Microtechnology/Additive Processes

Additive ProcessesEdit

Processes where material is added to the wafer.



Oxidation in microtechnology refers most often to the oxidation of silicon. A layer of silicon dioxide created on the surface of a silicon wafer can be easily patterned. An SiO2 layer can be created by thermal oxidation or by deposition.

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)Edit

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)Edit

Sputter DepositionEdit

Energetic ions sputter material off the target which diffuse through the plasma towards the substrate where it is deposited. There is no strong plasma glow around the cathode since it takes a certain distance for the plasma to be generated by electron avalanches started by a few secondary electrons from the sputtering process.

Electron Beam Evaporation CoatingEdit

Epitaxial GrowthEdit

Electrochemical MethodsEdit


Electroless depositionsEdit


Photo and electron beam resists as well as many other polymers are often coated on wafers by spinning a volatile solution of the compund onto the wafer.

Surface FunctionalizationEdit


See also notes on editing this book about how to add references Microtechnology/About#How to Contribute.