate
izeader to indicate
abeacer to survey
ijeacer to notice
teader to witness

Forming new words with prefixation

Prefixed elements (sometimes more than one) can be used to form new concepts related to the root word.

Here are examples where morphemes are joined to der to say:

prefixed morphemederived concept
ja beforejader to predict
earlyjáder to warn
ja ve before maybejaveder to guess
jo afterjoder to reply
eg againegder to repeat
oz weakozder to whisper/hint
az strongazder to insist
óz outózder to express
all aroundzíder to broadcast
uj endujder to conclude
ka- findkader to reveal/admit/confess
ko- hidekoder to keep secret/deny
fi wellfider to eulogize/bless
fu poorlyfuder to curse/damn
fia goodfiader to praise
fua badfuader to malign
via beautifulviader to compliment
vua uglyvuader to malign
fri wonderfulfrider to flatter
fru terriblefruder to insult
evfia whether goodevfiader to critique
av foravder to favor
ov againstovder to object/oppose
ava favorableavader to side with
ova opposedovader to contradict
av od for whatavoder to question
va veg yes canvavegder to permit
vo veg no canvovegder to prohibit
vo va no yesvovader to contest
az ov strong againstazovder to protest
va yesvader to affirm/decide
ve maybeveder to speculate
vo novoder to deny
fiva good yesfivader to approve
o fi va not good yesofivader to disapprove
fu va bad yesfuvader to condemn
az va strong yesfivader to confirm
val certaintyvalder to certify
vac assurancevacder to assure
vag wantvagder to mean/express desire
ván truthváder to swear
vón falsehoodvóder to lie
áva innocentávader to vindicate
óva guiltyóvader to indict
áva innocentávder to thank
óva guiltyóvder to blame
íva freeívader to acquit
íva freeívder to forgive
év judgementévder to judge
éb betweenébder to discuss
ók surpriseókder to improvisate
ág longágder to ramble
óg shortógder to summarize
iva happyivader to thank
iva happyivder to congratulate
uva saduvder to complain
uva saduvader to apologize
jo uva after sadjouvder to regret/mourn
ivcan merriment'ivcder to joke
fu iva bad happyfuivader to mock
ók surpriseókder to improvisate
aj pastajder to evoke
oj futureojder to promise
naz valuenazder to evaluate
ók surpriseókder to improvisate
dún namedúnder to nominate
kua lateralkuder to remark (aside)
kia slopedkider to hint
dún namedúnder to nominate
gra too muchgrader to exaggerate
gro too littlegroder to underplay
gan quantitygander to quantify
teab eyeteader to testify
cin picturecinder to describe
kóa fixedkóder to insist
o notoder to keep silent
kebi choicekebider to vote
tata holytatader to bless/sanctify
fún fearfúnder to express fear
vates beliefvatesder to affirm
vetes doubtvetesder to question/doubt
vika admirationvikader to express admiration
fíl couragefílder to encourage
ofíl not courageofílder to discourage
ga moregader to say more/go on
ge equalgeder to agree
oge not sameogeder to disagree
ék riskékder to dare say
ég obligationégder to be obliged to say
ek playekder to pretend
iz straightizder to say frankly
uz crookeduzder to beat around the bushes/equivocate

Forming new adjectival concepts with compounding

New adjectival concepts can be readily formed by compounding a noun or other rootword with an existing root adjective:
tep intellectaza strongtepaza smart
tep intellectoza weaktepoza dumb
vag willaza strongvagaza strong-willed
vag willoza weakvagoza weak-willed
vag willána togethervagána consensual
vag willóna apartvagóna non-consensual
veg possibilityaza strongvegaza likely
veg possibilityoza weakvegoza unlikely
tep intellectkía heavytepkía serious
tep intellectkúa lighttepkúa light-hearted
tep intellectkáa variabletepkáa scatter-brained
tep intellectkóa fixedtepkóa attentive
tep intellectzáa widetepzáa fair-minded
tep intellectzóa narrowtepzóa narrow-minded
tep intellectíja opentepíja open-minded
tep intellectúja closedtepúja close-minded
tep intellectiga fasttepiga quick-witted
tep intellectuga slowtepuga retarded
tep intellectána togethertepána like-minded
tep intellectóna aparttepóna dissenting
top spiritíga hardtopíga cruel
top spiritúga softtopúga leninent
top spiritvaa positivetopvaa optimistic
top spiritvoa negativetopvoa pessimistic
top spiritába hightopába up-beat
top spiritóba lowtopóba down-beat
top spiritiva happytopiva jolly
top spirituva sadtopuva melancholy
nac moneyika fullnasika rich
nac moneyuka emptynasuka poor
áb upága longábága tall
ób downága longóbága deep
áb upóga shortábóga short (vertically)
ób downóga shortóbóga shallow
job timeága longjobága long (duration)
job timeóga shortjobóga short (duration)
mep wayiza straightmepiza direct
mep wayuza crookedmepuza convoluted
váb ruleaza strongvábaza strict
váb ruleoza weakváboza lax
dab governmentava fordabava pro-government
dab governmentova againstdabova anti-government

Word Classifiers

The following are common combinatory morphemes used to distinguish or classify entities. Many of them are abbreviated forms. If you were to produce a list of word rhyming with any of these morphemes, you would have a list of words that all fit within a similar taxonomic category. For example, all Unilingua words ending in pyot refer to wild animals. All those ending in il are liquids.

petland animal
pótwild animal
onabstract thing

Word Families

Doing / making (ser)

ser to do/act seud agent

seem agency
sen action
aasen initiative
seyn act
seun business
seunud businessman
seon fact
seoj case
sej event
sejet incident
seb boss
sem studio
casem factory
jeser continue
ánser to cooperate
gèser to copy
jaser to prepare
zòser to undo
igser to hurry up
ojser to plan
egser to redo
aanser to unify
seser to have (sth) done
sener to activate
senan activity
senen activation

aser to act as action

asud actor
alser to operate
als operation
alsud operator
alsea operational
arser to effectuate

saer to execute saen execution

saud executor
saena executive
saler to accomplish
sal accomplishment

iser to have an effect is effect

ois zero effect
ujis purpose

user to cause us cause

usa causal
ùser to motivate
ùs motive
ùsen motivation
ùsea motivating
ùsena motivational
ulser to influence
uls influence
ulseá influential
us và is cause and effect

eser to function es function

esea functioning
esena functional
esud functionary
esem office

éser to work ésem worksite

éset job
éser to work
ésud worker
éstut engineer
ésán handiwork
éscén process
ésnic salary
ésnicud salaried emploée
ésep strike
ésepud striker
oyés unemployment
oyésud jobless person
oésea lazy
ésjub workday
oésjub holiday
ánés collaboration
ánésa collaborative
ánésud collaborator

sier to result siun result
osiun lack of result
suer to occasion suler to provoke

sul provocation
suleá provocative
sulud provocateur

seer to behave seen behavior

seena behavioral
seler to conduct oneself
séer to busy onself
séler to practice
séner to profess

íser to use ís use

ísud user
írser to exploit
írs exploitation
írseá exploitative
fiíser to put to good use
fuíser to misuse

úser to serve ús service

úsud server
fiúser to benefit
fuúser to serve poorly
úrser to be a slave to
úrs slavery
úrsud slave

Being/becoming (cer)

cer to be cat creature, cyd subject
acer to become 
ocer to be nonexistent ocun nothing, ocuner to annihilate
icer come about, happen ic event, ijicer to originate, ujicer to end up, ujic fate, destiny, fuic misfortune
ucer to make, create, causeucud creator, ucun a creation, ucunán (all of) creation, uceá creative
ecer to existece there is/are, ecea available, ecen existence, oecea nonexistent
àcer to have, own, possessàcun possession, àcud (owner), àca own, utàc property, àser to make available
òcer to lack, needòc gap, òcea lacking, òser to deprive, òcler to need, òcleá necessary
can form, shapecaner to form, canòa shapeless, fucana malformed, canen formation, ózcan aspect, ficaner to reform, kácaner to transform, canáner to compose, áncaner to constitute, candrener to formulate
caun type,kindaacaun prototype, vicaun model, vácaun original, utcaun example, ajcaun precedent
caser to fabricatecasem factory
ceser to buildcesen construction, cesud builder, cesem building site, oceser to destrò, ocesen destruction, oceseá destructive
cun thing (concrete)cunán reality, ocuner to anihilate
acun elementacana elemental, acunéna elementary
con matter (abstract)gícon problem, kocon secret, kacon revelation, kécon case, égcon crisis
cin picturetecin figure, cìn mark, zocìn trace, utcìn character, pencìn track, ciun sign, siunet signal, mancin photograph, mancinar camera
cén fashionutcén genre, secén procedure
cún objectcúnet article, cúfi effects

Putting (ber)

  ber to put  
  bler to carry brer to haul
aber to put on eber to stop ober to take off
áber to raise éber to contain óber to lower
baer to lean on beer to hold boer to hold up
barer to press (down on) beler to keep boler to support (from below)
báer to lift béer to block bóer to hang
báler to rouse béler to hold back, retain/conserve bóler to suspend
álber to elevate élber to hold steady ólber to lower
  ézber to insert ózber to extract
  ézbler to carry in ózbler to carry out
obaer to relieve obeer to release, let go oboer to drop
obaler to relax obeler to abandon oboler to shirk
  obéer to yield  
    obóer to depend
úzbaer to squeeze úzbeer to embrace úzboer to smash
úzbaler to pinch    
obéer to release
iber to receive   uber to send
bier to take   buer to give
íber to take away   úber to bring near
zíber to diffuse zeyber to transpose  
zíbler to carry around zèbler to carry across, transport  
biner to pull bener to hold buner to push
ézbiner to draw in ézbener to hold in ézbuner to push in
úbiner to attract úbener to hold near íbuner to repel
ózbiner to extract ózbener to hold out ózbuner to expel
ábiner to pull up ábener to hold high ábuner to push up
ónbiner to yank apart ónbener to hold apart ónbuner to shove apart
ánbiner to attract ánbener to adhere ánbuner to combine
vabier to accept   vabuer to volunteer;
zébirer to yank through   zéburer to stab (shove through)
kebier to choose   kebuer to disperse
vobier to refuse   vobuer to deny
embier to occupy   embuer to give way
gorcbier to take part   gorcbuer to give out shares
pitbier to fish    
jobier to borrow   jobuer to lend
émbier to replace   émbuer to resign
ánabier to collect   ónabuer to scatter
    buér to remit
    buler to accord
    bùler to attribute
    bùrer to concede
zòbier to take back   zòbuer to give back
ifbier to welcome   ifbuer to offer
    vegbuer to delegate
    ifbuler to consacrate
    ifbùler to dedicate
    ifburer to sacrifice
nucbier to bù   nicbuer to sell
nacbiler to expend   nacbuler to allocate
    ifburer to sacrifice
    bluér to confer
    zíbuer to distribute
obier to relinquish   obuer to deprive
bin receipts   bun donation
    ivbun gift
baner to gesticulate   boner be calm
baaner to shake   booner to be still
banler to shake  
bànler to shudder    
baneter to rock baaneter to vibrate  
abaner to caress    
albaner to wipe    
ovbaner to resist    
    bos quiet
    obos trouble
    bòs quiet
    obòs worry
    óbos care
    óbós anxiety
  bén manner
    búer to reach (out to)
    búner to touch
    brúner to contact
  bemer to maintain  

Going (per)

  per to go  
aper to get on eper to stop oper to get off
paer to stand peer to stay poer to hang
áper to get up éper to intervene óper to get down
álper to rise/ascend élper to block ólper to sink'/descend'
âlper to climb up ôlper to bow
árper to soar   órper to tumble
áprer to scamper up ... ... óprer to collapse
páer to jump péer to stand still póer to drop
páner to leap péner to seize póner to dive
párer to shoot up pénuer to attack pórer to plummit
iper go (away)   uper to come
emiper to emigrate   emuper to immigrate
igiper to flee igeper to stop suddenly iguper to rush (toward)
jauper to come before, precede   jouper to come after, succeed
aíper to off with/take along   aúper to come along with/bring along
    zoâuper to pick up (and bring back)
zoíper to go back   zoúper to return (come back)
íper to go away   úper to approach
ílper to escape   úlper to come home
íbemper to go in exile ... ... ... ...
pier to depart   puer to arrive
jopier to get a headstart   jopuer to arrive ahead of/beat
igpier to flee    
piler to quit    
cper to carry    
ézcper to import zècper to transport ózcper to export
zòciper to take back zícper to propagate zòcuper to bring back
zàper to advance zèper to cross zòper to retreat
ánper to go together   ónper to separate
izper to head (straight)   uzper to veer, turn
zíper to tour   zúper to rotate
japer to precede jeper to go along joper to follow
zaper to go in front zeper to go in the middle zoper to go in back
ézper to enter zéper to go through ózper to exit
igper to run zoigper to chase after ugper to amble
ízper to pass up uzper to curve úzper to go around
kiper to limp képer to stagger kuper to avoid, sidestep
egézper to reinter azézper to invade egózper to reemerge
ifper to stroll ifpoper to tour ifpiper to cruise
  zéper to penetrate  
poper to travel képoper to shuttle back and forth zípoper to travel around
papier to take off (flying) paper to fly papuer to land
pepier to ride off peper to ride pepuer to park
pipier to set sail piper to sail pipuer to dock
tôaper to walk, step tuáper to crawl tôuper to tiptoe
pan motion pen seizure pon rest
paz dance    
paner to move pener to seize poner to rest
pazer to dance    
opaner to freeze opener to release oponer to stir
paaner to shake peener to catch pooner to stay
apaner to massage paaneter to vibrate  
alpaner to rub    
ópaner to reverse    
kipaner to stumble   kupaner to slide
ónpaner to break    
papaner to soar pepaner to skate pipaner to swim
ovpaner to block    
paneter to balance    
puner to throw punrer to hurl pùner to launch
púner to bump into    
prúner to crash into    
apéner to hit apéneter to batter  
apêner to tap    
apénler to beat    
ópéner to knock down    
ónpéner to break    
ónpêner to crack    
ónpléner to smash    
ónpléner to burst    
ónpréner to explode    
pénuer to attack ovpénuer to counter-attack opénuer to defend
páner to leap (up) péner to lunge póner to dive
ézpáner to jump in zépáner to jump through ózpáner to jump out
zàpáner to leap forward zèpáner to leap across zòpáner to leap backward
pénarer to whip páneter to skip peneter to step
  pòn respite pos peace

Saying/talking (der, daer)

dier to ask der to say duer to propose
updier to invite ebdier to discuss  
dider to question doder to be silent duder to answer
vader to affirm veder to quibble voder to deny
váder to swear   vóder to lie
ávder to excuse évder to judge óvder to accuse
fivader to approve   fuvader to condemn
fider to praise   fuder to curse
avder to advocate   ovder to oppose
frider to glorify   fruder to blaspheme
  fúder to offend
  flúder to insult
  frúder to outrage
  ufúder to threaten
  fuébder to dispute
azder to shout egder to repeat ozder to whisper
jader to predict jeder to narrate joder to recount
ivder to thank   uvder to complain
ijder to introduce   ujder to conclude
fiader to recommend   fuader to criticize
ajder to evoke   ojder to promise
tider to understand   tuder to explain
ágder to elaborate   ógder to summarize
diler to beseech deler to announce duler to submit
direr to require dèler to declare  
daer to speak
ágdaer to ramble
ébdaer to conversefuébdaer to quarrel
dad languagedaun speechdod silence
din historydìn storydiin recitation
dún namezadún first nameabdún last name
dun worddlun phrasedrun sentence

Writing/reading (drer, déder)

drer to writevédrer to correspond, dúndrer to sign, abdrer to inscribe, gèdrer to copy, ézdrer to register, zèdrer to transcribe, tuúdrer to type, tuúdra typewritten, tuúdrud typist, cindrer to draw, drecìn letter (of the alphabet), dresìna literal, drecìnán alphabet, drecìnána alphabetical drecìnánser to alphabetize, dra written, odra unwritten
droer to erasedroun erasure, droar eraser
dren script, dreud writer, drenet article, drenetán series of articles, ébdren letter, ébdrenán mail, tuádren manuscript, jadren preface, jodren postscript, dedren prose, candren formula, vádren spelling, védren correspondence, vidrenán literature (belles lettres), drenán scripture, dreden report, cunándren program
drèn textdrèna textual, óbdrèn subtext, zúdrèn context, zúdrèna contextual
déder to readdédud reader, dédudán readership, zídéder to scan, déd lecture, dédim lecture hall, dédar scanner
dén bookdénám book collection, dénánam library, dénunam bookstore, déngorc chapter, dénifud bookworm, dénabkum bookcover, dénembelar bookmark, déndúnán bibliography, dénet booklet, dindén storybook, novel, tiundén textbook
dreun document, filedreunán dossier, documentation, dreuner to document, file


drec notedrecer to note, dodrec bulletin
drecin drawing, designdreciner to draw, drecinud designer, drecinam design studio
drez poemdrezán poetry, drezet verse, drezut poet, drezéna poetic
dreván grammardrevána grammatical, drevánut grammarian
dréner to printdrén print, drénar printer, drénam printshop, jubdrén newspaper, jubdrénán the press, jubdrénud journalist, jobdrén magazine, cindrén illustration, zídrén poster, zídrénet prospectus, drénet ticket, ózdréner to publish, ózdrénam publishing house, dréncìn type, character (of a font), dréncìnán font, dréncìnánam foundry
drar pendrear pencil, dril ink
dof cardboard 
daf cardmircindaf map, ekdaf playing card, ébdrendaf postcard, dafán stack of cards
def paperdefán stationery, defánam stationery shop, defet scrap of paper, defcasam paper mill
dáf notebookdáfet book (of tickets, etc.), agdáf register
dúf sheet (of paper)dúfbuar sheetfeeder
dúv pagedúván ream of paper, mirmepán dúv web page, zàdúvper to page forward

Society (dot)

dot societydota societal, dotcer to socialize (intr.)
dotin socialism, dotinat socialist
odota savage, barbaric, odotan savagery, barbarism, odotat savage, barbarian
dotús social welfare
dotvàcan social security
dotbén custom, more (n.)
dotbéna customary

ajdotbén tradition
ajdotbéna traditional
dotcén civilization, dotcéner to civilize

dat frienddata friendly, datcer to befriend, datan friendship
dàt girlfriend
daat buddy, daater to buddy around, daatan buddyship
ifdat sweetheart, ifdatan romance, ifdata romantic
odat enemy, odata inimical, ovdata hostile, ovdatan hostility
datibut host, dàtibut hostess, datibéa hospitable, datibéan hospitality
datupud guest, visitor, datupudim guestroom, datupudem reception area, datuper to be a guest, to visit, datup' visit
det comrade, companion, associatedetan comraderie, association, detcer to associate
àdet companion, àdetan company
dit citizendita civil, ditan citizenship, ditán citizenry
ditbén civility
doita civic
dut sir, Mr.dùt madam, Mrs., dután messieurs
dutet master, lad
dùtet miss, mademoiselle, young lady
duut sire
ditús civil service
dout bourgeoisdouta bourgeois (adj.), doutan bourgeoisie, doután bourgeoisie (coll.)
aut personauta personal
autbén personality
agaut personnage, v.i.p.
aután group, autána collective
autgran crowd, autgrana crowded, autgrancer to form a crowd
aut individualauta individual, autan individuality
anuta private, anutan privacy
aután group
áud communeáuda communal, áudan community, áudana comunity-related
áudin communism, áudinat communist
áut collectiveáuta collective
áutan collectivity
áutser to collectivize, áutin collectivism, áutinat collectivist
át everyoneáta everyone's
tán peopletána popular, tánikcer to populate, tánikca populated, tánika populous, tánukser todepopulate, also: tánòser to depopulate, tánuka unpopulated, deserted
táncág population, táncágtut demographics
tân populace
tánin populism, táninat populist
tánifa popular, tánifan popularity, tánifser to popularize, otánifa unpopular
tánbén custom, tánbéna customary

State (dob)

realmchieffemale counterpart
dob statedeb leader 
adob empireadeb emperoradèb empress
edob kingdomedeb king, monorachedèb queen
idob principalityideb princeidèb princess
udob marquisateideb marquisidèb marquise
ódob earldomódeb countódèb countess
ádob baronyádeb baronádèb baroness
édob duchyédeb dukeédèb duchess
ídob domainídeb lordídèb lordess
údob tribeúdeb tribal chief 
tándob republictándeb president (of the republic) 

Government (dab)

dab governmentdaber to govern
dabdren ordnance
daba government
dabzem government center, capital
andab autocracy
nacdab plutocracy
abdaber to dominate, abdabin imperialism, dabovper to revolt, dabovpen revolution
dabtun politics, dabtut politician, dabtuna political
daab administrationdaaber to administer
daaba administrative
deb chief, leaderdeber to lead, command
andeb dictator, autocrat
deban leadership
debán leadership (coll.)
debveg authority, debvegdren authorization
debòser to depose
debovper to rebel, debovpud rebel, debovpen rebellion, vodebder to prohibit, vodebden prohibition, debden order
doob nationdooba national
dooban nationality
doof flag, doobdeuz national anthem
dub ministerduba ministerial, dubam ministry
ózdub ambassador, ózdubam embassy
ózdubet consul, ózdubetam consulate
dek combatdeker to combat
dekpan fight, dekpaner to fight, dekpanud fighter
dopek battle, dopekem battlefield
dropek war, dropeker to wage war, dropekud warrior, dropekéna bellicose
damem metropolisdamema metropolitan
obdamam colony, obdamemser to colonize, obdamemsud colonialist
domem territorydomeam province/state, domeameb governor
domeem department (eg. of France), domeemeb prefect
domeim canton
domeum commune
dom citydoma urban, domaser to urbanize
dombén polity
úzdom suburb, domag metropolis
debdom capital, midom port, domgon district, domgob quarter, domeb mayor, domam mayor's office, domab municipality, domaba municipal
dòm town
doam borough
doem village
doim hamlet
domcin cityscape
domep boulevarddomèp avenue
domeap street
domeep lane
mepet alley
gacmep intersection
omep impasse, cul-de-sac, deadend
ábmep highway
igmep expressway
abzèmep bridge, overpass
obzèmep underpass
zémep tunnel
ízmep bypass, detour
úzmep beltway
ébdoma mep interstate highway (lit: intercity road)
domém squaredomzúm circle

Knowing (ter)

tier to study
tiud student
titam school
atitam elementary school
etitam high school
ititam college
tin doctrine, -ism
ter to know
oter to ignore
keter to be curious
jàter to guess
egter to recognize
vater to believe
veter to wonder
voter to doubt
ten knowledge, information
tuer to teach
tuud teacher
tutam institute
tutamán university
tut expert, scholar, scientist
tun science, -ology
ticer to learn
ticun lesson
tecer to perceive, sense
tecun data
tucer to instruct
tucun instruction
tiser to agreeteser to think
tújteser to dream
ijtes idea
jotes afterthought
tuser to convince
akteser to remember okteser to forget
vateser to assumeveteser to supposevoteser to discount
váteser to believevéteser to wonder, weighvóteser to doubt
ánteser to agree ónteser to disagree
avteser to favorevteser to quibbleovteser to oppose
fiteser to thank futeser to regret
jàteser to plan jòteser to reflect
kateser to recallketeser to search one's memorykoteser to forget (deliberately)
keter to be interestedketen curiosity, ketea curious, ketenàa interesting, ketenukser to interest, oketer to be uninterested
 tújteser to dream 
tep mindtepa mentaltepén attitude,aztepa intelligent, vátepa wise, tepbén method, tepbéna methodical, otepa imbecile
tèp spirittèpa spiritualagtep genie
tez cultureteza culturalóbtez subculture, tezser to cultivate
tén industryténa industrialjoténa post-industrial,téntun technique, téntuna technical
tun sciencetuna scientifictut scholar
tin doctrinetina doctrinaltinéna doctrinaire
tún ideatúna idealtúncer conceive of, túnca conceptual, túnán ideology, túnánud ideolog
tekóer to pay attentiontekóa attentiveotekóa inattentive

Family (tod)

tod familytoda familial
tòd home, tòda domestic
todana familiar
tad spouse, husbandtàd wife
tadán household
tadcer to get married, tadca married, tadcen marriage, tada marital
otadca unmarried, otadcat bachelor
tadòcat widower, tadòcàt widower, tadóncer
to divorce, tadóncat divorcee, tadónc divorce
tadán husband and wife team, jatad fiance, jatàd fiancee
tadceat groom, tàdceat bride, tàdceata bridal
tadet brother, tadeta fraternal, tadetan fraternity, tadetán fraternity (group), tàdetán sorority
tàdet sister
taodet brother-in-law
taódet sister-in-law
ted parent, fatherteda parental, paternal
tèd mother, tèda maternal
tedòa orphaned, tedòat orphan, tedòan orphanhood, tedòcer to be orphaned, tedòatam orphanage
tedet son, tedeta filial
tèdet daughter
teodet son-in-law
teódet daughter-in-law
tid uncletidéna avuncular
tìd aunt
tidet cousin
tìdet cousin (female)
tud brother-in-lawtùd sister-in-law
tudet nephew
tùdet niece
tód father-in-lawtôd mother-in-law
tódet son-in-law
tôdet daughter-in-law
tád grandparent, grandfathertádéna grandfatherly
tâd grandmother, tâdéna grandmotherly
tádet grandson
tâdet granddaughter
tádán grandparents
tádetán grandchildren
téd relativetéda related, tédan kinship
tédcer to be related, tédán kin(folks), otéda unrelated
tíd god-parent, god-fathertídet godson
tîdet goddaughter
ajted ancestorajteda ancestral, ajtedán ancestry
jat ascendant 
jot descendantjòtan descendance

Human being (tob)

tob human being
tab body
. taab lymph
.. taaba lymphatic
.. taabocet lymph gland
. taeb muscle
.. taeba muscular
. taib bone
.. taibán skeleton
... taibána skeletal
.. taibàa bony
.. taibcer ossify
... taibcen ossification
.. taibòa boneless
... taibòser to debone
. taob flesh
.. taoba carnal
... egtaobcen reincarnation
.. taobàa fleshy
.. taobtelea flesh-eating
.. potaob meat
... potaobtelea carnivorous
. taub cartilege
.. tauba cartilagenous
. taób skin
.. taóbil sweat
... taóbiler to sweat
... taóbilàa sweaty
.. petaób hide
.. taóf leather
... taófud leatherer
... taóféna leathery
. tàab fat
.. tàaba fat-related
.. tàabòa fat-free
.. tàabél lard
.. tàabil oil
... tàbiler to oil
... tàabilém oilcan
... tàabilàa oily
.. tàabàa fatty
. taéb hair
.. tàabàa hairy
.. taébòa bald
... taébòcer to go bald
... taébòat bald person
... taébòan baldness
... taébòser to depilate
.. taêb fuzz
... taêbàa fuzzy
.. pataéb feather
... pataébán plumage
.. petaéb mane
.. pitaéb scales
... pitaébàa scaly
.. taéf wig
. taíb nerve
.. taíba nervous
.. taíbaanea nerve-rattling
.. taíbzem nerve-center
. tap physique
.. tapa physical
.. íztapa metaphysical
.. taptun physiology
.. taptut physiologist
. taf suit [of clothes]
.. tàf dress
teb head
. tebném cranium
.. tebnéma cranial
. teboc brain
.. teboca cerebral
. ábteb forehead
. óbteb chin
. obteb neck
.. obteba cervical
.. zaobteb throat
.. zoobteb nape
. tebzan face
.. tebzana facial
.. tebzanábs face-lift
.. tebzanòa faceless
. teab eye
.. teaba ocular
.. teabéb eyebrow
.. teabil tear
... teabiler to weep
.. teabéb eyebrow
.. fateab eyelid
... fateabéb eyelash
.. zeteab pupil
.. anteaba one-eyed
.. teac sight
... teacer to see
... oteaca blind
.... oteacan blindness
.... oteacat blind person
.... oteacacer go blind
.... oteacaser to blind
... teacoker gain one's sight
... teacoker lose one's sight
... teacar eye glasses
.. teas look
... teaser to look
.... igteaser to glance
.... ágteaser to stare
.... uzteaser to look askance
.... izteaser to look directly in the eye
.. teabzúen eyeball
.. teaczéc eye socket
. teeb ear
.. teeba aural
.. fozteeb ear lobe
.. teec hearing
... teecer to hear
... teeca auditory
... teecier to listen
.... teeciud listener
..... teeciudán audience
.... teecien audition
.... teeciar listening device
... oteeca deaf
.... oteecser to deafen
..... oteecseá deafening
.... oteecat deaf person
.... oteecan deafness
... teecar hearing aid
.. ózteeb outer ear
. teib nose
.. teiba nasal
.. teibil snot
... teibila mucous
.. teiv handkerchief
.. ózteiber to sneeze
.. teic smell
... teicer to smell
... teica olfactory
... treic odor
.... treicàa odorous
... fiteic fragrance
... futeic stink
... teiz perfume
... teicier to sniff
.. teiceucer to snore
.. teibzéc nostril
. teob cheek
.. zeteob cheekbone
.. teobéb beard
... teobébàa bearded
... teobébòa beardless
. teub mouth
.. teuba oral
.. teubil saliva
... teubiler to salivate
.. ózteuber to spit
.. teubíjer to yawn
.. ézteuber to swallow
.. teubob lip
... teuboz smile
... teuboc kiss
... teuboba labial
.. teud shout
... teuder to scream
.. teuc taste
... teucer to taste
... fiteuca delicious
... futeuca nasty-tasting
.. teumib palate
... teumiba palatal
.. teubéb mustache
... teubébàa mustachioed
.. teubab tongue
... teubaba lingual
... teubaber to lick
... éztèbaber to suck
.. teubeb gum
.. teubib jaw
... teubiser to chew
.. teupib tooth
... teupiba dental
... teupibut dentist
.... teupibutam dentist's office
... teupicer to bite
.... teupicoger to nibble
... oteupiba toothless
... teupibán denture
. tef hat
.. tefet cap
.. tefud haberdasher
.. tefam haberdashery
. tep mind
.. tepa mental
.. tepcan sentiment
.. tepcana sentimental
. tes thought
.. teser to think
... ágteser to ponder
.. tesa cognitive
.. tesen cognition
.. teseá conceivable
.. oteseá inconceivable
.. tesoker to forget
... otesokeá unforgetable
.. tesaker to remember
. ter to know
.. oter to ignore
.. ota unknown
.. otea unaware
.. tuer to teach
... tuna scientific
... tut scientist
... tuen teaching
.... tuena didactic
... tuut teacher
.... tuután academe
... tun science
... tuun lesson
.. tier to learn
.. titam school
.. atitam grade school
.. etitam high school
.. ititam college
... tiud student
... tiudán student body
... tiun study
.... tiuna scholastic
.... tiunán studies, scholastics</i
... tin doctrine
.... tina doctrinal
.. tez culture
... teza cultural
.. ten knowledge
... tena awareness-related
.. teá known
.. tea aware
... tean awareness
. trer to recognize
.. tren cognizance
.. treá recognizable
.. trea cognizant
.. éztrer be conscious
.. éztren conscience
.. éztrea conscious
.. oéztrea unconscious
.. otra incognito
.. otrea incognizant
. tec perception
.. tecer to perceive
.. teceá perceptible
.. tecpan emotion
.. tecpana emotional
.. tecpanea emotive
.. tecpanean emotivity
.. tecpaneá excitable
.. tecpaner to emote
tib trunk
. zetib waist
.. tetibgan waist size
. zotib back
.. zotiba dorsal
.. zotibók back pain
. tiab chest
.. tilab breast
... tilabil, bil milk
.... tilabiler to lactate
.... tilabila lactic
.... tilabilbier to milk
.... tilabilbuer to give milk
.... tilabiléna milky
. tieb lung
.. tieba pulmonary
.. tieser to breathe
.. éztieser to inhale
.. óztieser to exhale
.. tiebok pneumonia
... tieboser to cough
. tiib heart
.. tiiba cardiac
.. tiibil blood
... tiibiler to bleed
... tiibilàa bloody
... tiibiloker to lose blood
... tiibilotila blood-thirsty
... tiibila sanguinary
... tiibilánam bloodbank
.. tiibuf artery
... tiibufa arterial
... tiibufog arteriole
... zòtiibuf vein
.... zòtiibufa venal
. tiub belly
.. tiuba ventral
.. tiùb abdomen
... tiùba abdominal
.. zetiub navel
.. zotiub buttock
. tiób kidney
.. tióba renal
.. tióbok kidney disease
.. tióbil urine
... tióbiler to urinate
... tióbilem urinal
... tióbila urinary
. tiáb penis
.. tiába penile
.. tìáb vagina
... tìába vaginal
.. ébtiába sexual
.. tiábcan phallus
... tiábcana phallic
.. tiábòser to castrate
.. tiábòcat castrato
.. tiáv condom
. tikob esophagus
.. tikoba esophageal
. tikab stomach
.. tikaba gastric
. tikeb liver
.. tikeba hepatic
.. tikebok hepatitis
.. tikebil bile
. tikib pancreas
.. tikiba pancreatic
. tikub instestine
.. tikuba instestinal
.. tikubil feces
... tikubila fecal
... tikubiler to defecate
.. tikubuj anus
... tikubuja anal
... tikubujbok proctitis
tub arm
. tuba brachial
. tuab shoulder
. tueb upper arm
. tuib elbow
.. tuiber to elbow
. tuub forearm
. tuób wrist
. tuáb hand
.. tuába manual
.. tuácer to handle
.. tuábier to grasp
.. tuábuer to lend a hand
.. tuúpúner to slap
.. ébtuáber to clasp/shake hands
.. tuápaner to clap/applaud
.. tuálpaner to massage/knead
.. tuásiner to sign
.. tuádotsiner to wave [hello/goodbye]
.. tuáf glove
... tuáfém glove compartment
... tuáfud glover
. tuéb fist
.. tuépaner to pound
. tuúb finger
.. tuúba digital
.. atuúb thumb
.. etuúb index
... etuúber to point
.. ituúb middle finger
.. utuúb ring finger
.. ótuúb little finger
.. tuúcer to feel
... tuúca tactile
... tuúceá palpable
.. tuúpaner to tap
.. tuúdrer to type
... tuúdrar typewriter, keyboard
.. tuúbuj finger tip
. tulob fingernail
.. tulocer to scratch
.. tulop claw
... tuloper to claw
. tuúb palm
.. tuúpaner to slap
. tulib knuckle
.. tulipaner to knock
tób leg
. tóab hip
.. tóaper to sit
. tóeb thigh
. tóib knee
.. tóiper to kneel
. tóub shin
. tôab foot
.. tôabektun podiatry
.. tôabektut podiatrist
.. tôaper to walk
... tôapud pedestrian
... tôapem sidewalk
... tôapar walker
... igtôaper to run
... igtôapem racetrack
.. tôapúner to kick
.. tôapaner to stomp
.. tôabar pedal
.. tôaf shoe
... tôafser to cobble
.... tôafsud shoemaker
.... tôafsam shoemaker's shop
.... tôafber to shoe
.... tôafba shod
... apetôaf horseshoe
... tôafmacil shoe polish
... tôafnífet shoelace
... tôafodet shoetack
. tôeb heel
.. tôepaner to supplant
. tôib sole
. tôub toe
.. tôuper to tiptoe
. tólob toenail
toba human
. tobaser to humanize
. otobaser to dehumanize
. toban humanity
. tobin humanism
.. tobina humanistic
.. tobinat humanist
. iftoba humanitarian
.. iftoban humanitarianism
tobán mankind
tobéna human
toob male
. tooba masculine
.. otoobaser to emasculate
.. tooban masculinity
. toòba feminine
.. toòban femininity
tooc sex
. tooca sexual
. toocan sexuality
. otooca asexual
. entooca bisexual
. hátooca pansexual
. getooca homosexual
.. getoocan homosexuality
.. getoocat homosexual [person]
tos instinct
. tosa instinctual
. toséna instintive
top soul
. toptun psychology
. toptuna psychological
. toptut psychologist
. topéna animate
.. topénaser to animate
.. topénasen animation
.. otopéna inanimate
. topòa soulless
tòb woman
. tòba female
.. eóntòba effeminate, quasi-female
. tòbéna feminine
.. otobéna unwomanly
. tòbet girl
.. tòbeténa girlish
.. tòbetan girlhood
. tòbán womankind
tobob child
. toboba infantile
.. toboban infancy
. tobéna childish
. tobobòa childless
. tobobikam child care center
tobet boy
. tobeténa boyish
. tobetan boyhood
tobog kid, midget
. tobòg kiddie
tobóg brat
tobag giant
. tobagéna gigantic
tobág monster
. tobágéna monstrous
toc sense
. toca sensorial
. tocan sensation
. tocer to sense
. toceá sensible
. tocea sensitive
boc organ
. boca organic
. bocán organism
. bocet gland
.. boceta glandular

Bodily functions (tab...er)

body partbody function
tab bodyóbtaber to bow, stoop
áztaber to prostrate oneself
ábtaber to stand erect
teb headóbteber to duck
tebciner to nod
tep mindter to know, etc. [see Mental Activities]
teab eyeteacer to see
teaser to look
teabiler to weep
zóteaber to squint
ágteaser to stare
igteaser to glance
to glimpse
to wink
teabigíjer to blink
taéb hairtaébòcer to bald
taób skintaóbiler to sweat
taóboker to shed
taíb nervetaíser irritate
iftaíser to tickle
taícer to itch
teeb earteecer hear
teeser listen
teib noseteicer to smell
teiser to sniff
teiseucer to snore
teibiler to run at the nose
teibilpuner to sneeze
teibukser to blow the nose
teub mouthteubiler to salivate
teubilpuner to spit
ézteuber swallow
teubíjer to yawn
teuder to shout
teubob lipteubocer to kiss
éztèbober to suck
teubozer to smile
teucozer to laugh
teubab tongueteubaber to lick
teucer to taste
teubib jawteubiser to chew
teipid toothteupicer to bite
tilab breasttilabiler to lactate
tikab stomachtikabilpuner to vomit
tieb lungtieser to breath
éztieser to inhale
óztieser to exhale
tiebil phlegm
tiebukser to cough
tiib hearttiibiler to bleed
tiób kidneytióbiler to urinate
tuab shouldertuaber to shoulder
tuib elbowtuiber to elbow
tuáb handtuábier to grab
tuábuer to hand
tuáser to manipulate
ébtuáber to shake hands
tuáciner to wave
tuápéner to slap
tuápéneter to pat
tuálpaner to massage
tuúb fingertuúcer to feel
tuúpéneter to tap
tuúdrer to type
iztuúber to point
ivtuúcer to tickle
tuúbginer to poke
tuúser to strum, fiddle
tôab foottôapéner to kick
tôaper to walk
igtôaper to run
kitôaper to hobble
tôob kneetôocer to kneel
tôoper to crawl
tôeb heeltôepéner to stomp
tôub toetôuper to tiptoe
tulob nailtuloser to scratch

Bodily fluids and other liquids (tab...il)

tab bodytabil humor
teab eyeteabil tear
teib noseteibil mucus, snot
tilab breastbil milk (tila dropped)
teub mouthteubil saliva, spit
tiib hearttiibil blood
tiób kidneytióbil urine, piss
tikeb livertikebil bile
tikub intestinetikubil feces, shit
taób skintaóbil perspiration, sweat
tieb lungtiebil phlegm, sputum
tobij seedtobijil semen
mam skymamil rain
vafáb grapevafil wine (vafáb shortened to vaf)
voz colorvozil paint
dr- writedril ink
mag firemagil petroleum
mag firemaagil fuel
mag firemaegil gasoline
mag firemaigil kerosene
meg rockmegil cement
magmeb volcanomagmebil lava (fire mountain liquid)
án togetheránil glue
mel groundmeil mud
tel foodtelil soup
ovob cerealovobil meal, porridge
bil milkbiel cream
fáb fruitfábil juice
afáb appleafábil apple juice
ufáb pruneufábil prune juice
lafáb orangelafábil orange juice
afáb appleafil cider (afáb shortened to af)
kafáb olivekafábél olive oil
vol vegetablevolél vegetable oil
levol beetlevolil beet juice
fab treefabil sap
ávob hopávil beer (ábov shortened to áv)
levaf ...levafil liqueur
level sugarlevil syrup (el < tel food, il < til drink)
tul platetulil sauce
m- naturemil water
mil watermiil liquid
óm iceómil dew
óm iceómbiil ice cream
t- human/animaltil drink
bek treatmentbekil medicine
bok illnessbokil poison
cafaéb tea leafcafaél tea (-b organism to -l liquid)
cefáb coffee beancefál coffee
 él oil
 fél wax
apelat beeapelatel honey (-el food)
apelat beeapelatél wax (-él oil)
c metaloidcil acid
ílom 80-electron metalloidílomil mercury
mam skymal air (mam shortened to ma)
mal airmeal gas
mal airmial vapor
amc 1-electron metalloidamcal hydrogen (-al gas)
ímc 8-electron metalloidímcal oxygen
émc 7-electron metalloidémcal azote

Health (bak)

bak health
baka healthy
baker to be healthy
bakcer to heal
bakser to cure
baktun hygiene
baktut hygienist
bakam sanatorium
bakat healthy person
baktel health food
baktelam health food place
baak sanitation
baaka sanitary
obaaka unsanitary
baakser to sanitize
tabak physical health
tebak mental health
bàk safety
bàka safe
bàker to save
bàkser to make safe
bàksud savior
obàk danger, peril
obàka unsafe, dangerous
obàkser to endanger
bek treatment, remedy, cure
beka clinical
beker to treat
bekcer to heal [intr.]
bekser to heal [tr.]
bekler to cure, to remedy
beklacer to be cured
bektun medecine (practice of)
bektut doctor
bekam clinic, hospital, care facility
bekim hospital room
bekat patient
bekut care-giver, nurse
bekil medecine, drug
bekel pill
bekila medicinal
bekilam pharmacy
bekiler to medicate
tebektun psychiatry
tebektut psychiatrist
bekleá curable
obekleá incurable
obekeá untreatable
fubek mistreatment, abuse
fubeker to mistreat, to abuse
bok illness
boka sick
boker to be sick
bokcer to fall ill
bokser to sicken
boktun pathology
boktut pathologist
boktuna pathological
bokus pathogen
bokam hospital
bokamber to hospitalize
bokat patient
book fatigue
booka tired
bookcer to grow tired
bookser to tire
bookseá tiresome
bokil poison
bokiler to poison
bokiléna poisonous
obokilam detox facility
ombok cold
teibok influenza, flu
vúrbok infection
ambok inflammation
tebok mental illness
teboka mentally ill
tebokam insane asylum
tebokat mentally ill person
tebook boredom
tebooker to bore
tebookcer to grow bored
tebookca bored
oboker to cure, to heal, to save
obokut savior, healer
egbokcer to relapse
bik care
bikea careful
biker to care for
biktun nursing
biktut nurse
bikam care facility
bikat care patient
bikof bandage
bikofer to bandage
obik lack of care
obiker to leave uncared for
tebiker to care (about)
otebik apathy, lack of concern
otebiker to be unconcerned about
obikea careless
otebikea unconcerned, apathetic
igéga bik urgent care
igéga bikim emergency room
buk wound
buka wounded
buker to wound
bukcer to be wounded
bùk sore
buket scratch
buketer to scratch
bukof patch
bukofber to patch up
bukat trauma patient, victim
buuk harm
buuker to harm
buukeá harmful
buukòa harmless
buukék danger
bók pain
bôk ache
bôkcer to ache
bóker to hurt (someone)
bókcer to be in pain
bókeá painful
bókòa painless
bókòsil painkiller
bôker to ache
bóokcer to suffer
brók agony
bróker to torture
brókeá torturous
brókcer to agonize
tebók anguish
tebókcer to anguish

Clothes (tof)

body partheavier materiallighter material
tob mantof appareltov underwear
tab bodytaf suitpontav pijama
teb headtef hattev scarf
teib noseteif nose coverteiv handkerchief
teób neckteóf tieteóv collar
tuab shouldertuaf shawl 
tib trunktif vest 
zetib waistzetif beltzetiv sash
tiab chestnefiaf sweatertiav shirt
tiub bellytiuf corsettiuv underpants
tilab breast tilav brassiere
tiáb penis tiáv loin cloth
tób legtóf pants 
tôab foottôaf shoetôav sock
tuáb handtuáf mit
tuáfém pocket
tuáv glove
tiúb tailtiúf train 

Habitation (tom)

tom habitationtomer to live, tomud inhabitant
tòm home, tòma domestic
toem place of residence
toom accommodation, lodging, toomer to accommodate
tomet apartment, tometán apartment building
tomof tent
utom property
tomtun architecture, tomtut architect, tomtuna architectural
tombuer to lease,tombuud landlord, dren tombuena lease
tombier to rent, let, tombiud renter, lessee
tomnoc rent

tombel housekeeping, tombelud concierge
ábtom hi-rise
tém residencetémer to reside
témud resident
téma residential
vegdren témuda resident's permit
otémud non-resident
tam housetameb master of the house
taam villa
agtam chateau
ivagtam palace
ogtam cottage
tamet cabin
ogtamet hut
potam hotel, igpotam motel
zútam tower
azcatam castle
tamán housing complex
tamózem yard
tameézem courtyard
abtamac roof
zatam facade
telam restaurant
epam station
tilam bar
tuzam museum
dénam library
titam school
tutam institute
nunam store
cesam factory
avolam bakery
bikam hospital
totam church
tabekanam gym
milbam bathhouse
partam garage
beelam warehouse
vobésam farm
tàm buildingtàmser to build, otàmser to demolish, otàms ruins, tàmsud builder
tamcer to found, tamc foundation
mamtàm skyscraper
tem spaceabtem attic
obtem basement
ágtem gallery
pemepem parking lot
ponem rest stop
ifekem playground
dropekem battleground
maparem airport
ózem yard, outdoors
ázem flat space
úbem neighborhood
íbem the far side
kum side
abem top
obem bottom
zam front
zom back
zem middle
zém indoors
kunadam frontier
kim slope
ábem upstairs
óbem downstairs
zém tunnel
zèm bridge
ifpem promenade
mimkum beach
ifpopem resort
tujémem cemetery
tatem shrine
zúm zone
ubem destination
ibem origin
pum destination
pim starting point
epem station
ijem starting point
ujem endpoint
tim room, chambermiltim bathroom
éstim bureau
datim salon, living room
zótim hall, corridor
tjujim bedroom
telim dining room
magelim kitchen
tilim bar
zatim lobby
zotim antechamber
áktim waiting room
timet cubicle, cabin, roomette

Places and containers

The "place" suffixes am, (e)m, im, ém, and éb are short for and recall tam house, tem space, tim room, ném box, and céb container.

Buildings (-tam, -am)

t- human-relatedtam house
nun merchandisenunam store
nac moneynacam bank
apelat beeapelatam beehive
pancin cinemapancinam moviehouse
tel foodtelam restaurant
til drinktilam bar
tier to studytitam school
tuer to instructtutam institute
tata holytatam church
dénán book collectiondénánam library
cuzán art collectioncuzánam museum
bekil drugbekilam pharmacy
ep stopepam station
pon restponam hotel
bek treatmentbekam clinic
bok illnessbokam hospital
bik carebikam nursing home
bak healthbakam sanatorium
avol breadavolam bakery
dez showdezam theatre
daz dancedazam dance studio
cefál coffeecefálam café
belud guardbeludam guardhouse
apet horseapetam stable
koer to hidekoam shelter
def paperdefam stationery
túj sleeptújam dormitory
voc flowervocam floristry
par vehicleparam garage
pat birdpatam nest
vab grassvabam grange

Places and spaces (-tem, -em)

t- human-relatedtem hall
ep stopepem stopping point
tij birthtijem birthplace
és workésem factory
ek playekem playground
dropek wardropekem battlefield
koer to hidekoem hideaway
pier to departpiem departure point
puer to arrivepuem arrival point
ab onabem top
ob underobem' bottom
áb upábem upstairs
ób downóbem downstairs
éb betweenébem interstice
éz inézem interior
óz outózem exterior
ib fromibem origin
ub toubem destination
ij startijem starting point
uj endujem endpoint, goal
úb nearúbem vicinity
íb faríbem distance
za beforezam front
zo behindzom back
ze middlezem center
ák waitakem waiting area
úz aroundúzem environment
roundzúm zone
uka emptyukem vacant lot
kua lateralkum side
kua lateralkuem sidelines
kia obliquekiem slope
kes trialkesem proving ground
vab grassvabem prairie
áza flatázem plain
íja openíjem open area
throughzém transit area
acrosszèm crossing/bridge
záa widezám expanse
zóa narrowzóm tight spot
pon restponem rest area
tapek sporttapekem sports arena
ifzíp tourifzípem tourist site
ánup meetingánupem meeting venue
tujém coffintujyemem cemetery
ézmelben burialézmelbem burial ground
tata holytatem shrine
tesbeler to memorializetesbelem memorial (site)
nun merchandisenunem marketplace
hea whichhem where?
háa everyhám everywhere
héa anyhém anywhere
hoa nohom nowhere
hua thishum here
hia thathim there
gea samegem the same place
teler to eattelem refectory
ób underóbtem cellar
úja openújtem court
ága longágtem gallery
áb aboveábtem attic
zaóz front outsidezaóztem front porch
zaéz front insidezaéztem lobby
tier to studytitem study hall
tuer to teachtutem class

Rooms (-tim, -im)

t- human-relatedtim room
tjujer to sleeptjujim bedroom
teler to eatteltim dining room
mageler to cookmagelim kitchen
és workésim bureau
mil watermiltim bathroom
tata holytatim chapel
vi nicevitim salon
ák waitáktim waiting room
za frontzatim lobby
zo backzotim backroom
daer to talkdatim parlor
tapek sporttapektim exercise room
teacibar t.v.teacibarim t.v. den
mover to smokemovim smoking den
ón apartóntim compartment
éz inéztim chamber
zóa narrowzótim corridor/hall
tuer to teachtutim classroom
cim chairbimer to sit
cum bedbumer to lie down

Enclosures (-tém, -ném, -ém) and containers (-céb, -éb, -éf)

t- human-relatedtém residence
aza strongazém safe
koer to hidekoém shelter
pon vacationponém suitcase
mog ashmogém ashtray
óm iceómém ice chest
voc flowervocém flower bed
voc flowervocéb flower pot
il liquid + neer reserveilneéb tank
il liquidiléb bottle
il liquidilcéb carafe
til drinktiléb glass
til drinktilcéb cup
el foodelcéb pot
tol foodtoléb casserole
áz flat+tol consumablesáztoléb pan
telil soupteliléb bowl
ber putbém position
tab bodytabém posture
tes thoughttesbém method
tep mindtebém attitude
eber to stopebém situation
uka emptyukém slot, vacancy
nac moneynacém cashbox
noz jewelnozém jewelry box
n- commercialném box
nac moneynacéf purse
n- commercialnéf bag
néf weavenéfém basket
faof woodfaoféb barrel
mak electricitymakéb battery

Building structures (moc) and furniture (com)

moc floor [stage]amoc ground floor
emoc second floor
imoc third floor
obmoc basement
abmoc penthouse
ébmoc mezzanine
mocpar elevator (also: álbur)
mac wallabmac roof
obmac foundation
ézabmac ceiling
ézobmac floor
uzabmac vault
abzamac balcony
abkumac ledge
macsud mason
mactén masonry (industry)
macán masonry
ózmac outer wall
ézmac inner wall
úzmac fence
mefa mac brick wall
macet fence
ónsmac partition
màc screen
mec doormecag entrance-way
zamec threshold
mic windowmicet ticket window, porthole
micof blinds
micov curtain
abmic sunroof
micog skylight
muc stairsmucnog step
mùc ladder
zúpea muc escalator
mucim stairwell
igózpen muc fire escape
com item of furniturecomber to furnish
comán furniture
comser to make furniture
comsud furniture maker
milcom sink
comiper to move
cam closettelarcam buffet
tofcam clothes closet
déncam bookcase
macam cupboard
comoc shelf
tovcam linen closet
ècam alcove
cem tabledrecem desk
cèm pulpit
cemném drawer
cemof table cloth
cemób table leg
cemet board
úscemet serving tray
tilcem bar
cágcem counter
cemaper to sit down at the table (also: bemer)
cim chaircìm seat
agcim armchair
ágcim couch
ciim bench
ècim stool
tôabcim footstool
cimub arm rest
cimzom seat back
baanetcim rocking chair
zoólbcim recliner
milnef cim bucket seat
cimbier to occupy a seat
cimbuer to seat (someone)
cimober to unseat
cimaper to sit down (also: bimer)
cum bedcuam cushin
cuàm pillow
cuem mattress
cuav bedspread
cuev sheet
cuef cover
cuim box springs
cumnán litter
cumaper to go to bed, lie down (also: bumer)

Food (tol)

tol foodstuffstoler to feed
tola alimentary
tolcéb pot
toléb casserole
áztoléb pan
tolam grocery store, market, tolamud grocer
tolar eating utensil, tolarán dishes
tolnún produce, groceries
tel (prepared) foodteler to eat
otel hunger, otelcer to hunger, otela hungry, otelag famine, oteltujer to starve (to death)
telun edible (item)
vitelyd gourmet
vitelea gourmand
telam restaurant, telamet cafe, telamseb restauranteur
telém buffet
teléb plate, telébar serving tray
telar fork, telarán place setting, cutlery
telim kitchen
telten culinery
telsur cooker
telsud cook
telseb chef
telil soup, teliléb soup bowl
magtelur stove
teleá edible, oteleá inedible
teluz tasteteluzer to taste
tèluz savor, tèluza savory, tèluzer to savor
oteluz disgust
oteluza disgusting
oteluzer to be disgusted
til drinktiler to drink
otil thirst
otilcer to thirst
otila thirsty
otilag draught
tilam bar
tilamag brasserie
tiléb glass
tilcéb bowl
tìlcéb cup
tilar spoon
tilarag soup spoon
tilarog teaspoon
tileá potable, otileá non-potable
omtil refreshment, soft-drink
tul dish, served foodtulán meal
atulán breakfast, atuláner to eat breakfast
etulán lunch, etuláner to lunch
itulán dinner,ituláner to dine
jatul appetizer
jotul dessert
ébtul snack
tuléb platter
tulil soup
tulánag banquet
tuldren menu
tulusud waiter, tulusudán wait staff, tulusdeb head waiter, maitre d' , tulúsnac (restaurant) tip
tuljób mealtime
-ol/ól (solid)taol meat,taolam butcher shop, taolud butcher, taolil stew, úgtaol beef steak, ápetaol sausage, ápetól ham
mimol salt, mimolika salty
vavol salade, greens
avol bread, avolet bread crumb, abavol crust, avolek flour, avolam bakery, avolud baker
ébcavol sandwich
cabavol slice of bread
ázavol pancake, flatbread, pizza
úzavol wrap, burrito
góavol crepe
leavol pastry
leávol cake
aleavol brioche
umleavol cookie
umcavol cracker, biscuit
uzleavol croissant
afleavol fruit pie
taoleavol meatpie
leavolser to make pastry
leavolsud pastrymaker
leavolam patisserie
-el/él/ál (semi-solid)eopel beef, gocra eopel ground beef, gocra eopel ébcavol hamburger
uopel mutton
ápel pork
él oil
kafabél olive oil
gevobél corn oil
magél cooking oil
tàal fat, grease
mageler to cook
magéler to fry
level sugar, levela sweet, leveler to sweeten, lèvel candy, levil syrop, lèvelud confectioner, lèvelam confectionary
elcéb pot
ápel pork, ápelán pork meats, ápelam pork butchery
-il (liquid)iléb bottle
tuil sauce
tulil soup
vafil wine
ígvafil vinegar
afil cider
ávil beer
levafil liqueur
bil milk, bilam dairy, bilíg cheese, bilúg butter
bilúgl yoghurt
abil cream
fáblevil compote
fábil fruit juice
taobil gravy, jus
levil syrup
apelatil honey
mag-mageler to cook, magelur cooker
magiler to boil, magilur boiler
màgiler to broil, màgilur broiler
magler to roast, maglúr roaster
abmagler to grill, abmaglur grill
magéler to fry, magélur frier
magoler to bake, magolur oven
magler to roast, maglur roaster
magtelur stove
magsur burner
gopar knife 

Time (job)

job timejoba temporal
ponjob vacation
ógjob short while, ógjoba temporary
ívjob leasure
ágjob longtime, ágjoba chronic
jejoba chronic
zé job over time
ádjob eternity, ádjoba eternal
gonjoba part-time
jobúgc delay, jobúgser to delay, jobúgca delayed
jobigc haste, jobigcer to hurry
kóca (jonabca) jobem appointment
jobnabs schedule
jobdaf schedule
joob periodjoòb era, epoch
joobag eon
joobog short period
jooba periodic
jooban periodicity
joobà periodically
odjobu? when?
udjobu now
idjobu then
ádjobu always
ódjobu never
édjobu whenever
gedjobu at the same time
ogedjobu some other time
údjobu sometime
jab yearjaba annual
cojab century, cojaba secular
jabij new year
jabuj year's end
jabdén yearbook
jabzòp anniversary
jeb seasonjeba seasonal
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn
jeub winter
jib monthjiba monthly
ijib trimester
ájib semester
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiób May
jiáb June
jiéb July
jiíb August
jiáb September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
jub dayjuba daily
éjub week, éjuba weekly
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juób Friday
juáb Saturday
juéb Sunday
ponjub holiday
ívjub day off
ádjubu every day, ádjuba daily
jubdén diary
jubdrén newspaper, jubdréna journalistic, jubdrénud journalist
zojub yesterday
udjub today
zajub tomorrow
ivjub feast, ivjuber to feast, ivjuber to celebrate
tijub birthday
agtijub Christmas
zòtujub Easter
jób hourjóba hourly
jóbar clock
tíjóbar alarm clock
tubjóbar wrist watch
jóbándaf schedule
jáb minutejâb moment, jâba momentary
jéb secondjêb instant, jêba instantaneous
maj daytimemaja diurnal
ijmaj dawn
imaj morning
ujmaj dusk
umaj evening
èmaj noon
joèmaj afternoon
fimaj good day!
fiumaj good evening!
ádmaju every morningudmaju this morningzomaju yesterday morningzomaju tomorrow morning
moj nightmoja nocturnal
èmoj midnight
fimoj good night!
ádmoju every night
udmoju tonight
jud datejudrer to date
jojudrer to postdate
jajudrer to antedate
judar calendar
judaf calendar
judén datebook
odjudu on what date
udjudu on this dateidjudu on that date
jàg agejaga old, jagat elder, jagan old age, jagat bikam elder care facility, jagcer to age, jagca aged, ágcea ageing
joga young/new, jogan youth (state), jogat youth (person), jogatán youth (coll.), egjogser to rejuvenate/renew, joganéna youthful
gajàga elder
gojàga younger
gejàga of the same age, as old (as)
jéga adult
jega middle aged
jòga adolescent
ojéga minor
gájàga eldest
gójàga youngest
glajàga antique, ancient
glojàga brand new, very young
odjàg how old?

Time expressions

ja beforeYujo mani ja et pio. Turn out the lights before you leave.
je whileTobob tuja je tújá. The child died while sleeping.
jo afterJo teacera mavi it igípa. After seeing the flames, he fled.
ji sinceAita tijé ga fià ji dropek úja. We have been living better since the war ended.
ju untilJu et agco, et ho tido. Until you grow up, you won't understand.
earlyGa já ga fi. The earlier the better.
on timeValco puer jé. Be sure to arrive on time.
lateHo puo já! Don't arrive late!
zojubu yesterdayHè mamila zojubu? Did it rain yesterday?
udjubu todayIyt deuzo udjubu. She is going to sing today.
zajubu tomorrowAt ikso dén zajubu. I will finish the book tomorrow.
zomoju last nightHè et fi túja zomoju? Did you sleep well last night?
udmoju tonightUdmoju ho eco màri mamu. Tonight there will be no stars in the sky.
zamoju tomorrow nightTijuba vitul aco zamoju. The birthday feast will occur tomorrow night.
jazojubu the day before yesterdayVab gorfàa jazojubu. The grass had been mowed the day before yesterday.
jozajubu the day after tomorrowAvolam íjco jozajubu. The bakery will open the day after tomorrow.
alreadyUvà eta ted jà pia. Sadly, your father has already left.
gaj stillHè pati gaj tijea? Are the birds still alive?
yetHè et jù teuca hia pancin? Have you seen this movie yet?
aju in the pastUti sá hubén aju. People used to act that way in the past.
eju at presentEju ait ukce mil. At present, we are out of water.
oju in the futureEt fi to oju. You'll know better in the future.
ji idjob since then, thenceforthJi idjob eca hoga sejeti. Since then, there have been no further incidents.
jo udjob from now on, henceforthJo udjob at éso ga tepazà. From now on I will work more diligently.
ju idjob until thenJu idjob at ho teacàa ídcuni. Until then, I had not seen such things.
ju udjob until now, up to now, so farHot ózpa ju udjob. Nobody has emerged so far.
iju firstAt vagó iju ivader et av updier at. I would first like to thank you for inviting me.
nextJò ait teeco drez Sekspira. Next we shall hear a poem by Shakespeare.
uju finallyElánidpar uju pua. The train has finally arrived.
gloja recentlyIit gloja tadca. They recently married.
glojo soonJobipar co him glojo. The taxi will be here soon.
glaja a long time agoHua pancin ózpa glaja. That movie came out a long time ago.
glajo a long time henceDropek ujco glajo. The war will come to an end a long time from now.
gója justAt gója ijeaca eta vóon. I just now noticed your error.
úbji justAt úbji ijeaca eta vóon. I just now noticed your error.
úbju almostAt úbju aka. I almost won.
ja agoKeus aca ja e jub. The accident occurred two days ago.
glaj for a long timeAt ésa hum glaj. I worked there for a long time.
gloj for a short timeAt ésa him anà gloj. I worked here only for a short time.
ókbénà suddenly, all of a suddenYokbénà teuzibar ceusa. Suddenly the phone rang.
igjobu suddenly, all of a suddenIgjobu teuzibar ceusa. Suddenly the phone rang.
odjobu? when?Odjobu et sa uda cizun? When did you do this painting?
adjobu when (relative)At sa cizun adjobu at ca joga. I did the painting when I was young.
ji odjob? since when? for how long?Ji objob et ce tadca? How long have you been married?
ju odjob until when?, how longJu odjob et drecéo eta dén? How long will you be writing your book?
idjubu then, at that timeEt ca via idjubu. You were beautiful then.
udjubu now, at this timeAt ése ge tuut udjubu. I work as a teacher now.
ádjubu always, all the timeIyt ádjubu teubòze. She always smiles.
údjubu sometimeIyt egteapo údjubu. She'll visit again someday.
ódjubu neverAta épet ódjubu épede. My dog never barks.
ju ádjub foreverIit áke beer tadca ju ádjub. They hope to remain married forever.
édjubu ever, anytimeEt vege teaper édjubu et vage. You can visit anytime you like.
údjubu sometimeAt teapo et údjubu úboju. I will visit you sometime in the near future.
ogedjubu some other timeEt égo uper ogedjubu. You'll have to come some other time.
ídjubu at such a timeAit ége doer ídjubu. We must be silent at such a time.
gedjubu at the same timeYad e nidpari pua gedjubu. Both trains arrived at the same time.
vo...gaj no longer, anymoreAt vo vage gaj teacer et. I don't want to see you any longer.
odjopi? how often?Odjopi et pe pancinu? How often to you go to the movies? (jop instance in time)
ajop onceEt ége utmilabaner ajop jubè. You must bathe once a day.
ejopi twiceAt vísa par ejopi. I washed the car twice.
glajopi oftenAit deuze ánà glajop. We often sing together.
glojopi seldomAt glojopi teaca ídcun. Seldom have I seen such a thing.
gaijopi sometimes, at timesIyt ceace geijopi jó. She sometimes shows up late.
ojop neverAt ojop vóde. I never lie.
ídjop so oftenEt ídjop abdabe ébdaen. You dominate the conversion so often.
gejopi as oftenUpo gejopi vé et vage. Come as often as you like.
gajopi more oftenAta ted datupe gajopi vé ja. My father visits more often than before. ( than)
gojopi less oftenAt zípe gojopi udjubi. I travel less often these days.
géjopi quite oftenNun ce géjopi nasaga. The merchandise is quite often expensive.
grajopi too oftenEt tile grajopi. You drink too often.
grojopi too infrequentlyAt ózpe tam grajopi. I get out of the house too infrequently.
gájopi as often as possibleEt ége milaber voci gájopi. You should water the flowers as often as possible.
gójopi as seldom as possibleAt ázte maru gójopi. I lie in the sun as seldom as possible.

Beginning and ending (ijer, ujer)

The following table shows j (time) words that forms parallels on the basis of the iu ordinal vowel opposition:
ijer to beginujer to end
ij beginninguj end
ija initialuja final
tijer to be borntujer to die
tij birthtuj death
tija natal, borntuja mortal, dead
tijser to birthtujser to kill
majij dawnmajuj dusk
tobij ovum 
vabij seed 
patij egg 
magijer to sparkmagujer to extinguish
manijer to lightmanujer to turn off
esijer to set in motionesuj to terminate
tesij idea 
jabij new year'sjabuj year's end
íjer to openújer to close
íj openingúj close
íja openúja closed
íjar keyújar lock
íjem passagewayújem dead end
íjofer to unfoldújofer to fold
íjden introductionújden conclusion
tíjer to waketújer to sleep
tíj wakefulnesstúj sleep
tíja awaketúja asleep

aj pastaju in the past, thenajer to delaytaj former lifeja before early
ej presenteju at present, nowejer to waittej lifeje during on time
oj futureoju in the futureojer to preempttoj afterlifejo after late
ij beginningiju in the beginning, at firstijer to begintij birthji since 
uj enduju in the end, at lastujer to endtuj deathju until 

Natural phenomena (mor, mar, etc.)

mor universemora universal,
mòr cosmosmòra cosmic, mòrtun cosmology
mar sunmara solar, marnad sun ray
màr starmàra stellar, màrán constellation, màránag galaxy, màrtun astronomy
mer planetmear Mercury
meer Venus
meir Earth
meur Mars
meór Jupiter
meár Saturn
meér Uranus
meír Pluto
mir worldmira global
amir north, amira nordic
omir south, omira southern
imir east, imira oriental
umir west, umira occidental
emir equator, emira equatorial
mur moonmura lunar
mùr satellite
muar comet
muer meteor
muerog meteorite
mol naturemola natural, omola artificial
mul mattermula material, multun physics
mulet particle
amul atom
amulán molecule
amulet atomic particle
amula atomic, amulzem nucleus, amulzema nuclear
emul electron
imul proton
umul neutron
umulet neutrino
ámul quark
mal airmala aerial
màl gas
maal atmosphere
mael troposphere
mail stratosphere
maul ionosphere
maól exosphere
malp airwave
mam skymama celestial, mamnad horizon, mamèzún rainbow, mamceus thunder
mamevan weather
mamevantun meteorology
maem spacemaema spatial, paem spacecraft, maempopud astronaut
map windmaap gust
maep breeze
maip puff
mapag cyclone
mapaget storm
maper to blow
maiper to puff
maf cloudmaaf stratus
maef nimbostratus
maif cumulus
mauf cumulonimbus
maóf stratocumulus
màaf allocumulus
maéf allostratus
maíf cirrocumulus
maúf cirrostratus
malof cirrus
óbmaf nimbus
mafàa cloudy
mafòa cloudless
mel ground, earthmela terrestrial, meltun geography
ánmel continent, ánmela continental
ónmel island, ónmela insular
mem countrymeam region
meem land
meim countryside
memcin scenery
memud peasant
ázmem plain
ázmeam valley
ázmeem dale
ukmem desert
ènukmem steppe
vabem prairie
vabemet meadow
ébmem isthmus
ézmelber to bury
mep waymèp route
meap road
meep path
meip lane, track
meup pass
mepet alley
uzmep detour
izmep bee-line
kumep sidewalk
domep highway
óbmep subway
meb mountain
mebán mountain chain
ázmeb plateau
miekmeb dune
magmeb volcano, magmeba volcanic, magmebil lava
mèb mount
meab hill
meabet hillock
met gardenzamet front yard, zomet back yard, kumet side yard, vocmet flower garden
med parkpotmed zoo, fabmed arboretum, pemed parking lot
mom undergroundmoma subterranean
mompar subway
momesem mine, momesud miner
mob precipicemòb abyss
moab canyon
moeb ravine
moib cave
moub ditch
mop tunnel 
mim seamima marine
mimag ocean
miam lake
miem pond
miim marsh
mióm swamp
ézmim bay
midom port
mimkum shore
mimázkum beach
mimuzkum gulf
ébmim strait
mimpop ocean cruise
mimbok seasickness
mimanar lighthouse
mit basin 
mip rivermipa fluvial, miper to flow, run
miap river
miep stream
miip brook
mipet tributary
igmip torrent, igmipa torrential
ébmip canal
mipkum riverbank
mimzèmep bridge
mipugar dam
mipàa riparian
mil watermila aquatic
óbmila underwater
mamil rain
mamiler to rain
mileter to drip, milet drop, miletog droplet, mileteá drippy
umilóbiner to drown [intr.]
milpóer to drown [intr.]
miltujer to drown, miltujat drowning victim, miltuj drowning
milper to swim
milber to water, irrigate
milpón waterfall
milabaner to wash [tr.], utmilabaner to bathe, milaban bath, milabanim bathroom, milabanam bathhouse, milabaném bathtub
miltim bath, washroom
milcom sink
ilper to flow, ilp flux, current
iligper to gush, stream
ilaper to float, ilapar flotation device
ilukser to flush, iluksar toilet
ilikser to flood, iliks inundation
gámiluper to flood, gámilup flood
ilóper to downpour
ilzíber to spray
ilpúner to squirt
ilpáner to gush
iloker to leak, ilok leak
ilpéner to splash
tiibiloker to bleed
ilzéper to leak, ilzép leak
ogilzéper to trickle, ogilzép trickle
zoílper to back up with water, zoílp reflux
ilpan wave
ilpanet ripple
ilápóper to undulate, ilápóp undulation, wave action
mimupip tide, mimupipa tidal
mimbin tide, mibina tidal
mimpán surf, mimpánud surfer, mimpán faof surfboard
ilbuner to pump, ilbunar pump
milbiner to pump, draw water, milbinar pump, milbinéc well
ilaber to pour
utmilzíber to take a shower
milbím spring
tilcom drinking fountain
milbíc fountain
mimper to navigate, sail, mimpar ship
mimpoper to sail, travel by sea, mimpop cruise, sea voyage, mimpopud sea voyager, mimpopar cruise ship
ima wetimcer to get wet,imsrer to drench, ìmser to dampen, iman wetness, ìman humidity, olimsar dehumidifier
uma dryuman dryness, umser to dry, umsar dryer, umca dried
ama hotaman heat, amanàg temperature, àma warm, àman warmth, amser to heat, amsar heater
oma coldoman cold, òma cool, omser to cool, omsur refrigerator, òmser to refresh, òmsea refreshing, òmsun refreshment
óm iceóma frozen, ómser to freeze, ómsur freezer
óom frost, óoma frosted, óomcer to frost over, olóomser to defrost, ovóomil antifreeze
man lightmaer to shine
manet glimmer, maneter to glimmer
manser to light up
maníjer to turn on the light
manújer to turn off the light
manager to illuminate
màna clear, mànser to clarify, mànan clarity
lomàna opaque
manig sparkle, maniger to sparkle
kumaner to reflect
zòmaner to mirror, zòmanar mirror
mag firemagar match, magam fireplace
magser to burn, magsar burner
magcer to burn (intr.), magca burned, magcun a burn
mageler to cook, magelud a cook, magelun cuisine, magelar oven, magelur frying pan
magújer to extinguish a fire, magújud fireman, magújam' fire department

magil petroleum
magìl napth
maagil fuel
maegil gasoline
maigil kerosene

mav flamemaver to flame, maveá flammable, mavser to inflame, mavsen inflammation, mavugea flame retardant
mak electricitymaka electrical, makser to electrify, makéna electronic, maktun electronics, makveg electric power, makvegam electric power plant
mov smokemover to smoke, movikca smoke-filled, movet plume
mon darkmona dark, moncer to grow dark, monser to darken (tr.)
otmon shadow, otmonéna shadowy
mòn shade, mòna shady, obscure, mònan obscurity
meg stonemegéna (made of) stone, megàa rocky, megunkum cinder block
megag boulder
megog pebble
meag marble
meeg slate
meig granite
meug clay
meóg clay
meág chalk
meég limestone
meíg alabaster
meúg rubble stone
mealog sandstone
megóg gravel
mieg pebble
mameg coal
maameg anthracite
èmameg coke
maemeg peat
maimeg lignite
mek dustmék powder
méik paste
mékar mill
mékam mill
meil mud
mef brickabmef tile
mev porcelaine 
mez gemstoneamez diamond
emez topaze
imez ruby
ómez sapphire
ámez amethyste
vamez emerald
mezán jewelry, mezánam jewelry shop

Money (nac)

naz valuenazer to be worth, nazika valuable, nazuka worthless, nazder to evaluate, nazter to esteem, utnaz merit, utnazer to deserve, utnazika meritorious, onazteá inestimable, nazta esteemed
nas pricenasaga expensive, nasoga cheap, nasán rates, nasuka priceless
nàs cost, nàser to cost, nàsaga costly, nàsòa cost-free, nàsán costs, nàsder to cost out
nac moneynacet change, nacetéb coin purse, nacdref check, jonacdref bill, nacán capital, ánac funds, ánàc sum, nactun finance, donactun economy, nacam bank, nacika rich, nacuka poor, úsnac gratuity, tip, nasak profit, nacok loss, gornacdren stock, gornacdrenam stock market, yebkyanac commission, nacyeg debt, nacyegaya indebted, nacyeger to owe money
noc expensenocer to spend, nòc fee, funoc waste, finoca generous
nec savingsnecer to save, necán savings, cágdin necána savings account, funeca stingy, nècer to economize
nuc paymentnucer to pay out, nucbier to buy, nucbiud buyer, nucbiudán clientele, dobnuc tax, nucvegeá solvable, jobnuc credit, jobnucud creditor, jobnucdaf credit card, januc prepayment, zònucer to reimburse
nic incomenicer to collect, cash, nicán revenue, nicbuer to pay for, nicbuud vendor, ésnic salary, ésnìc wage, tutnic honorarium, égnicag tribute, dobnic pension, dotnic allowance, donic annuity, ésnicud wage earner, jonic debit, jonicud debitor, jonicdaf debit card, zònicer to recover

Merchandise (nun) and materials (nof)

nun merchandisenunam store, nunàm boutique, nunamet shop, nunamán shopping center, nunem market, nunud merchant, nunébkán commerce, nundel advertisement, nunemtun marketing, nuler to acquit,
noz jewelnozud jeweler, nozam jewelry shop, nozán jewelry, nozika bejeweled, tuóz bracelet, obtez necklace, tuúz ring, tiaz broche, teez earring, tez crown, teiz nose ring, nozkobilud jewel thief
nof materialnofser to weave, nofsar loom, nofán textiles
tof clothestaf suit
tif vest, etc.
nov linennòv sheet
novet rag
milnov towel
milnovet handtowel
milov wash cloth
naf clothnaaf drape/curtain, naafán drapery
naef canvas
naif velvet
nauf net
nef knit, yarnnefser to knit, yarn
neef lace
nif thread, wirenifser to thread, wire
nìf string
nifet filament
nifar needle
nivar pin, ánifer to sew, ánifur sewing machine, ániftén couture, nifòa wireless, maknif electrical cord
náf knotnáfser to knot
níf cordnífet lace
nífetog braid
néf sack, bagném box, némag case, poném suitcase, áznéfem basket
nóf filmnóv ribbon
núf buttonnúfec buttonhole (zéc hole)
fuf pipefùf tube
tilfuf drinking straw
tiibuf artery (fub branch)
zúf postzúfet column, pimzúf mast, zézúf cross-beam
zúv stickzúvet cane, ágzúv pole
faof boardfaocéb barrel (fab tree + nof material + céb container)
mez crystalmeg stone + naz value
zéf glasszév glass
cinzéf mirror, cimzéf window pane (zéteaser see through + nof material)
utaéf woolupet sheep
apeéf silkapeét worm
favof cottonfavob cotton plant
fivof hempfivob hemp plant
fuvof jutefuvob jute plant
favov cotton woolfavob cotton plant
taóf leathertaób skin + nof material
taéz furtaéb hair + naz value

Measures and dimensions (nag)

nog degreeanoga primary
enoga secondary
inoga tertiary
unoga quaternary
henoga to what degree, how?
nogper to step, zànogper to advance, progress, step ahead, zònogper to step back, regress, ábnogper to step up, be promoted, advance, óbnogper to step down, be demoted, nogà by degrees
nòg grade, step, nogéna gradual, ujnògper to graduate, ujnògpud graduate
noog stage, level, status, enooga bi-level, two-staged, ábnooga high-status, dotnoog social status, class, óbdotnooga low-class, kódotnoog caste
nag dimensionanaga one-dimensional
enaga two-dimensional
inaga three-dimensional
glanaga multi-dimensional
nàg measure, size, nàger to measure, genàga commensurate, onnàgeá immeasurable, zenayga moderate, ozenayga immoderate, zenaygaser to moderate, naygar meter (measuring device), nayga metric, naygpar taxi
neg levelgenega even, ogenega uneven, odd, glanega multiplanar, negar level (planing device), enega bi-level, ébnega interplanar
nég spacenéga spatial, onég void, glanéga spacious, ónanég interval, ónanégser to space out, tomnég Lebensraum, cf. néb container
nib row, ranknibser to arrange, nibcer to adapt, niber to array, oniber to disarray, óniber to topple, nibémer to dispose, ábniba high-ranking
nip order, turn, sequence, queuenipber to order, onip disorder, onipber to mess up, nipba ordered, orderly, neat, sequential, onipba out of sequence, out of order, messed up, Heta nip ce? Whose turn is it?, jonipa next, janipa prior, niper to queue up, to line up, to get in order, zínipber to sort, vánip proper order, order
nud columnnuda columnar, nibnubi coordinates, nibnubcan grid, matrix, row-column format
nod pointzenod mid-point, center, zénod hub, intersection, ábnod high-point, climax, apex, óbnod low-point, nadir, ijnod starting point, ujnod endpoint, butt, terminal, drenod period, dot
ned surface, plane, faceneda superficial, planar, záned stretch
nedet facet, glaneda multifaceted
nid line
(cf. nif wire)
nida linear,

teacnid light of sight, nidber to align, obnider to underline, nidar ruler, elánid rail, jopnid track, kunid edge, border, rim, zyunid circumference, boundary, zyeiznid perpendicular (line), zyeiznida perpendicular, mamnid horizon, yaztanida horizontal, yabtanida vertical, kinid diagonal, zeynid transversal, kinida diagonal, zenid midline, nidcer to line up, queue up, form a line, iznid' straight line, geizana nid parallel line, ébnida interlinear, drenid line of text, zanid front-line, frontier, forward line, óznid limit, íbnid limit
nìd ray, radius, nìdcer to radiate, marnìd sun ray, nìda radial
niid trait

néd volume
(cf. néb container)
nédàa voluminous, zúnéd sphere
gekumnéd cube
cag numbercaga numeric, cager to number, cág count, cáger to count, cáag calculation, cágar computer, cáagar calculator, cágud accountant, cágán account
nan time (frequency)anan one time
enan twice
glanan often, glanana frequent
glonan seldom
henan how often?


kín weight 
azan strength 
igan velocity 
íban distance 
izan direction 
ágan length 
záan width 
óban depth 
ában height 
zúan girth 
bar pressure 
kítan gravity 
gáan thickness 
ígan solidity 
zeban density 
maan brightness 
nangan frequencyegan repetition, nan time(s)
jag age 
voz color 
gan quantity 
fin quality 
cág numbermeaning count; number is cag
nog degree 
nébgan volumenég volume, meaning a solid
végan ratio 
nas cost 
naz value 
zènidgan diameteras a line: zènid
zúnidgan circumference 
ènzègan radiusas a line: nìd
nag dimension 
neg level 
nib row 
nip orderalso: turn, sequence
nub column(on a grid)
can shape 
néd volume, solidzúnéd sphere, gekumnéd cube, zúfnéd cylinder, defábnéd cone, aginéd cone
nid linekunid border, zúnid contour, zénid transverse, zéiznid perpendicular, kinid diagonal, áztanid horizontal, ábtanid vertical, zenid midline, iznid vector, uznid curve, curved line, geizana nid parallel
gun anglegegun right angle, gagun obtuse angle, gogun sharp angle, igun triangle, ugegun rectangle, uogegun rhomboid
nod pointzenod midpoint, zúnod turning point, zénod intersection
kum sideágkum hypotenuse, abkum topside, obkum bottom, gekuma equilateral, ekuma bilateral, glakuma multilateral, ugekum square
ned planeeneda biplane, glaneda multifaceted
zúc circleèzúc semi-circle, zûc oval
zúfuf cylinder 
gin tip, pointaginéd cone

Instruments and Machines (-ar, -ir, -ur)

The -ar suffix is used for instruments and devices in general. The -ir suffix is used for machines, while -ur is used for motors and engines. The distinction is only made when necessary.

Vehicles (par)

zíp travelzíper to travel, zíptam hotel, zípem travel destination, zìpud traveler,ifzíp tourism, ifzípud tourist, zípdren passport, zípmep itinerary, zípém suitcase or zípa ném suitcase
par vehiclepara vehicular, parupip traffic, parzíp traffic, pareper to park,parepam garage, parepem parking lot
nunpar truck
éspar truck
nunparet van
makabnifpar tram(electrified overhead wire car)
binifpar trolley, cable car (pulled cable car)
elánaadpar train (iron rail car), elánaadpar epam railway station
naadpar train
ágpar train
gorsémpar train (compartmented vehicle)
dompar bus (city vehicle), dompar epam bus station, bus stop dompar epem
tánpar bus (people vehicle)
zípar bus (roundabout vehicle)
ébdompar motorcoach (intercity vehicle)
paret cart, wagon
curezúcpar motorcycle, parizber to drive/pilot, parizbud driver/pilot, parizbuda vegdren driver's license, pilot's license
jobnucpar taxi, cab
mamp flightmamper to fly, mampud aviator, mampen aviation
mampar airplanemamparam hangar, mamparem airport, mamparet small plane, memparag jumbo jet, zípuda mampar passenger plane, nunkína mampar cargo plane, dropeka mampar warplane, zúptuba mampar helicopter ("rotating wing plane")
memp ridememper to ride
mempar carmemparam carport, garage, meparem parking lot, nàga mempar taxi
mimp sea voyagemimper to sail, mimpena maritime
mimpar shipmimparem marina, mimparof sail, óbmimpar submarine, mimparud mariner, mimpartim ship cabin, mimzíp cruise, mimpareb ship captain, nunmimpar cargo ship
maimpar hydroplane 
meampar funicular 
mompar subwaymomparem subway station, mompar zémep subway tunnel


c- objectcar tool
carán toolset
tuábcar handtool
éscar work tool
carném toolbox
egcarser to retool, repair
egcarsud repair technician
c- objectcàr instrument
càrán instrumentation
càréna instrumental
càrcer to be instrumental
c- objectcur device
curán equipment
curbàser to equip
dopcurán ordnance
c- objectcúr apparatus, system
cúra systemic
cúraser to systematize
c- objectcir machine
cirán machinery
cira mechanical
cirud mechanic
ciraser to mechanize
c- objectcír motor, engine
círàa motorized
círàser to motorize
c- objectcìr mecanism 
p- gopar vehicle, car
para vehicular
parupip traffic
parepam garage
parepem parking lot
círpar motor vehicle
círezúcpar motorcycle (also: círezúc motorbike)
goper to cutgopar knife
goparer to stab
ígfagoper to sawígfagopar saw
gofer to sheargofar scissors, shears
grorber to shavegrorbar shaver, razor
úzbaler to pinchúzbalar pliers
úzbalaret tweezers
zúfod screwzúfodar screwdriver
apéner to hitapénar hammer
apénarer to hammer
mamil rainovmamilar umbrella
póner to fallovpónar parachute
mar sunovmarar parasol
biner to pullbinar handle
mobser to digmobsar excavator
uklan hollowuklar shovel
zéc holezécbar bore
nofázer to ironnofázar iron
nofázenfaof ironing board
aman heatamsar heater
oman coldomsar refrigerator
óm iceómsar freezer
ánifer to sewánifur sewing machine
nif threadnifar needle
nivar pin
mék powdermékar mill, grinder
taéb hairtaébar comb
taébarer to comb
vícer to cleanvícar brush, sweep
'vícarer to brush, sweep
albaner to wipealbanar mop
albanarer to mop
álber to liftálbur elevator
teler to eattelar fork
tiler to drinktilar spoon
iber to receiveibar receiver
uber to sendubar transmitter
íjer to openíjar key, opener
azújer to lockazújar lock
céb containercébíjar opener (for cans, bottles, etc.)
dopa militarydopar weapon
doapar gun

dopur rifle
igdopur machine-gun
dopir canon
doapir bazooka

mageler to cookmagelar cooker
magiler to boilmagilar boiler
magler to roastmaglar roaster, oven
abmagler to grillabmaglar grill
tel food + éber to holdtelébar platter
telarán dishestelarán milbar dishwasher
il liquid + újer to closeilújar faucet
mip river + ugser to brakemipugsar dam
mil water + ukser to flushmiluksar toilet
drer to writedrar pen
drear pencil
uga slowugsar brake
úgcra elasticúgcrar spring
eker to playekar toy
cág countcágar calculator
cágir computer
mancin photomancinar camera
panmancin moviepanmancinar movie camera
ceus soundceusdrar recorder
ceus sound + iber to receiveceusibar radio
cin image + iber to receivecinibar television
teuz voice + iber to receiveteuzibar telephone
mak electricity + cyefet cellmakcéfet teuzibar cellphone
nif wireonifa teuzibar wireless phone
pan motionpaneá teuzibar mobile phone
tuúb finger + drer writetuúdrar keyboard, typewriter
tun datum + káls conversionébtunkálsar modem

Animals (pot)

All animal terms contain the notions of mobile (p) and organism (t).


potanimal (in general)
pótwild beast
petanimal (land)

Domesticated animals (pet)

male female child home noise other
pot animal pòt female animal potob baby animal potmet zoo poder to make an animal noise potun zoology

potuna zoological
potmet zoo
potuj hunt, potujud hunter, potujer tohunt
potaéb mane
poteub muzzle
poteib snout
potub paw
potuúb claw
tiúb tail
teúb horn
tampot pet, poténa animalistic, potán animalia, potan animality

apet horse apèt mare apetob foal apetam stable apeder to neigh apeta equine

apetapen equitation
apetigpek horse race
apetigpekam hippodrome
aopet gelding

epet bullepèt cowepetob calfepetam bull penepeder to snort, epèder to mooepeta bovine
eapet buffalo
eopel beef
ipet assipèt she-assipetob donkey ipeder to bray, hehawiapet mule
upet ramupèt eweupetob lamb upeder to bleatuopet sheep, uopetbelud shepherd
utaef wool
íopel mutton
ópet goatópèt nanny-goatópetob kid  ópetbelud goatherder
ótaéf goat's hair
ápet hogápèt sowápetob pigletápetam pigpenápeder to squealápeta porcine
ápetôafud pig's foot
ápel pork
ápetól ham
ápetaol sausage
épet dogépèt bitchépetob pupépetam doghouseépeder to barképeta canine, êpetob puppy
ípet catípèt she-catípetob kittenípetam cathouseípeder to meow, îpeder to purrípeta feline, ípetobán litter
úpet rabbitúpèt doe rabbitípetob baby rabbitúpetam rabbit cage úpetôafud rabbit's foot
úlpet hare
tapet monkeytapèt female monkey  tapeder to make monkey noisestaapet chimpanzee, tapetag ape
gapet elephant gapetob elephant cub  gapeit hippopotamus
gepet rhinoceros     
vapet stag, hartvapèt doe, hindvapetob fawn   
vepet deer     
vipet roebuck     
vupet chamois     
vópet llama     
vápet antilope     
vépet gazelle     
vípet elk, moose     
fapet camelfapèt she-camel    
fepet dromadery     
kapet squirrel     
kepet polecat     
kipet badger     
kupet otter     
kópet weasel, stone marten     
kápet beaver     
képet ermine, stoat     
sapet hedgehog     
sepet porcupine     
sipet mole     
zapet tortoise    zapeit turtle
zataób turtle shell
klapet rat klapetob baby ratklapetam rat's nest  
klepet mouse klepetob young mouse klapeder to squeekklepetar mouse (computer device)

Wild animals ( pyot )

ápót boar     
rapót lionrapôt lionessrapótob lion cubrapótam lion's denrapóder to roar 
repót tigerrepôt tigressrepótob tiger cubrepótam tiger's denrepóder to growl 
ripót leopardripôt female leopardripótob leopard dub  riapót panther
riepót jaguar
riipót puma
riupót lynx
rupót wolfrupôt she-wolfrupótob wolf cubrupótam wolf's lairrupóder to howlrupóta lupine
rópót foxrópôt vixenrópótob fox cubrópótam foxhole  
gápót hyenagâpót she-hyenagápótob baby byena gápóder to laugh like a hyenagáapót jackal
tapót orang-utang     
tepót bear tepótob bear cubtepótam bear cavetepóder to growl (like a bear) 

Reptiles (pyet) and amphibians (pyeit)

pyet reptile    pyeta reptilian
gapyet crocodile    gaypyet alligator
gepyet cayman     
kepyet lizard     
lopyet snake   lopyeder to hisslopyeper to slither
lapyet boa     
lepyet cobra     
lipyet viper  lipyetam viper's nest  
sipet mole     
apyeat bat  apyeatam bat's cave  
epyeat vampire     
fapyet grass snake     
fepyet slug     
fipyet leech     
vapyet snail    vapyel escargot
vapyetigyena sluggish, at a snail's pace, vapyeper to move at a snail's pace
apyeit toad  apyeitam toadstool  
epyeit frog    epyeiper to leapfrog
ipyeit tree frog     

Insects (pelt)

pelt insect    peltán swarm, ovpeltil insecticide, peltujsil insecticide, pelteleat insectivore, pelper to crawl around
kopelt vermine     
kapelt louse    kapeltika lousy
kepelt flea    ovkepeltof flea collar, kepeltika flea-bitten
kipelt bug    ovkipeltil bug spray
apelat bee  apelatam beehiveapelader to buzzapelatil honey, apelatél wax, apelatán swarm of bees
epelat wasp  epelatam wasp's nest  
ipelat horsefly     
upelat fly    ovupelatar fly-swatter
ópelat mosquito    ovópelanef mosquito net
lapelat maybug     
lepelat beetle     
tapelat cicada   tapelader to chirp 
gapelat butterfly    ápelaper to flit about
fapelt ant  fapeltam anthill fapeltán swarm of ants
peét worm    peétéc wormhole
apeát silkworm     

Birds (pat)

pat bird  patam bird's nestpader to chirppatijob egg, patijser to hatch, patper to fly, patpier to fly off, pateub beak, patub wing, pataéb feather, patulob claw, patésun aviculture, patém farmyard, patán poultry
apat rooster, cockapàt henapatob chickapatam chicken coopapader to crowapàtog chicken
epat duck, drakeepàt henepatob duckling epader to quackepatob duckling
ipat turkeyipàt turkey hen  ipader to gobble
upat goose    upatijob goose-egg
ópat guinea-fowl     
ápat pigeonápàt dove ápatam pigeon houseápader to coo 
rapat eagle rapatob eaglet   
repat vulture     
ripat kite     
rupat buzzard     
rópat hawk     
rápat falcon    rápatud falconer
fapat raven     
fepat crow     
fipat' magpie     
gapat ostrich     
gepat peacock     
dapat stork     
dapait heron     
depat marabou     
depait crane     
zapat swallow     
zepat martinet     
tapat parrot   tapader to parrot 
tepat budgie     
vapat nightingale     
vepat yellow canary     
'vipat canary     
vupat chaffinch     
vápat robin     
fapat thrush     
fepat warbler   fepader to warble, yodel 
fipat sparrow     
sapat partridge     
sepat quail     
sipat woodcock     
supat lark     
sópat pheasant     
sápat grouse     
lapait swan     
apait cormorant     
epait gull     
gapait penguin    gapaiper to strut like a penguin

Fish (pit)

pit fishpitán school of fish, pitub fin, pitaéb scale, pitésun pisciculture, pitun ichthyology, pitut ichthyologist, pitpin fishing, pitpinud fisherman
rapit shark 
repit dolphin 
ripit sperm whale 
rupit walrus 
rópit porpoise 
rápit swordfish 
répit tuna 
rípit sturgeon 
rúpit cod 
lapit ray 
lepit turbot 
lipit salmon 
lupit sole 
capit herring 
cepit barbel 
cipit anchovie 
cupit gilt-head 
apit sardine 
epit perch 
ipit pike 
upit carp 
ópit tench 
ápit gudgeon 
épit stickleback 
ípit marline 
gapit whale 
vapit eel 
apiet seal 
epiet sea-lion 

Crustaceans (piit)

piit shellfish 
apiit lobster 
epiit crayfish 
ipiit prawn 
upiit crawfish 
ópiit prawn 
ápiit shrimpápiitpin shrimping
lapiit crablapiitpin crabbing
apiét oysterpiétaób shell, piéz pearl, piètésun ostreiculture
epiét mussle 
ipiét clamipiétpinud clamdigger

Vegetation (fob)



Trees and fruits

fob vegetationfobtun botany, fobtut botanist, fobéstun agronomy, fobésun agriculture, fobésuna agricultural, fobésud farmer, fobésem farm
fab treefàb shrub, fàbet bush, fàbán shrubery, fabán forest, fabánésun forestry, fabánésud forester, fabánàca forested, fabánet woods, fabánog grove, copse, fàbánet scrub, fàbán thicket, fabmed orchard
fib trunk 
fub branch, limbfubet twig
faéb leaffaébán foliage, faébet bud
fáb fruitfábéna fruity, fábél jam, fâbél jelly, marmalade, fábóm sherbet, fábtul fruit cocktail, fábzeb pit (of fruit), fâob peel
fób rootradicule, fóbober to deracinate
faob woodfaoba wooden
faab sap 
faób bark 
afab apple treeafáb apple, afabet boxer tree
efab pear treeefáb pear, efabet spindle-tree
ifab cherry treeifáb cherry, ifabet privet
ufab prune treeufáb prune
ófab apricot treeófáb apricot
áfab peach treeáfáb peach
éfab quince treeéfáb quince
ífab walnut treeífáb walnut
úfab hazelnut treeúfáb hazelnut
alofàb blackberry vinealofáb blackberry
lafab orange treelafáb orange
lefab mandarin treelefáb mandarin
lifab lemon treelifáb lemon
lufab grapefruit treelufáb grapefruit
fefab date treefefáb date
fifab banana treefifáb banana
fufab cononut treefufáb coconut
fófab pomegranite treefófáb pomegranite
fífab fig treefífáb fig
vafàb grape vinevafáb grape, vafàbem vineyard, vafábil grape juice, vafil wine, vafilsam winery, ígvafil vinaiger, vafilifud oinophile
cafàb tea plantcafaéb tea leaf, tea, cafil tea (drink), cafilam tea house
cefàb coffee plantcefáb coffee bean, coffee, cefil coffee (drink), cefilam cafe
cifàb blackcurrant bushcifáb blackcurrant
cufàb raspberry bushcufáb raspberry
cófàb currant bushcófáb currant
sifàb pepper plantsifáb pepper, sifáber to pepper, sifábika peppery
kafab olive treekafáb olive, kafábél olive oil
rafab oak treerafáb acorn
refab beech treerefaob beechwood
rifab chestnut treerifáb chestnut
rufab plane tree 
rófab poplar tree'rófaob poplar wood
ráfab birch treeráfaob birchwood
réfab locust tree 
rífab chestnut treefífáb chestnut
rúfab willow treerúafab weeping willow
ralafab lime tree, lindenralafáb lime
ralefab maple treeralefaob maplewood
ralofab elm treeralofaob elmwood
dofab evergreen treedofáb cone
dafab fir tree 
defab pine treedefáb pine cone, defaéb pine needle, defaob pine (wood)
dufab cypress treedufaob cypress wood

Plants, vegetables, grains, and legumes

vob plantvober to plant, vobem plantation, vobud planter, vobier to harvest, vobijob harvest (time), vobésam farm, vobyesud farmer
vab grassvabem grassland, prairie, vabema rural, vabgorcer to mow, vabemet lawn, vabán grass (lawn), vabij germ, vabóg moss, vabib crop, harvest, vabiber to reap, vabam barn
veb ear, tuft, spike 
vib stem 
vaob hay 
vub blade, sprig, twig 
váb seedvábet seedling, váber to seed
vâb grain, bean 
vulob thorn, spinevulobika thorny
ovob cereal 
avob wheatavol bread, avolek flour
evob rye 
ivob barley 
uvob buckwheat 
óvob oatóvolek oatmeal
ávob hopávil beer
évob rapeseed, colza 
ívob rice 
gavob sunflowergaváb sunflower seed
gevob corn, maizegeváb kernel, gevobek cornmeal
givob tobaccogivoc cigar, givocet cigarette, givov tobacco smoke
favob cottonfaváb cottonseed, favof cotton fabric
fevob flax 
fivob hempfuvov marijuana, pot
fuvob jute 
zavob strawberry bushzaváb strawberry
cavob fern 
cevob thistle 
civob nettle 
savob mushroom 
zevob basil 
zivob thyme 
zuvob rosemary 
ováb legume, bean 
aváb green bean
eváb lentil 
iváb pea 
uváb broad bean 
óváb lima bean 
vol vegetablevolinud vegetarian, volem vegetable garden, volcer to vegetate
lovol tuber 
lavol potato 
levol beetlevel sugar, levela sweet
livol radish 
luvol carrot 
lávol artichoke 
lóvol turnip 
favol leek 
fevol onion 
fivol shallot 
fuvol garlic 
pavol cabbage 
pevol cauliflower 
bavol tomatobavil tomato juice
bevol eggplant 
bivol squash 
buvol cucumberígza buvol pickle
bávol artichoke 
bóvol gherkin 
vavol lettuce 
vevol spinach 
vivol sorrel 
vuvol dandelion 
vávol watercress 
vóvol chicory 
gavol pumpkin 
gevol melon 
givol watermelon 
zavol parsley 

Flowers and colors

voc flowervoca floral, vocer to flower, vocen flowering, vocud florist, vocán bouquet, vocaéb petal, vocém flowerbed, vocésun horticulture
avoc lilyavoza white
evoc narcissusevoza yellow
ivoc poppyivoza red
uvoc roseuvoza pink
óvoc cornfloweróvoza blue
ávoc hydrangeaávoza mauve
évoc lilacévoza lilac
ívoc violetívoza violet
úvoc carnation 
lovoc daisy 
lavoc lily of the valley 
levoc jonquil 
livoc geranium 
luvoc forget-me-not 
lávoc tulip 
lévoc dahlia 
lóvoc hyacinthe 
elavoc iris 
elevoc primrose 
elivoc chrysanthemum 

Colors (voz)

Change -oza to -òza to get -ish as in whitish (avòza).
Change -oza to -óza to get dark ... as in dark red (ivóza).

  voz colorvooz tint, hue
  avoza whitefrom avoc lily
  evoza yellowfrom evoc narcissus
  ivoza redfrom ivoc poppy
  uvoza pinkfrom uvoc rose
  óvoza bluefrom óvoc cornflower
  ávoza mauvefrom ávoc hydrangea
  évoza lilacfrom óvoca lilac
  ívoza violet, purplefrom ívoc violet
  vaza greenfrom vab grass
  moza blackfrom mon darkness or moj night
  maza sky bluefrom mam sky or maj day
  èmoza grayfrom è half + moza black
  meza khakifrom mel soil
  lafáza orangefrom lafáb orange
  rifáza maroonfrom rifáb water chestnut
  rífyza brownfrom rífáb chestnut
  vápeza beigefrom vápet antilope

Some Cross-thematic Analogies in Vocabulary

to seeto lookto watchto visitto witnessto seemto showto aimto perceive





place nameadjectiveinhabitantlanguage
AlgeryamAlgeryaAlgeryatAlgerya Arabad
ArgentinyamArgentinyaArgentinyatArgentinya Spanyad
CiryamCiryaCiryatCirya Arabad
KanadamKanadaKanadatKanada Englandad/Francad
Omir-AfrikamOmir-AfrikaOmir-AfrikatOmir-Afrika Holandad



This textbook presents Version 1 of Mirad, formerly known as Unilingua. For the Version 2 grammar and dictionary, see Mirad Grammar.


The author of Unilingua, Agapoff, uses a double quote to signal capitalization and thus dispenses with all majuscules. In this Mirad textbook, however, majuscules (upper case graphemes) are used and capitalization adheres to the American English model.
In this book, the mostly Cyrillic single-grapheme characters used by Agapoff for iotacized vowels are replaced with the following system:
Pre-iotacized vowels, that is, those preceded by a y-glide sound, take an acute accent:
plain vowelpre-iotacized vowel
aá (ya)
eé (ye)
ií (yi)
oó (yo)
uú (yu)
Post-iotacized vowels, that is, those followed by a y-glide sound, take a grave accent:
plain vowelpost-iotacized vowel
aà (ay)
eè (ey)
iì (iy)
oò (oy)
uù (uy)
Circum-iotacized vowels, that is those that are both preceded and followed by a y-glide sound, take a circumflex accent:
plain vowelcircum-iotacized vowel
aâ (yay)
eê (yey)
iî (yiy)
oô (yoy)
uû (yuy)
A pre-iotacized vowel always begins a new vowel syllabic nucleus, whereas a post-iotacized vowel ends a vowel syllabic nucleus.
Upper-case vowels take the iotacizing accents just as the lower-case values do (thus Á, È, Ô, etc.


The punctuation marks in Mirad are the same as in English. For example, a question mark (?) is used at the end of a sentence or sentence fragment to signal an interrogation.



All nouns in their base form end in a consonant. This distinguishes them from adjectives and conjugated verbs, which end in a vowel.


Nouns are made plural by adding the suffix -i.
tob mantobi men
dat frienddati friends
car instrumentcari instruments


Although nouns do not have inherent gender, the feminine or female-related counterpart of a noun can be formed by post-iotacizing the ordinal (inner) vowel, that is, by adding the grave accent ` to the vowel. If the vowel is already pre-iotacized (with an acute accent), then the acute accent is replaced with a circumflex (^) (circum-yodification) to show that it is both pre-iotacized and post-iotacized.

tad fathertàd mother
tob mantòb woman
tóáv socktóâv stocking
epet bullepèt cow

Case Tagging

Nouns can take the following case endings, which are shortcuts for prepositional phrases:
case endingcategorybasecased form
-agenetive/possessive/relative/ablative [origin]tob mantoba of the man, human (adj.), man's, from the man
-ulocative/dative [destination]tam housetamu to the house, (at) home, for the house
comitive [accompaniment]at I, meatà with me
instrumental [means]és workésè through / by / via work
privative ["without"]tec meaningtecò without meaning, senseless

Examples of the genetive/possessive case:
Meira zem ce gra ama. = The earth's core is very hot.
Ata ted tome íbà. = My father lives far away.
Ed et te dad ifana? = Do you know the language of love?

Examples of the locative/dative case:
Pu tamu! = Go home!
Ít peé tamu. = She is staying at home / in the house / home.
At teaco et uda moju. = I'll see you this evening. (= at this evening)
Buu dén atu! = Give the book to me!
Ev ud ce atu? = Is this for me?

Examples of the comitive case:
Upu atà! = Come with me!
Ud ca ekpan tija tujà. = This was a life-and-death struggle.
At ubeé uda ébdren ifanà. = I am sending you this letter with love.

Examples of the instrumental case:
Et vege nacikcer anà esè. = You can get rich only through work.
It aksa koenè ván. = He succeeded by hiding the truth.
Ágpar pa Parisè. = The train went through Paris.

Examples of the privative case:
Et vò vege akser nacò. = You cannot succeed without money.
Tij ifanò vò naze ser. = Life without love is not worth living.
Od et su atò? = What would you do without me.



All animate pronouns (those referring to people) end in t in their base form, while all inanimate pronouns (those referring to things) end in d in their base form. Pronouns can be singular or plural. All plural pronouns take the plural suffix i.
ot? who?, whom?oti? who all?
at I, meati we, us
et youeti* you (pl.), you all
it he, him, that personiti they, these persons
ìt she, herìti they (fem.)
ut this person, heuti those persons, they
ót nobody, no oneóti none
át everyone, everybody, each personáti all
ót another, someone elseéti others
ít such a personíti such people
ét whoever, anyoneóti any
út someone, somebodyúti certain people
oát not a single person, nobody, no one 
get the same persongeti the same ones
oget someone elseogeti others
gat another onegati several
od whatodi what things
ad that (relative), the oneadi the things that
id thatidi those things
ud thisudi these things
ód nothingódi nothing
ád everything, eachádi all things
ód something else, anotherédi other things
íd such a thingídi such things
éd whatever, anythingédi any
úd somethingúdi some things, certain things
oád not a single thing, nothingoádi none
ged the same thinggedi the same things
oged something elseogedi other things
gad another onegadi several things

    • Note: Agapoff prefers ait, eit, iit for ati, eti, and iti.


All pronouns can take cases, just as nouns do:
genetive/possessive ("of")
ablative ("from")
dative ("to/in/on/at")
comitive ("with")instrumental ("by/through/via")privative ("without")
ata my, of me, from meatu to meatà with meatè by meatò without me
eta your, of you, from youetu to youetà with youetè by youetò without you
ita his, of him, from himitu to himità with youitè by himitò without him
ìta her, of her, from herìtu to herìtà with herìtè by herìtò without her
atia our, of us, from usatiu to usatià with usatiè by usatiò without us
ota whose?, of whom?, from whom?otu to whomotà with whomotè by whomotò without whom
áta everyone'sátu to everyoneátà with everyoneátè by everyoneátò without everyone
oda which, of what, from whatodu to which, at which, in whichodà with what?odè by what?, how?odò? without what?
ida that, of that, from that, thoseidu to that, at that, in thatidà with thatidè by that, thusidò' without that
uda this/these, of this, from thisudu to/at this, thereforeudà with thisudè by this, thusudò without this
áda every, each, alládu to everything, in everytingádà with everythingádè by everything, by all meansádò without everything
óda not, not aódu to nothingódà with nothingódè by nothingódò without nothing
oáda not a single, nooádu in not a single one, to noneoádà with nothingoádè by nothing, in no way--
éda any, whicheverédu to anythingédà with whateverédè by whatever, howeverédò without whatever
úda some, a certainúdu at a certain thingúdà with somethingúdè by something, somehowúdò without something
geda same, the samegedu to the same thinggedà with the same thinggedè by the same thinggedò without the same thing
ogeda different, the other, anotherogedu to another thingogedà with another thingogedè by something elseogedò without another thing

Possessive Pronouns

Any of the above pronominal adjective forms can be substantivized by adding -c. The resulting possessive pronouns can then take the plural affix and case endings.
atac mineataci mine
etac yoursetaci yours
itac hisitaci his
ìtac hersìtaci hers
atiac oursatiaci ours
etiac yoursetiaci yours
itiac theirsitiaci theirs
ìtiac theirsìtiaci theirs
utac one'sutaci one's
otac? whose?otaci whose
átac everyone'sátaci everyone's
ótac nobody'sótaci nobody's
odac? which oneodaci which ones
ódac the other oneódaci the other ones
udac this oneudaci these
idac that oneidaci those
ádac each oneádaci all of them
édac any one, whichever oneédaci whichever ones
Any of the above substantival pronouns can take case endings:
ataca of mine
otacàwith whose
átacuto everyone's
udacòwithout this one

Uda tam ce atac.That house is mine.
Oda déni et dédaé?Which books have you read?
Ída tej aju vò teacâe.Such a life has not been seen before.
Buu atu udi!Give me those!
Áda tej nazace.Every life counts.
Ádac nazace.Each one counts.
Áta tej nazace.Everyone's life counts.
Átac nazace.Everyone's counts.
Áda évcunuti kode.All lawyers lie.
Áti kode.All of them lie.
Át kodeé.Everyone is lying.
Ád ce kod.Everything is a lie.
Mar ce zem áda.The sun is the center of everything.
Ót ége kaer if ádu.One can find pleasure in everything.
If ége uper bi éd.Pleasure can come from anything.
Ud ce ga fia vél id (or: ga fia idu).This is better than that.
Od ce eta dún?What is your name?
At vage éd et vage.I want what(ever) you want.
At vò ta ev it upo.I didn't know whether he would come.
At ta ad it upo.I knew (that) he would come.
Ad tej ce gúa vò vege vodé.That life is hard cannot be denied.
Ev it íztejo vò twe.Whether he will survive is unknown.
At vò te ev it íztejo.I don't know if he'll survive.
Ad ìt sa ce ota seun.What she did is nobody's business.
Atac ce ga aga vé etac.Mine is bigger than yours.
Odac ce etac.Which one is yours?
Édac cu fia atu.Whichever one would be fine for me.
Otac ce ud?Whose is this?
Otaci ce udi?Whose are these?
Ev et co ata dat?Are you going to be my friend?
Oádad ifca atu.I did not like a single one.
Odè ìt tujswa?How (by what) was she killed?
Otà et pa?With whom did you go?
...otacò ait vò vegu íztejer....without whose we could not survive.
Odu et sa id?Why (for what) did you do it (that)?
Iti údè kaa mep.They somehow found the way.
Ébdren drwa atà otè?The letter was written to me by whom?
Ota tamu et peé?To whose house are you going?
Otacu et peé?To whose are you going?


By "correlatives" is meant a set of functional words in the languages than can be arranged in a matrix, all sharing a set of "deictic" or "specifier" prefixes. For example, the English words "which, what, where, why, when, how, who, whether, etc." can be considered part of a matrix of correlatives, because they all ask a question about topics such as "place", "time", "manner", and are therefore called "interrogative correlatives." The situation is similar in Unilingua. Note, however, that some of the correlative words in the chart below are slightly different from those invented by the original author of Unilingua.

Deictic morphemes (specifiers)

categorydeictic morpheme
interrogativeod- which, what
relativead- the, the one which
proximalud- this
distalid- that
intensiveíd- so, such a
genericúd- some, a certain
distributiveád- all, every, each
indeterminateéd- any, whatever
negativeód- no, not any
identicalged- same, selfsame
non-indenticaloged- different, other

Dimensional Classifiers

The above deictic morphemes combine with the following dimensional classifiers to form a whole matrix of functional deictic correlatives:
categoryclassifiershort version

Matrix of Deictic Correlatives

od whatot whooda whichodmu whereodju whenodè howodéna what kind ofodjigu how oftenodganu how muchodnogu how
ud thisut this personuda thisudmu hereudju nowudè this wayudéna this kind ofudjigu this oftenudganu this muchudnogu to this extent
id thatit that person, heida thatidmu thereidju thenidè that way, thusidéna that kind ofidjigu that oftenidganu that muchidnogu to that extent
íd such a thingít such a personída such, such aídmu at such a placeídju at such a timeídè in such a way, soídéna such aídjigu so oftenídganu so muchídnogu so
úd somethingút someoneúda some, a certainúdmu somewhereúdju sometimeúdè somehowúdéna some kind ofúdjigu sometimesúdganu someúdnogu somewhat
ád everythingát everyoneáda every, eachádmu everywhereádju every time, alwaysádè in every wayádéna every kind ofádjigu at all timesádganu all ofádnogu completely
éd whatever, anythingét whoever, anyoneéda whichever, anyédmu wherever, anywhereédju whenever, anytimeédè however, in any wayédéna whatever kind ofédjigu however oftenédganu however much, anyédnogu to any extent
ód nothingót nobodyóda no, not aódmu nowhereódju neveródè in no wayódéna no kind ofódjigu not onceódganu not any, noódnogu not at all
ged the same thingget the same person, selfgeda the same, the verygedmu at the same placegedju at the same timegedè in the same waygedéna the same kind ofgedjigu as oftengedganu, ge as muchgednogu, ge to the same degree, as
oged something elseoget someone elseogeda the other, anotherogedmu elsewhereogedju at another timeogedè elsewiseogedéna another kind ofogedjigu at a different frequencyogedganu not as muchogednogu otherwise

Basic deictic adjectives / Determiners

indefinite/unarya aa tam a house
definite/relativeada theada tam the house, ada tami the houses
interrogativeoda whichoda dén which book, oda déni which books
proximaluda this, theseuda pat this bird, uda pati these birds
distalida that, thoseida pat that bird, ida pati those birds
negativeóda noóda mep no road, óda mepi no roads
totalativeáda every, all, eacháda mep every road, áda mepi all roads
indeterminateéda any, whicheveréda voz any color, éda vozi whichever colors
intensiveída such a, suchída dún such a name, ída dúni such names
partitiveúda some, a certain, certainúda tob some man, úda tobi certain men
identicalgeda samegeda dún the same name
non-identicalogeda different, otherogeda dún different name, another name
quasi-identicalgèda similargèda ceus a similar sound
superiorga morega nac vél at more money than I
equalge as much, as manyge job vél et vage as much time as you want
inferiorgo less, fewergo és less work
majorativegla a lot, muchgla if a lot of fun
quasi-majorativeglà a goodly portion of, severalglà jubi several days
excessivegra too much, too manygra tel too much food
maximal mostgá poti most animals
sufficient enough, quite a bitgé job enough time
minorativeglo very little, very fewglo auti very few individuals
insufficientgro too little, too fewgro ék too little effort
minimal the leastgó ék the least effort

Note: Nouns in Mirad are not normally accompanied by a definite article (the) or an indefinite article (a/an). The word tob can mean man, a man, or the man, depending on circumstances. Where further definition is required, a, the numeric or deictic adjective one, can be used for the indefinite article, while ada, the deictic adjective the can be used for the definite article.

Deitic pronouns

Inanimate pronouns
od? what?odi? what (things)
ad the thing (that)adi the things (that)
ud thisudi these
id thatidi those
ád everythingádi all things
éd anything, whateverédi any things
íd such, such a thingídi such things
ód nothingódi none
úd somethingúdi certain things
ged the same thinggedi the same things
oged another, something elseogedi other things
gèlac a similar thinggèlaci similar things
gac moregaci more things
gec as muchgeci as many things
goc lessgoci fewer things
glac a lot, muchglaci many things
glàc a goodly portionglàci several things
grac too muchgraci too many things
gác the mostgáci most things
géc enough, quite a bitgéci quite a few things
gloc very littlegloci few things
groc too littlegroci too few things
góc the leastgóic as few things as possible
Animate pronouns
ot? who?oti who (pl.)
at Iati we
et youeti you (pl.)
ut this person, this oneuti these
it that person, that oneiti those
át everyoneáti all people
ét anyone, whoeveréti any people
ít such a personíti such people
ót not a single person, nobobyóti none
út somebodyúti certain people
get the same person, selfgeti the same people, themselves
oget the other person, someone elseogeti others, other people
ìt that female,she, herìti they (f.), them
ùt this female, she, herùti they (f.), them
aut person, individualauti persons, people
out nobody, no oneouti no people, none
 ga auti more people
 ge auti as many people
 go auti fewer people
 gla auti many people
 glà auti several people
 gra auti too many people
 gá auti most people
 gé auti quite a few people
 glo auti few people
 gro auti too few people
 gó auti as few people as possible

Note: As with all pronouns and nouns, the above pronouns can appear in the genetive/ablative/possessive case (-a) or dative/locative case (u). For example: otu to whom, ota whose, áta everyone's, gla autia most people's, ata my, etu to you. The possessive adjective forms can, in turn, be substantivized by adding -c (thing): atac mine, atacu to mine, otac whose, getac the same person's, etc.

Determiners of Place

odmu? where?, whither? (also: odma? from where?, whence?)
udmu here (also: udma from here, hence)
idmu there (also: idma from there, thence)
admu at/in/to the place where (relative)
ódmu nowhere
ádmu everywhere
édmu anywhere, whereever
ídmu at/in/to such a place
ogedmu elsewhere (ogedem alibi)
údmu somewhere
gedmu at/in/to the same place (also: gedma from the same place)
gèdmu at/in/to a similar place (also: gèdma from a similar place)

Determiners of Time

odju? when? (also: odja whence?, ji odjob since when?, etc.)
udju now (also: udja hence)
idju then (also: idja thence)
adju when, at the time when (relative)
ódju never
ádju each time, everytime, always, ever
édju anytime, whenever
ídju at/in/to such a time
údju sometime
gedju at the same time
ogedju at another time

Determiners of Quality

odéna? what kind of?
udéna this kind of
idéna that kind of
adéna the/what kind of (relative)
ódéna no kind of
ádéna every kind of
édéna any/whatever kind of
ídéna such
údéna some kind of
gedéna the same kind of
gèdéna a similar kind of
ogedéna another kind of

Determiners of Degree

odnogu? how (...big, ...little, etc.)?, to what extent?
udnogu this, to this degree
idnogu that, to that extent
adnogu how, to what degree, to the extent (that...) (relative)
ódnogu not at all, to no extent
ádnogu completely, to the full extent
édnogu however, to whatever extent
ídnogu so, to such an extent
údnogu in some way, somehow
ge, genogu equally, to the same degree, as
oge, ogenogu unequally, to a different extent
gè, gènogu similarly, to a similar extent
ga, ganogu more, to a greater extent
gla, glanogu very, greatly, very much so
gra, granogu too, to too great an extent, overly, extremely
go, gonogu less, to a lesser extent
glo, glonogu slightly, to a small extent
gro, gronogu to too small a degree, under
gá, gánogu maximally, to the greatest extent possible
gó, gónogu minimally, to the smallest extent possible
gé, génogu enough, rather, pretty, sufficiently, quite
ogé, ogénogu insufficiently
fià, finogu to a good extent, well
fuà, funogu to a bad extent, poorly
végà, véga nogu proportionately
vácà, váca nogu to the right extent, properly, duly
vócà, vóca nogu to the wrong extent, disproportionately, unduly
anogu primarily
enogu secondarily
uja nogu ultimately

Determiners of Manner, Means

odè? how?, in what way?
udè this way, thus
idè that way, thus
adè how, in the way that, as
ódè in no way
ádè in every way
édè in whatever way, however
ídè so, in such a way
údè somehow
gedè in the same way, also
ogedè otherwise
gèdè similarly, likewise

Determiners of Quantity

The noun following the determiner is in the singular if a mass noun (odganu dril how much ink) or in the plural if a countable noun (odganu jubi how many years).
odganu?* how much, how many
udganu this much, this many
idganu that much, that many
adganu how much, how many, the amount/number that
ódganu no, not any, no amount of
ádganu all
édganu any, however much, however many
ídganu so much, so many
údganu a certain amount of, some, some number of
ge, geganu as much, as many
oge, ogeganu a different quanity of
ga more
go less, fewer
gla a lot (of), much, many
glà a goodly amount (of), quite a few
glo little, too many
glò barely, scarcely, hardly
gro too little, too few
as little/few as possible
a fair amount (of), enough, quite a lot (of)
* Literally: in what quantity, as in Odganu nac et àce? How much money do you have?. Used substantively, Odganu becomes Odgan, as in Odgan et àce? How much do you have? If followed by a mass noun, gla means much; if followed by a counting noun, gla means many; if followed by an adjective or adverb, it means very. All of the ga...ge...go words are multifunctional in this way.

Determiners of Frequency

frequency (jig = rate, frequency
odjigu? how often?(lit: on how many occasions)
udjigu this often
idjigu that often
adjigu as often as, the rate that
ódjigu never
ádjigu every time
édjigu however often, anytime
ídjigu so often
údjigu with some frequency, sometimes
gejigu as often
ogejigu at a different rate
gajigu more often
gojigu less often
glajigu (very) often, frequently
glojigu seldom, rarely, not very often
grajigu too often
gájigu as often as possible
grojigu too seldom
gójigu as seldom as possible
géjigu quite often, rather often, frequently enough

Prepositions and relational adverbs

positive middle negative 
ab on, at the top of eb between ob off, at the bottom of
áb above, up éb amid, among ób below, down
with, along by, via without
ib away from ---   ub toward
íb far from ---   úb near to
bi from, of be at bu to
starting with, since ---   ending with, up to, as far as
án together ---   ón apart
za in front of ze in the middle of zo behind
forward across back
áz flush with éz in óz out
iza straight --- uza roundabout
íz beyond ---   úz around, about
zi right ---   zu left
all over through zúa round
ja before je during, while jo after
ahead (in time) throughout back (in time)
ji since --- ju until
av for ev if ov against

Compound prepositions

Prepositions can be compounded for more detailed senses:
compound prepositionexample
ézbu intoIt tôapa ézbu tim. He walked into the room.
ézbi in fromAt upa ézbi mamil. I came in from the rain.
ézbe in (location)Dén ce ézbe ném. The book is inside the box.
ózbu out toPo ózbu ekem. Go out to the playground.
ózbi out of, out fromIt upea ózbi ita ésim. He was coming out of his office.
ózbe out in (as in: out in the backyard)Potòg ce ózbe mamil. The pet is out in the rain.
ábzè overMampar pa ábzè tam. The plane flew over the house.
óbzè underAt tôapa óbzè domep. I walked under the highway.
zèbu across toAt tôapa zèbu ogeda kum. I walked over to the other side.
zèbi across fromIt beme zèbi at. He sits across from me.
zòbu back toAit pee zòbu Berlin. We are going back to Berlin.
zòbe back atAit ce zòbe tom. We are back at home.
zòbi back fromAit ce zóbi Berlin. We are back from Berlin.
zàbu ahead toTeaso zàbu eta oj. Look forward to your future.
zàbi ahead ofEd et ce zàbi at? Are you ahead of me?
ónbi apart fromPa ónbi ogeti. It went apart from the others.
ánbe together withUpo ánbe at. Come along with me.
izbu straight toPo izbu ótotem! Go straight to hell!
izbi straight fromÌt upa izbi nunem. She came straight from the market.
izbe right atAt ca izbe zem. I was right at the center.
zabi in front ofAt ce zabi et. I am in front of you.
zobi in back ofEt ce zobi at.' You are in back of me.
abu ontoBo dén abu cem. Put the book onto the table.
abe on (at)Dén ce abe cem. The book is on the table.
obi off ofBio dén obi cem. Take the book off of the table.
obe on the underside ofEce úd obe cem. There is something on the underside of the table.
ábu up toPo ábi eta tim. Go up to your room.
ábe up inOd ce íd ábe mam? What is that up in the sky?
ábi up fromIt upa ábi aaned. He came up from the first floor.
ábè up (via)At tôapa ábè meb. I walked up the mountain.
óbu down toUpo óbu momtim. Come down to the basement.
óbe down inAt ce óbe momtim. I am down in the basement.
óbi dowm fromUpo óbi mamtim. Come down from the attic.
óbè down (via)It igpa óbè meb. He hurried down the mountain.
óbézbu down intoPa óbézbu mom. He went down into the underground.
úzbu around toPo úzbu ogeda kum tama. Go around to the other side of the house.
úzbè around (via)Par pa úzbè tam. The car went around the house.
ízbi past, beyondPar pa ízbi ait. The car went past us.
ízbu on toAt pa ízbu Kanad. I went on to Canada.

Postpositions / Cases

The following case endings or postpositions are shortcuts for prepositions:

short formlong form
-a of, frombi
-u to, on, atbu to or be at / in / on
by, via, through, per
For example, the following expressions are equivalent:
long formshort form
be tam bi X at the house of Xtamu Xa
bi dom bu dom from town to towndoma domu
tej bò if life without pleasuretej ifò
bè Paris by way of ParisParisè
bà at with meatà

Other Prepositional Constructions

vélu regarding, concerning, about, with respect to
gè ov despite
kumu next to, beside, along, on the side of
ón bi apart from
án bu together with
gal in addition to, plus, including, besides
gol minus, except
gar times, multiplied by
gor divided by
zamu...-a in the face of (also: be zamu bi)
cànu ...-a in the guise of
canu ...-a in the form of
debanu ...-a under the auspices of
ûb in the presence of, in the face of
dida ...-è at the request of
iju...-a at the end of
tecu...-a in the sense of
av búun...-a for the sake of
... thanks to
... along the lines of
izanu...-a in the direction of
zág along
kumnidu ...-a on the edge of, on the brink of
genidu ...-a in line with, parallel to
úbanu ...-a in the vicinity of, around
gáanu ...-a in excess of
bi abem...-a off the top of
bi kumnidu...-a from the brink of
dudea...-u in response to
ovbea in opposition to
... in contrast to
lovanu...-a in spite of
oejanu...-a in the absence of
usu ...-a because of
usu ...-a on account of
gè ov notwithstanding
...-è per
vél than, compared to, relative to
adju ...-a at the time of
admu ...-a at the place of

Using prepositions

Prepositions go between the two elements they link, just as in English. Here are some examples:
Odju et po bu déntam?(or: déntamu)When are you going to the library?
Uda bun ce av et (or: etu).This gift is for you.
Dyen ca ab cem (or: cemu).The book was on the table.
Upu bay at (or: atà).Come with me.
Iyt igpa ub titam.She ran toward the school.
Et co éz gela titim.You will be in the same class.
Tob tyoyapa ózbi tam.The man walked out of the house.
Mampar zaymampa ábzè dom.The plane flew over the city.
Nidpar pa bi him bu hum.The train went from here to there.
Et voy ibo bun ju zemoj.You won't receive the gift until midnight.

Prepositions prefixed to verbs

As adverbials, many prepositions can be prefixed to other words, especially to verb bases. The following is a list of per (go) and ber (put) verbs with prepositional prefixes. Note that prepositions ending in b drop the b before the verb bases per and ber.

intransitive   transitive  
aper get on aber put on
eper stop eber stop
oper get off ober take off
áper rise áber raise
éper intervene éber block
óper descend óber lower
iper go (away) iber receive
uper come uber send
úper approach úber bring near
íper go away íber take away
ézper enter ézber bring in
ízper surpass ízber take beyond
zéper go through zéber pull through
zèper transit zèber take across
ánper meet ánber unite
ónper separate ónber separate
izper go straight/ head (for) izber guide
zúper roll zúber turn
ózper exit ózber take out
zòper return, go back zòber take back
zòpuer arrive back zòbuer give back
zateaser look forward zoteaser look behind
zèteaser look across zíteaser look all around
zéteaser look through ízteaser look beyond
ézteaser look in ózteaser look out
ábteaser look up óbteaser look down
ibteaser look away izteaser look straight (ahead)
ziteaser look left zuteaser look right
uzteaser look askance úzteaser look around
avdaer speak for ovdaer speak against

Personal pronouns and pronominal adjectives

Personal pronouns have three persons (represented by the ordinal vowels a (1st), e (2nd), and i (3rd).
The plural forms have the suffix i.
There are also three case forms, which are alternate ways of expressing prepositional relations: Add -a for the genetive/possessive (of, from); -u for the locative/dative (to, at, for); (short for ) for with; è (short for ) for through/by, and ò (short for ) for without.
Note: These are the same case endings that can be added to any nouns. For example, tamu (to the house), taébò (without hair), teda (father's).
nominative/accusative genetive/possessive dative/locative comitive instrumental privative
at (I, me) ata (my, mine) atu (to/for me) atà (with me) atè (through/by me) atò (without me)
et (you) eta (your, yours) etu (to/for you) età (with you) etè (through/by you) etò (without you)
it (he, him) ita (his) itu (to/for him) ità (with him) itè (through/by him) itò (without him)
ìt (she,her) ìta (her, hers) ìtu (to/for her) ìtà (with her) ìtè (through/by her) ìtò (without her)
ati (we, our) atia (our, ours) atiu (to/for us) atià (with us) atiè (through/by us) atiò (without us)
eti (you [all]) etia (your, yours) etiu (to/for you) etià (with you) etiè (through/by you) etiò (without you)
iti (they, them (m. or m/f)) itia (their) itiu (to/for them) itià (with them) itiè (through/by them) itiò (without them)
ìt (they (f.)) ìtia (their) ìtiu (to/for them) ìtià (with them) ìtiè (through/by them) ìtiò (without them)

Possessive pronouns are expressed with the addition of -c to the genetive/possessive ending:
This book is mine.Uda dén ce atac.
Those books are ours.Ida déni ce atiaci.
Theirs has not arrived. Itiac vò puaé.
Theirs have arrived. Itiaci puaé.
Is this yours or mine?Ev ud ce etacatac?
Will you come to mine tomorrow?Ev et upo atacu zajubu?
Nothing will happen without yours.ód swo etacò.


Correlative Conjunctions/Adverbs

va yesve maybevo no
indeed possibly not
và...và both...andvè...vè either...orvò...vò neither...nor
av that, so that, forev whether, ifov lest, against
à andè orò but
with by, through, via without
ga more (than)ge as, equal togo less (than
most enough least
also, moreover even, including except, but
gla verygle somewhatglo slightly, little, not very
gra too (much)gre just, exactlygro too little
Note: oev = unless; ad means that as the conjunction introducing a factual clause, not to be confused with av meaning so that introducing a subjunctive or unreal clause.
I do want to go, but I cannot.At vage per ò at vege.
Do you know whether he's coming.Ev et te ev it upo?
It will either rain or snow. mamilo màlómo.
If it rains, I'll not come.Ev mamilo at vò upo.
No, it's not true that he died.Vo, ce váa ad it tuja.
My father and mother are still alive.Ata ted à tèd gaju tejeé.
Is it true that you were you born here?Ev et tija udmu?
We did not know (that) you were married.Ati ta ad et ce tadca.
The fact that you work is not the issue.Ad et ése vò ce kos.
Whether you work or play is more important.Et ése eke ce ga kíta.
Unless you go to school you will never learn anything.Oev et po titamu et ódju tio úd.
In order to learn you must study more.Av ticer et ége ga tier.
Everyone except you is ready.Yat et ce perfia.
Did you want me to come long?'Ev et vaga av at àpu?
I want you not to leave.At vage ov et piu.
Don't tell her what I did.Ov du ìtu od at sa.
Are you for or against me?Ev et av è ov at?

Other Conjunctional Expressions

ad thatAti ta ad it upo. We knew (that) he would come.
av so thatAt egdo id av et tico. I will repeat it so that you'll understand.
avad becauseIt tuja bi us avad it vò abá ígtef. He died because he was not wearing a helmet.
ju untilJu et uvdo at vò teapo et. Until you apologize, I will not visit you.
ji sinceJi et pua at cee iva. Since you arrived, I've been happy.
ánad even though, althoughÁnad et oka, at gaju fítce et. Even though you lost, I still respect you.
ovad despite the fact thatOvad et zageda, et vò upa. Despite the fact that you agreed in advance, you didn't come.
igjo as soon asIgjo ìt pua at gafi teca. As soon as she arrived, I felt better.
váfà ge just asVáfà ge at jada, ija mamiler. Just as I predicted, it started raining.
ge ev as ifÌt teubozá ge ev ìt ca iva. She smiled as if she were happy.
ev whetherAt vò te ev mamilo. I don't know whether it will rain.
ev ifEt zàpo ev et éko. You will advance if you try.
à andEt à at ce gá fia. You and I are the best.
è orEt vege jobier è kobier; ce eta kebi. You can borrow or steal; it's your choice.
kéà ad in the event thatKéà ad mamilo, aúbio eta mamilovar. In the event that it should rain, bring along your umbrella.
fiákea av in the hope thatIt nucbia drénet fiákea av it ako. He bought a ticket in the hope that he would win.
fúnea ov for fear thatIt ézpa fúnea ov mamilo. He went inside for fear that it might rain.
ov lestBono ov et tíjso lopét. Stay calm lest you awake the snake.
ónad aside from the fact thatYonad gaijop mamile, doma mamecan ce gla fia. Aside from the fact that it rains occasionally, the city's weather is very nice.
tea ad knowing thatAt vage tujer tea ad at po totamu. I want to die knowing that I will go to heaven.


Verbs in Mirad are conjugated for tense (present, past, future), mood (indicative, conditional/imperative/subjunctive/jussive), voice (active, passive), and finiteness. The verbal system is perfectly regular and predictable.
The infinitive, which serves as the dictionary lookup form, always ends in -er. The stem, therefore, is the infinitive without the -er ending. For example, the stem of the verb buner (to push) is bun. The stem is used as the base of all conjugated verb forms.

Finite forms

Finite verb forms are modulated for tense based on the three-way vowel distinction a (present), e (past), and o (future).
A fourth ending, u is used for the equivalent of the English conditionals, subjunctives, and imperatives.
Verbs can be further modulated for progressive, anterior (perfect), and imminent senses through compounding.
Endings do not change depending on the subject person. For example, unlike in English where am, are, and is are used in the present depending on the subject, the Unilingua verb cer has one present indicative form of to be for all persons: ce.
at ceI am
et ceyou are
it cehe is
ìt ceshe is
id cethat is, it is
ud cethis is
ot cewho is?
ati cewe are
eti ceyou (all) are
iti cethey are
íti cethey are
oti cewho are?
át ceeveryone is
ét cewhoever/anyone is
ód cenothing is
apeti cehorses are
Simple tense forms
The simple tense verb forms are generated by adding the tense markers a, e, o, or the conditional marker u to the stem of the verb. For example, the stem of the verb ter to know is t and the inflected forms of the simple tenses are as follows:
Active voice forms
epresentIt te. He knows.
apastAt ta. I knew.
ofutureEt to. You will know.
uconditionalIti tu. They would know.
Non-indicative forms
The u ending is not only used for the conditional as above, but also non-indicatives moods such as the imperative and and subjunctive. The conditional form without a subject is used for imperatives (direct commands). Positive subjunctives and jussives are expressed with the use of the affirmative jussive conjunction av (for, so that, let) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional.
Vudirect commandAku! (short for Av et aku!) Win!.
av N Vumay N VAv ati aku! May we win!.
av N Vulet N VAv it upu. Let him come.
av N Vuwishes, etc.At vàge (av) et piu. I wish you would leave.
Negative subjunctives and jussives are expressed with the use of the negative jussive conjunction ov (against, lest) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional.
ov Vudirect commandOv oku!. Don't lose!
ov N Vumay N VOv ati oku! May we NOT lose!.
ov N Vulest N VOv it upu. Don't let him come.
ov N Vuwishes, etc.At vayge ov et piu. I wish you would NOT leave (lit: I wish lest you leave).
Unreal conditionals are expressed with the conditional conjunction ev (if, whether) followed by the subject and the verb in the conditional (-u) in both the main and subordinate clause..
ev N Vu, N Vu...if N were..., N would...Ev at cu edeb, at ívsu it. If I were king, I would free him.
Illative patterns
Beginning a sentence with the conditional conjunction ev (whether, if) makes the sentence into a yes/no question:
ev + VPIs it true that...?Ev et aka? Did you win?
Use the negative adverb voy (not) in front a verb to negate it:
vò + VnegativeEt vò ako. You will not win.
ev + negVPnegative interrogativeEv et vò akeé? Aren't you winning?
Similary, the positive adverb vay (indeed) is used in various combinations to qualify verbs. Like (not), this adverb immediate preceeds the verb form.
và + VaffirmativeAt và aka. I did win. / I won indeed.
Used the potential adverb (maybe) in front of a verb to qualify it as potential or possible (like English may):
vè + VpotentialIt vè ako He may win!.
ev + VPnegative potential interrogativeEv et vè vò akaú? Might'nt you have won?
Passive voice forms
The passive voice is formed by preceding the tense endings with w.
w+epresentIt twe. He is known.
w+apastIt twa. He was known.
w+ofutureIt two. He will be known.
w+uconditionalIt twu. He would be known.

Progressive aspect forms

The progressive or continuous tenses, which are optional and used only where the distinction is useful, are formed from the simple present forms by compounding with pre-iotacized tense vowels.
e+épresent continuous activeAt akeé. I am winning. (pronounced: a-KE-ye)
e+ápast continuous activeAt akeá I was winning. (pronounced: a-KE-ya)
e+ófuture continuous activeAt akeó. I will be winning.
e+úconditional continuous activeAt akeú. I would be winning.
we+épresent continuous passiveAt akweé. I am being beaten.
we+ápast continuous passiveAt akweá I was being beaten.
we+ófuture continuous passiveAt akweó. I will be in the process of being beaten.
we+úconditional continuous passiveAt akweú. I would be in the process of being beaten.

Anterior tense forms

The anterior or perfect tenses, which are also optional, are formed from the simple past tense form by compounding with pro-iotacized tense vowels.
a+épresent perfect activeAt akaé. I have won.
a+ápast perfect activeAti akaá We had won.
a+ófuture perfect activeAti akaó. We will have won.
a+úconditional perfect activeAti akaú. We would have won.
wa+épresent perfect passiveIti akwaé. They have been beaten.
wa+ápast perfect passiveIti akwaá. They had been beaten.
wa+ófuture perfect passiveIti akwaó. They will have been beaten.
wa+úconditional perfect passiveIti akwaú. They would have been beaten.

Imminent aspect forms

The so-called imminent tenses are formed from the simple future active tense forms in the same way.
o+épresent imminent activeAt akoé. I am going to win.
o+ápast imminent activeAt akoá I was about to win.
wo+épresent imminent passiveEt akwoé. You are going to be beaten.
wo+ápast imminent passiveEt akwoá. You were about to be beaten.

Non-finite forms

eractive infinitiveEt ége aker You must win.
werpassive infinitiveEt vò vagu akwer You would not want to be defeated.
enactive verbal nounAken ce ád. Winning is everything.
wenpassive verbal nounAt vò ife akwen. I do not like being beaten.
eaactive present participleAkea ekut The winning player
aaactive past participleAkaa ekut The player who won.
oaactive future participleTob ce tujoa. Man is mortal (about to die).
uaactive conditional participleTob cua deb. The man who would be king.
weapassive present participleAkwea ekut The player being beaten
waapassive past participleMagelwaa taol Cooked meat.
woapassive future participleTeacwoa pancin the film to be seen
wuapassive conditional participleOteacwua tob the invisible man
present affirmative gerundiveAt teacibso pueà. I will call upon arriving.
present negative gerundiveAt ija teò éd. I started without knowing anything.
past affirmative gerundiveTeacaà at pia. Having seen, I left.
past negative gerundiveAt pila dom teacaò ád. I left the town without having seen everything.
enèpresent instrumental gerundiveEt akso gla ésenè. You will succeed by working hard.
    • Note: The -ua/wua ending approximates the English -able ending. oteacwua = invisible, íztijua = survivable, ogorwua = indivisible, vegua = capable, opanua = immobile. Adding an -n forms the substantive, eg. ogorwuan = indivisibility.

Conditional constructions

In sentences with conditional clauses the conditional clause is in the same tense as the main clause, contrary to the practice in English:
  • Ev mamilo at co uva. If it rains (= will rain), I will be sad.
  • Ev mamilaú at caú uva. If it had rained (= would have rained), I would have been sad.
  • Ev at cu nasika at ga zípu. If I were (=would be) rich, I'd travel more.
  • Ev et tu dud, (av et) du id atu. If you (= would) know the answer, (= that you would) tell it to me.

Sequence of tenses

Unlike in English, the tense of a consecutive clause is a real tense, not an adjusted tense relative to the main clause:
  • It da ad it tadco at. He said he would (= will) marry me.
  • It da ad it teaca it ejipu. He said he had seen (= saw) it twice.

Impersonal constructions

Impersonal verbs are conjugated without the subject personal pronoun:
  • Mamileé. It is raining.
  • Amco. It will warm up.
  • Eco dropek. There will be a war.
  • Ége av et upu já. It is necessary that you come early.
  • Ce fia. It's ok.

The verb "to be"

In Mirad, the verb cer (to be) is not suppressed in the present tense as in some languages like Russian or Agapoff's original version of Unilingua. Also, there is no existential distinction as in Spanish between ser and estar. Furthermore, the progressive forms ceá and ceé can be used at times as in some of the examples below:
  • Ati ce íva! We are free.
  • At co idmu. I'll be there.
  • Déni ca ab cem. The books were on the table.
  • Cayo e jubi ji at ca dopu. It will have been two days since I was in the army.
  • Cer ey voy cer. To be or not to be.
  • At caú uva ev et vò upaú. I would have been sad if you hadn't come.
  • Et ceé gla fua. You are being very bad.
  • At vò ceá ivcla. I was not being funny.

Reflexive constructions

Verbs can be made reflexive by adding the direct object get (self).
  • At vímila get ja per majtulu. I washed up (washed myself) before going to breakfast.
  • Tobet tuja get. The boy killed himself.
  • At teasa get cinzéfu. I looked at myself in the mirror.
  • Tu get! Know thyself!

Modal or auxiliary verbs

ívermaypermissionEt íve iper. You may leave.
úvermustrequirementEt úve iper. You must leave.
ûvershouldobligationEt ûve iper. You should leave.
égerhave tonecessityAt ége iper. I have to leave.
êgershouldobligationEt êge iper. You ought to leave.
vagerwant tovolitionAt vage iper. I want to leave.
vaagerlong toyearningAt vaage iper. I long to leave.
vàgerwould like topreferenceAt vàge iper. I would like to go.
vagrerbe eager toeagernessAt vagre iper. I am eager to leave.
valterintend tointentionAt valte iper. I intend to leave.
vegercanabilityAt vege ser id. I can do that.
vogerrefuse torefusalAt voge ser id. I refuse to do that.
ákerexpect toexpectationAt áke aker. I expect to win.
áakerhopetoaspirationAt áake aker. I hope to win.
ékertry toattemptIt vò éko iper. He won't try to leave.
éklerdare todareIt vò éklo iper. He will not dare leave.
ókerto be surprised tosurpriseAt óka aker. I was surprised to win.
iferto love toloveIt ife eker. He loves to play.
ìferto like tolikingIt ìfe eker. He likes to play.
uferto hate tohateIt ufe eker. He hates to play.
ùferto dislike todislikeIt ùfe eker. He dislikes playing.
iverto be glad togladnessAt ivo iper. I shall be glad to leave.
uverto regret toregretAt uva der id. I regretted saying it.
averto favorespousalAt ave iper. I favor leaving.
overto be opposed tooppositionAt ove eker. I am opposed to playing.
As you see in the examples above, modal verbs are followed by the infinitive form (-er) of the main verb.

Subordinate clauses introduced by ad

The positive complementizer particle ad (the fact that) is used to introduce a subordinate clause:

  • At ta (ad) it upo. I knew THAT he would come.
  • At ce vala (ad) et vádeé. I'm sure THAT you are telling the truth.
  • Ad mamilo ce valan. THAT it will rain is a certainty.
  • Ata tèd da (ad) iyt co tamu ojo èmaj. My mother said THAT she would be home by noon.
As in English, if the that can be dropped without any loss of meaning, it can be:
  • At da at dro. I said I'd (= I'll) write.
  • Et ta it sa id. You knew he had done (= did) it.
Unlike in English, a relative sequence of tenses is not applied. For example, English "I knew he would come." is rendered in Unilingua as "I knew he will come."
Do not confuse the particles ad and av. Clauses following ad are facts, whereas clauses following av are unreal wishes. Av should be thought of as so that.
  • At pana av it ábtu. I moved so that he could (= would) sit down.
  • At ta ad it ábto. I knew that he would (= will) sit down.

Subordinate clauses introduced by ev

The conditional complementizer particle ev (whether) is used to introduce a subordinate clause of the type "whether...":
  • At vò ta ev it upo. I did not know whether he would come.
  • Ev it upo ca teskía atu. whether he would or would come was not important to me.


Adjectives end in the suffix -a. They are invariable in form:
  • aga big
  • oga small
  • aza strong
  • oza weak
  • taba bodily
  • teaba ocular
  • tea aware
  • otea unaware

Adjectives used substantively to describe persons end in -t, while those used to describe things end in -c:

adjectiveanimate substantiveinanimate substantive
yoga young / newyogat youthyogac novelty
tuja deadtujat dead persontujac dead thing
fia goodfiat good personfiac good thing

Adjectives always preceed the noun they modify:

  • aga tam a big house
  • yaga drun the long sentence
  • aza tob the strong man
  • mona maf a dark cloud

Serial adjectives usually go in the same order as in English:

  • ujna via jeeba jub the last beautiful summer day

Degrees of Comparison in Adjectives and Adverbs

Summary of Comparison Constructions
Note: vél is a preposition that comes from the verb véler to relate and is used to signal the object against which a relative comparison is being made (than, relative to).
gá...vélthe most...in/of
gé...vélrather...compared to
gó...vélthe least...in/of
The Comparative of Superiority
More than is expressed by the adverb ga, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared:
Ata tadet ce ga aza vél et.My brother is stronger than you.
At ga ése vél et.I work more than you.
Ita tedet ga aga vél ata.His son is taller than mine.
Uda dén ce ga ketlea vél idac.This book is more interesting that that one.
Mam ce ga aga vél et tese.The sky is bigger than you think.
The Comparative of Equality
As...as' is expressed by the adverb ge, following by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared.
Ìt ge te vél at.She knows as much as I do.
At ge fi deuze vél et.I sing as well as you do.
Ata tam ce ge aga vél eta.My house is as big as yours.
Ece ge tobi vél tobomi.There are as many grownups as babies.
The Comparative of Inferiority
Less...than' is expressed by the adverb go, following by the adjective, adverb, or verb and the preposition vél (in relation to, than, as) preceding the noun, pronoun, or predicate being compared.
Ìt go te vél at.She knows less than I do.
At go fi deuze vél et.I sing less well than you do.
Ata tam ce go aga vél etac.My house is less big than yours.
Ece go tobi vél tobomi.There are fewer grownups than babies.
The Superlative of Superiority
The most...of/in' is expressed by the adverb gya, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb, and the compared noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition vyel.
Ud ce gya yobaga miam vyel mir.This is the deepest lake in the world.
At gya fi deuze.I sing the best.
Gya fia ticudi vyel ticudyan akbuyo.The best students in the class will be rewarded.
At ce gya ivat vyel yati.I am the happiest person of all.
The Superlative of Inferiority
The least...of/in' is expressed by the adverb gyo, followed by the adjective, adverb, or verb, and the compared noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition vyel.

Uda ticud ce gó tepaza vél áda ticudi.This student is the least intelligent of all the students.
At gó fi deuze.I sing the least well.
Gó fia ticudi vél ticudyan uóvfuso.The worst students in the class will be punished.
At ce gó ivat vél áti.I am the least happy person of all.
Idioms Using Adjectival/Adverbial Comparison Constructions
ga...gathe more...the moreGa mamile ga ilirke. The more it rains, the more it floods.
ga...gothe more...the lessGa iva at ce ga azà at dae. The happier I am the louder I speak.
go...gathe less...the moreGo et tile ga fia ce. The less you drink the better.
go...gothe less...the lessGo et ézbue go et ózbie. The less you put in the less you get out.
gá...as much as possible...At tele gá ida telamu. I eat as much as possible in that restaurant.
gá veá...the most possiblePuo gá já veá. Arrive as early as possible.
gó veá...the least possibleBookco gó veá. Tire yourself out the least possible.
vòga...vélno more...thanAt tila oga vél jubénà. I drank no more than usual.

Note: vél, as a preposition, originates from a verb, much like the prepositions gal plus and gar times:

galer to addgal plus
garer to multiplygar times
goler to subtractgol minus
gorer to dividegor divided by
véler to relatevél relative to, than



Adverbs can be formed from adjectives by post-iotacizing the adjectival ending, that is, by changing -a to , for example:
fia goodfià well
ana singleanà only
gía easygíà easily
The adverbial ending is really the same as the comitive ending, meaning with. So, in effect, nouns in the comitive case are really adverbs. The same holds true for the instrumental ending by means of, through, by.
gúan difficultygúanà with difficulty
ágan lengtháganè lengthwise, by length
bik carebikà with care, carefully
at meatè by me
Similarly, a noun in the dative case (-u) can amount to an adverbial expression.
uda job this dayudjobu today
oda em which placeod(e)mu where?
tam housetamu (at) home
mep waymepu en route
Some words are inherently adverbs:
  • áb up as in go up
  • ób down as in come down
  • ahead as in run ahead
  • back as come back
  • úz around as in spin around
  • ga more as in eat more
  • go less as in eat less
  • ge same, as as in as big or do the same
  • gla very as in very good
  • glo not so as in not so bad
  • indeed as in He is indeed our leader.
  • not as in He is not our leader.
  • possibly as in It's possibly true.


Adverbs are compared in the same way as adjectives:
normalequalitive degreecomparitive degreemaximal degree
igà quicklyge igà (vél) as quickly (as)ga igà more quicklygá igà as quickly as possible
ugà slowlyge ugà (vél) as slowly (as)go ugà less slowlygá ugà as slowly as possible


Adverbs, like adjectively, normally precede the element in the sentence which they modify, however, this rule is a loose one and can be bent without peril in most cases.
  • Igà upu! Come quickly!
  • At anà go te. I know only a little.
  • Uda tam fià ceswa. This house was built well.
  • Et vò sa ge fuà. You did not do as badly.
  • Upu gá ubà. Come as closely as possible.
  • At vò te ev it pa áb è ób. I don't know whether he went up or down.


Adverbs formed from adjectives ending in -ia or -ua can be shorted to -i and -u, respectively:
  • Pu fi! Fare well!
  • vi swa beautifully done
  • ésu gú! Work hard!

Conversation Lessons

Lesson 1: Greetings (Dotsini)

Cu baka!Hello! [Lit: "Be healthy."]
Gè et.Hi. (in return) [Lit: "Equally you."]
Fijub!Good day!
Fimaj!Good morning!
Fiumaj!Good evening!
Fimoj!Good night.
Upu và!!Welcome! [Lit: "Come indeed"]
Et ce odéna?How are you? [Lit: "You are what-like"]
Et ce odbéna?How are you? [Lit: "You are in-what-situation."]
At ce baka.I'm fine. [Lit: "I am well."]
At ce fibéna.I'm fine. [Lit: "I am in-good-situation."]
At ce ficana.I'm fine. [Lit: "I am in-good-form."]
Ev coni fipe?How are things? [Lit: "Are things going well?"]
Ád fipe.Everything is going well.
Et se odà?How are you doing? [Lit: "You do how?"]
At se fià.I'm doing well. [Lit: "I do well."
Vò fia vò fua.So-so. [Lit: "Not good not bad."]
Naztwe!Thanks! [Lit: "It is appreciated."][naz = value]
Atu ifca.You're welcome. [Lit: "It was a pleasure for me."]
À ev et?And you? [Lit: "And whether you?"]
At gè ce baka.I'm fine, too. [Lit: "I likewise am healthy."]
Od ce joga?What's new. [Lit: What is new?"]
Eta tod ce odéna?How is your family? [Lit: "You family is what-way?"]
Ata tod ce ficana.My family is fine. [Lit: "My family is in good shape."]
Cu baka!!Goodbye!, Farewell! [Lit: "Be healthy."]
Gè et!!Goodbye to you, too! [Lit: "Likewise you."]

Vocabulary Notes

  • bak = health
  • baka = healthy
  • cer = to be
  • cer baka = to be healthy, to be well
  • Cu baka!! [future/imperative] = Be well! Farewell! Hello!
  • At ce baka. = I'm fine. (= I am well.)
  • = equally, also, too, likewise
  • gè at = me too; I, as well
  • gè fia = equally good, also good
  • gebénu = in the same situation/manner
  • ev = Whether?; Is it true that?
  • od? = What?
    • odà? = How? ( = adverbial ending/"with")
    • odéna? = How?, (Lit: what-wise?)
    • odbéna? = How? (Lit: what-mannered?)
    • odcana? = How? (Lit: what-shaped?)
  • av = for (prep), let, so that (conj.)
    • Av it bakcu. = Let him be well. [Lit: "So that he be healthy."]
  • à = and (ò = but, è = or)
  • vo = no (va = yes, ve = maybe)
    • = not ( = indeed, certainly, = possibly, may)
    • vò fua = not bad
    • At vè ce boka. = I may be ill.
    • It và ce ficana. = He is really in good shape.
  • ód = nothing (ád = everything)
  • at = I, me
  • atu = to me, for me
  • ata = my, mine
  • et = you
  • etu = to you, for you
  • eta = your
  • it = he, him
  • itu = to him, for him
  • ita = his
  • can = shape, form, condition, state, status
  • fican = good shape, good form, good condition
  • ficana = in good shape, well, in good condition
  • ficana cer / fincancer = to be in good shape, to be fine
  • fucan = bad shape, bad condition
  • fucana cer / fucancer = to be in bad shape, to be unwell
  • odcana = in what shape, how
  • odcana ce... = How is...
  • bén = manner, situation
  • fia = good (fua = bad)
  • fibéna = in a good situation, fine
  • odbéna? = in what situation?, in what manner?, how?
  • ge = equal, same, as
  • gebéna = in the same situation, unchanged
  • naz = value
  • ter = to know
  • twer = to be known
  • nazter = to appreciate, to know the value, to be thankful
    • naztwe. = (It) is appreciated [passive voice], thank-you, thanks
    • Gla naztwe. = Much appreciated; Thank-you very much.
  • der = to say (...to [someone] = ...-u)
  • nazder = to express appreciation, to thank (+ ...-u)
    • At nazda itu av ita és. = I thanked him for his work.
  • nazden = thanks, expression of appreciation

Lesson 2: Getting Acquainted

At vàge [ad] et ijtu ata dat Ivan.I'd like you to meet my friend, Ivan. [Lit: "I'd like that you be acquainted with..."]
Ce gla if ijter et.Very pleased to meet you. [Lit: "It is a great pleasure to..."]
Od ce eta dún?What's your name?
Ata dún ce Maria.My name is Mary.
Odmu et tome?Where do you live?
At tome New Yorku/erozáki udma.I live in New York/two kilometers from here.
Et tome idmu ji od?How long have you lived there? [Lit: "You live there since what?"]
At tome ida domu ji alo jabi.I have lived in that city for 10 years. [Lit: I live in that city since...]
Od ce eta és?What do you do for a living? [Lit: "What is your work?"]
At ése ge biktut. À ev et?I work as a nurse. And you?
At eju keé és.I am currently looking for work.
Ev et aé aga tod?Do you have a big family?
Ata tedeti ce odjaga?How old are your children? [Lit: "What-aged are..."]
Gajagat ce ale jaga à gajogat ce ú jaga.The elder is twelve years old and the younger is nine. [Lit: "...is 12 of age...is 9 of age."]
Ev et gè ce tadca (or: tadaá)?Are you also married?
Vo. At ce tadokca/tadónca/tadoá.No. I'm widowed/divorced/unmarried. [Lit: "mate-lost/mate-separated/mate-less"]
Odmu et tija?Where were you born?
At tija úb udem.I was born near here.
Odju et emkála udmu?When did you move here. [Lit: "....change location..."]
At pua ji e jabi.I arrived four years ago. [Lit: "...since four years"]

Vocabulary Notes

  • ijter = to get to know, to become acquainted with, to meet (for the first time) (ijtat acquaintance)
  • ifcer/uifcer = to please/be pleased
  • tomer = to reside, to live, to make one's home
  • éser = to work
  • aér = to have
  • vàger = to wish, to like to (At vàge --er = I'd like to --)
  • dúncer = to be named, to be called
  • ser = to do, to make
  • keer = to seek, to look for (kaer = to find, koer = to hide)
  • tijer = to be born (tujer = to die)
  • tadcer = to get married
  • tadokcer = to be widowed
  • tadòcer = to be unmarried
  • emkáler = to relocate, to move (emkóler = to settle down)
  • puer = to arrive (pier = to depart)
  • jagcer = to get old, to age (jogcer = to get young)
  • dat = friend
  • tad = spouse, mate (tàd = wife, tadca married)
    • tadokcat = widow(er)
    • tadóncat = divore(e)
    • tadoát = bachelor/bachelorette
  • tedet = offspring, son, daughter, child
  • tod = family
  • tom = residence, home = (tomu = at home)
  • dom = city (domu = in the city, in town)
  • és = work (ésu = at work)
  • jag = age (jaga = old, joga = young)
  • tij = birth (tuj = death, tej = life)
  • dún = name
  • job = time
  • jab = year (jabi = years, e jabi two years, udjabu this year)
  • ej = the present (eju at present, eja present)
  • em = place, space (emkáer to relocate)
  • jagat = young person (gajagat = cadet, younger one)
  • jogat = old person (gajogat = elder)
  • if = pleasure (Ca if. It was a pleasure.)
  • ja = before (jo = after, je = during)
    • ja ej = ago [Lit: before the present]
  • ji = since (ju = until)
    • ji od = since when, for how long (ji e jabi = for two years)
  • ga = more (go = less, ge = equal)
  • gla = very, much, many (glo = little, few, slightly)
  • úb = near to (íb = far from, úbem vicinity)
  • bu = to (bi = from)
  • udem = this place (ud(e)mu = here, ud(e)ma from here, od(e)mu? = where?
  • idem = that place (id(e)mu = there, id(e)ma from there)
  • udjob = the present (udj(ob)u = now, odj(ob)u? when?)
  • idjob = that time (idj(ob)u = then, ji id since then)