Apart from additiev and etching processes, there is also a range of processes to alter the materials properties and to characterize them.
Rapid Thermal Anneal (RTA)Edit
- Direct bonding
- Plasma activated bonding
- Anodic bonding
- Eutectic bonding
- Glass frit bonding
- Adhesive bonding
- Thermocompression bonding
- Reactive bonding
- Silicone oil
- Spray-on polymers
Ellipsometers are used to measure thin film thicknesses by their optical properties (refractive index and reflectivity/absorbance).
4 Point MeasurementsEdit
The four-point probe technique can be used to measure the conductivity of thin films. For improved measurements micro four-point probes can be used. Capres has an application note about micro four-point probes.
Atomic Force MicroscopyEdit
The Atomic force microscope (AFM) is mainly used to measure the topography of a surface, such as the roughness.
Scanning Electron MicroscopyEdit
JEOL has a good guide to SEM image interpretation
Theres a good introduction to optical microscopy from Zeiss.
See also notes on editing this book about how to add references Microtechnology/About#How to Contribute.