Micronations/Print version

< Micronations

IntroductionEdit

 
Micronation Map made by Green Rosie Choi

A micronation is a small entity that claims to be an independent nation or sovereign state but is not recognized as such by world governments or major international organisations. In the modern world there are more than 400 existing Micronation.[1]

 
The Principality of Sealand is a micronation located on a seafort off the coast of the United Kingdom.[2]

A micronation expresses a formal and persistent, even if unrecognized, claim of sovereignty over some physical territory. Micronations are distinct from true secessionist movements; micronations' activities are almost always trivial enough to be ignored rather than challenged by the established nations whose territory they claim. Several micronations have issued coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, medals, and other items. These items are rarely accepted outside their own community but may be sold as novelties to help raise money or collected by enthusiasts.

The earliest known micronations date from the beginning of the 19th century. The advent of the Internet provided the means for people to create many new micronations, whose members are scattered all over the world and interact mostly by electronic means, often calling their nations "nomadic countries". The differences between such "Internet micronations", other kinds of social networking groups, and role-playing games are often difficult to define.[3]

EtymologyEdit

The term 'micronation' literally means "small nation". It is a neologism originating in the mid-1970s to describe the many thousands of small unrecognised state-like entities that have mostly arisen since that time.

The term has since also come to be used retrospectively to refer to earlier unrecognized entities, some of which date to as far back as the 19th century. Amongst supporters of micronations ("micronationalists") the term "macronation" is in common use to refer to any internationally recognised sovereign nation-state.

DefinitionEdit

 
"Welcome to the Conch Republic"—a sign at Key West International Airport.

Micronations generally have a number of common features, although these may vary widely. They may have a structure similar to established sovereign states, including territorial claims, government institutions, official symbols and citizens, albeit on a much smaller scale. Micronations are often quite small, in both their claimed territory and claimed populations—although there are some exceptions to this rule, with different micronations having different methods of citizenship. Micronations may also issue formal instruments such as postage stamps, coins, banknotes and passports, and bestow honours and titles of nobility.

The Montevideo Convention was one attempt to create a legal definition distinguishing between states and non-states. Some micronations meet this definition, while some do not, and others reject the convention. Some micronations like Sealand or Hutt River reject the term micronation and consider themselves as sovereign states; other micronations like Flandrensis or Molossia have no intention to be recognized as real states.[4]

Micronations contrast with microstates, which are small but recognized sovereign states such as Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City.[5] They are also distinct from imaginary countries and from other kinds of social groups (such as eco-villages, campuses, tribes, clans, sects, and residential community associations).

Notable ExamplesEdit

  1. Operation Atlantis, an early 1970s New York–based libertarian group, built a concrete-hulled ship called Freedom, which they sailed to the Caribbean, intending to permanently anchor it as their "territory". The ship sank in a hurricane and the project was then abandoned.
  2. Republic of Minerva, another libertarian project that succeeded in building a small man-made island on the Minerva Reefs south of Fiji in 1972 before being invaded by troops from Tonga, who annexed it before destroying the island.[6]
  3. Principality of Freedonia, a libertarian project that supported the Awdal Road Company's attempts to lease land from the Sultan of Awdal in Somaliland in 2001. If the Awdal Road Company is able to build a road, then the Sultan of Awdal will give land to allow the ARC to create an economic free zone, and some of that territory will then be handed over to the Principality of Freedonia. After the men from Awdal Roads Company were deported following false allegations about the lease, resulting public dissatisfaction led to rioting, and the reported death of a Somali.[6]
  4. Republic of Rose Island, an artificial island constructed in 1968 by Italian architect Giorgio Rosa in the Adriatic Sea. The structure was built as a tourist attraction, but soon after it was finished, Rosa declared sovereignty. The Italian navy dynamited the structure the following year.[7]
  5. Global Country of World Peace, "a country without borders for peace-loving people everywhere", was declared by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in 2000. It made several attempts to buy or lease land for a sovereign territory.[8] It is now governed by Maharaja Tony Nader.[9] Its currency is the Raam and its capitals include Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa and Vlodrop.
  6. Asgardia, founded on October 12, 2016 by Igor Ashurbeyli, is a proposed nation based in outer space. Plans are for the country to be pacifist, have no official language, to hold a competition to design its flag, insignia and national anthem, and to become part of the United Nations. As of 25 March 2017 over 169,327 people have signed up and become officially recognised members of the country.
  7. The Free Republic of Liberland, founded in 2015, claims a small parcel of land between Croatia and Serbia called Siga. It shares a land border with Croatia and has its eastern border on the Danube. Because of the Croatia-Serbia border dispute some land is claimed by both countries and other parcels are claimed by neither.[10] It has established formal relations with Somaliland[11].
  8. Principality of Seborga, a town in the region of Liguria, Italy (near the southern end of the border with France and encompassing the town of Seborga), which traces its history back to the Middle Ages.[12]
  9. The Principality of Hutt River (formerly "Hutt River Province"), a farm in Western Australia, claims to have seceded from Australia to become an independent pri The Principality of Sealand, a World War II-era anti-aircraft platform built in the North Sea beyond Britain's then territorial limit, seized by a pirate radio group in 1967 as a base for their operations, and now used as the site of a secure web-hosting facility. Sealand has continued to promote its independence by issuing stamps and money, and appointing an official national athlete. It has been described as the "world's most notorious micronation" as well as the "world's smallest and weirdest country".[13][14]
  10. The Crown Dependency of Forvik is an island in Shetland, currently recognized as part of the UK. Stuart Hill claims that independence comes from an arrangement struck in 1468 between King Christian I of Denmark/Norway and Scotland's James III, whereby Christian pawned the Shetland Islands to James in order to raise money for his daughter's dowry. Hill claims that the dowry was never paid and therefore it is not part of the UK and should be a crown dependency like the Isle of Man. Hill has also encouraged the rest of Shetland to declare independence.[15]
  11. The Imperial Throne, formerly the Russian Empire, is a micronation created in 2011 by Russian businessman and politician Prince Anton Bakov, chairman of the Monarchist Party of the Russian Federation. In 2014, the Imperial Throne proclaimed that Prince Karl Emich of Leiningen, one of several claimants to the royal Romanov line, was now Nicholas III, Emperor of All Russia. The Imperial Throne claims to be in contact with the governments of Montenegro and North Macedonia about a grant of territory and state recognition.
  12. The Dominion of British West Florida is a separatist micronation founded in 2005 "on an eccentric interpretation of actual historic events"[16] and based in the Gulf Coast of the United States. It claims the territory of the 18th-century colony of West Florida, which has since been subsumed into the US states of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi.[17]
 
Flag of The Dominion of British West Florida

ReferencesEdit

HistoryEdit

 
The Old Light of Lundy, a former micronation in England.

The first recorded micronations appeared in the 1800s. These were generally founded by eccentric adventurers or business speculators, many of who were remarkably successful with their micronations (such as John Clunies-Ross, who founded the Kingdom of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and whose family ruled the islands until 1978, when King Ross V was forced to sell the islands to Australia for £2.5m ($4.75m).) Unfortunately, many others were not so successful, and their micronations (such as the Republic of Indian Stream) quickly foundered.[citation needed]

Early History & EvolutionEdit

Martin Coles Harman, owner of the British island of Lundy in the early decades of the 20th century, declared himself King and issued private coinage and postage stamps for local use. Although the island was ruled as a virtual fiefdom, its owner never claimed to be independent of the United Kingdom, so Lundy can at best be described as a precursor to later territorial micronations. Another example is the Principality of Outer Baldonia, a 16-acre (65,000 m2) rocky island off the coast of Nova Scotia, founded by Russell Arundel, chairman of the Pepsi Cola Company (later: PepsiCo), in 1945 and comprising a population of 69 fishermen.[citation needed]

History During 1960 to 1980Edit

The 1960s and 1970s witnessed the foundation of a number of territorial micronations. The first of these, Sealand, was established in 1967 on an abandoned World War II gun platform in the North Sea just off the East Anglian coast of England, and still survives. Others were founded on libertarian principles and involved schemes to construct artificial islands, but only three are known to have had even limited success in realizing that goal.[citation needed]

The Republic of Rose Island was a 400 m2 (4,300 sq ft) platform built in 1968 in Italian national waters in the Adriatic Sea,7 miles (11 km) off the Italian town of Rimini. It is known to have issued stamps, and to have declared Esperanto to be its official language. Shortly after completion, however, it was seized and destroyed by the Italian Navy for failing to pay state taxes.[18]

In the late 1960s, Leicester Hemingway, brother of author Ernest, was involved in another such project—a small timber platform in international waters off the west coast of Jamaica. This territory, consisting of an 8-foot (2.4 m) by 30-foot (9.1 m) barge, he called "New Atlantis". Hemingway was an honorary citizen and President; however, the structure was damaged by storms and finally pillaged by Mexican fishermen. In 1973, Hemingway was reported to have moved on from New Atlantis to promoting a 1,000 sq yd (840 m2) platform near the Bahamas. The new country was called "Tierra del Mar" (Land of the Sea). (Ernest Hemingway's adopted hometown of Key West was later itself part of another micronation; see Conch Republic.)[citation needed]

The Republic of Minerva was set up in 1972 as a libertarian new-country project by Nevada businessman Michael Oliver. Oliver's group conducted dredging operations at the Minerva Reefs, a shoal located in the Pacific Ocean south of Fiji. They succeeded in creating a small artificial island, but their efforts at securing international recognition met with little success, and near-neighbour Tonga sent a military force to the area and annexed it.[citation needed]

On April 1, 1977, bibliophile Richard Booth declared the Welsh town of Hay-on-Wye an independent kingdom with himself as its monarch. The town subsequently developed a healthy tourism industry based on literary interests, and "King Richard" (whose sceptre was a recycled toilet plunger) awarded Hay-on-Wye peerages and honours to anyone prepared to pay for them.[19]

Japanese Micronations in the 1980sEdit

In 1981, drawing on a news report about Leicester Hemingway's "New Atlantis", novelist Hisashi Inoue wrote a 700-page work of magic realism, Kirikirijin, about a village that secedes from Japan and proclaims its bumpkinish, marginalized dialect its national language, and its subsequent war of independence. This single-handedly inspired a large number of Japanese villages, mostly in the northern regions, to "declare independence", generally as a move to raise awareness of their unique culture and crafts for urban Japanese who saw village life as backwards and uncultured. These micronations even held "international summits" from 1983 to 1985, and some of them formed confederations. Throughout the 1980s there was a "micronation boom" in Japan that brought many urban tourists to these wayward villages. But the harsh economic impact of the Japanese asset price bubble in 1991 ended the boom. Many of the villages were forced to merge with larger cities, and the micronations and confederations were generally dissolved.[20]

Australian & New Zealand DevelopmentEdit

Micronational developments that occurred in New Zealand and Australia in the final three decades of the 20th century included:

  • The Principality of Hutt River was founded in 1970, when Leonard Casley declared his property independent after a dispute over wheat quotas.[21][6]
  • In Victoria, a long-running dispute over flood damage to farm properties led to the creation of the Independent State of Rainbow Creek in 1979.[6]
  • An anti-taxation campaigner founded the Grand Duchy of Avram in western Tasmania in the 1980s; "His Grace the Duke of Avram" was later elected to the Tasmanian Parliament.[6]
  • The Empire of Atlantium was established in Sydney, in 1981 as a non-territorial global government.[6]
  • The Republic of Whangamomona was established in 1989.[6]

Effects of the InternetEdit

Micronationalism shed much of its traditionally eccentric anti-establishment mantle and took on a distinctly hobbyist perspective in the mid-1990s, when the emerging popularity of the Internet made it possible to create and promote statelike entities in an entirely electronic medium with relative ease. An early example is the Kingdom of Talossa, a micronation created in 1979 by then-14-year-old Robert Ben Madison, which went online in November 1995, and was reported in The New York Times and other print media in 2000.[22] As a result, the number of exclusively online, fantasy or simulation-based micronations expanded dramatically.[citation needed] The micronation Ladonia coexists as both a physical territory and as a large and active online community that resembles a third place, distinguishing itself from other micronations, which are either active online communities or claim small physical territories.[23]

The activities of these types of micronations are almost exclusively limited to simulations of diplomatic activity (including the signing of "treaties" and participation in "supra-micronational" forums such as the League of Micronations) and contribution to wikis. With the introduction of the Internet, many articles on how to create micronations were made available on such wikis, which serve as a hub of online activity for micronations. The most notable wiki for the forum, MicroWiki,[24] was created in 2005[25] and is currently administered by Jonathan Austen, the leader of Austenasia.[citation needed]

A number of traditional territorial micronations, including the Hutt River Province, Seborga, and Sealand, maintain websites that serve largely to promote their claims and sell merchandise.[citation needed]


ReferencesEdit

This is a list of some micronations that have since ceased to exist.

The presentEdit

Some characteristics of most micronations are shown below.

  • Generally considered a joke.
  • Not recognized by any generally recognized nation.
  • Usually, though not always, either small to minuscule or enormous in size.
    • If they are small, they are usually based on the home or previous property of their creators.
    • If enormous, this territory is often extraterrestrial or imaginary (virtual or mental construct).

This is a list of some micronations that already exist.

Some micronationalists are:

War against another nationEdit

Declaring warEdit

Micronations can declare war on other micronations just like other countries. However recognized counties (called macronations by the micronation community) typically will not recognize it as a real war. As such they may arrest anyone who participants in the war if the war turns violent.

Prosecuting the warEdit

Micronations usually fight war jokingly, since if the two micronations would actually fight with weapons, the actual recognized countries nearby might declare the micronations violent (although in some cases, such as during the Molossian-Mustachistani War, surrounding recognized countries instead remained neutral), and try to take over. Some also fight in non lethal ways such as paintball or airsoft this is to avoid begin arrested by macronations.

Ending the warEdit

Micronations most commonly end wars with peace treaties, declaring peace between the two nations. However some do end in one side surrendering.

List of already occurred warsEdit

The creation of MicronationsEdit

Flag & Coat of ArmsEdit

See Designing a flag and a coat of arms

IndependenceEdit

See Independence

Political and legal decisionsEdit

Constitutional stateEdit

the third requirement for states is a government, to be recognized by other states micronations need to have a constitution defining and/or describing their government structure and function.

Establishing sovereigntyEdit

A micronation must establish sovereignty and the name of that micronation known to other states. To make their sovereignty official they draft a declaration proclaiming how and why they created a sovereign state including legal reasons why their sovereignty is valid and send it out to surrounding states.

National DefenseEdit

Defending territory against outside forces (pirates, for example) is a tough problem to overcome. If you have made treaties with other, more powerful nations that require them to aid you if you so ask of them, this may be of great benefit in terms of defense. However, in the case of a small man-made island, the outcome of an attack against the island depends greatly on whether the other nation's forces arrive too aid on time or not.

a state may happen to have the resources to build it's own defense force. a state may set up signs around their island to warn outsiders of their existence and their right to defend themselves. Creating a defense force requires, tactical and strategic placement of military resources. most micronations don't have the money or ability to own and/or maintain large scale military firearms and thus they must rely on more basic methods. Concrete road barriers and entrenched infantry positions are useful for defending against relatively short-range attacks from the sea, this does require an island with enough room to store ammunition and hold up to recoil, as well as some way to repair or evacuate the island in the case of an emergency. However, even if a state has the firepower, the state must allocate substantial human resources to defend it's territory which in the context of a micronation is somewhat difficult.


Planting mines *may* be against international law; a state must declare that it has mined an area, but how specific it is in declaring it is completely up to them. Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Motivations Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Methods Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Materials Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Construction Guides Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Plants Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Facilities Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Facilities/Water Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Facilities/Food Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Facilities/Power Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Facilities/Communication Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Facilities/Transport Micronations/Starting your own micronation/Making an Island/Moving a Floating Island

Flag & Coat of ArmsEdit

See Designing a flag and a coat of arms

IndependenceEdit

See Independence

Political and legal decisionsEdit

Constitutional stateEdit

the third requirement for states is a government, to be recognized by other states micronations need to have a constitution defining and/or describing their government structure and function.

Establishing sovereigntyEdit

A micronation must establish sovereignty and the name of that micronation known to other states. To make their sovereignty official they draft a declaration proclaiming how and why they created a sovereign state including legal reasons why their sovereignty is valid and send it out to surrounding states.

National DefenseEdit

Defending territory against outside forces (pirates, for example) is a tough problem to overcome. If you have made treaties with other, more powerful nations that require them to aid you if you so ask of them, this may be of great benefit in terms of defense. However, in the case of a small man-made island, the outcome of an attack against the island depends greatly on whether the other nation's forces arrive too aid on time or not.

a state may happen to have the resources to build it's own defense force. a state may set up signs around their island to warn outsiders of their existence and their right to defend themselves. Creating a defense force requires, tactical and strategic placement of military resources. most micronations don't have the money or ability to own and/or maintain large scale military firearms and thus they must rely on more basic methods. Concrete road barriers and entrenched infantry positions are useful for defending against relatively short-range attacks from the sea, this does require an island with enough room to store ammunition and hold up to recoil, as well as some way to repair or evacuate the island in the case of an emergency. However, even if a state has the firepower, the state must allocate substantial human resources to defend it's territory which in the context of a micronation is somewhat difficult.


Planting mines *may* be against international law; a state must declare that it has mined an area, but how specific it is in declaring it is completely up to them.

Flag & Coat of ArmsEdit

See Designing a flag and a coat of arms

IndependenceEdit

See Independence

Political and legal decisionsEdit

Constitutional stateEdit

the third requirement for states is a government, to be recognized by other states micronations need to have a constitution defining and/or describing their government structure and function.

Establishing sovereigntyEdit

A micronation must establish sovereignty and the name of that micronation known to other states. To make their sovereignty official they draft a declaration proclaiming how and why they created a sovereign state including legal reasons why their sovereignty is valid and send it out to surrounding states.

National DefenseEdit

Defending territory against outside forces (pirates, for example) is a tough problem to overcome. If you have made treaties with other, more powerful nations that require them to aid you if you so ask of them, this may be of great benefit in terms of defense. However, in the case of a small man-made island, the outcome of an attack against the island depends greatly on whether the other nation's forces arrive too aid on time or not.

a state may happen to have the resources to build it's own defense force. a state may set up signs around their island to warn outsiders of their existence and their right to defend themselves. Creating a defense force requires, tactical and strategic placement of military resources. most micronations don't have the money or ability to own and/or maintain large scale military firearms and thus they must rely on more basic methods. Concrete road barriers and entrenched infantry positions are useful for defending against relatively short-range attacks from the sea, this does require an island with enough room to store ammunition and hold up to recoil, as well as some way to repair or evacuate the island in the case of an emergency. However, even if a state has the firepower, the state must allocate substantial human resources to defend it's territory which in the context of a micronation is somewhat difficult.


Planting mines *may* be against international law; a state must declare that it has mined an area, but how specific it is in declaring it is completely up to them.

Flag & Coat of ArmsEdit

See Designing a flag and a coat of arms

IndependenceEdit

See Independence

Political and legal decisionsEdit

Constitutional stateEdit

the third requirement for states is a government, to be recognized by other states micronations need to have a constitution defining and/or describing their government structure and function.

Establishing sovereigntyEdit

A micronation must establish sovereignty and the name of that micronation known to other states. To make their sovereignty official they draft a declaration proclaiming how and why they created a sovereign state including legal reasons why their sovereignty is valid and send it out to surrounding states.

National DefenseEdit

Defending territory against outside forces (pirates, for example) is a tough problem to overcome. If you have made treaties with other, more powerful nations that require them to aid you if you so ask of them, this may be of great benefit in terms of defense. However, in the case of a small man-made island, the outcome of an attack against the island depends greatly on whether the other nation's forces arrive too aid on time or not.

a state may happen to have the resources to build it's own defense force. a state may set up signs around their island to warn outsiders of their existence and their right to defend themselves. Creating a defense force requires, tactical and strategic placement of military resources. most micronations don't have the money or ability to own and/or maintain large scale military firearms and thus they must rely on more basic methods. Concrete road barriers and entrenched infantry positions are useful for defending against relatively short-range attacks from the sea, this does require an island with enough room to store ammunition and hold up to recoil, as well as some way to repair or evacuate the island in the case of an emergency. However, even if a state has the firepower, the state must allocate substantial human resources to defend it's territory which in the context of a micronation is somewhat difficult.


Planting mines *may* be against international law; a state must declare that it has mined an area, but how specific it is in declaring it is completely up to them.

Designing your flagEdit

Making a flag is probably one of the most important part in creating a micronation. Your flag is the face of your country, it must be simple, tidy, and meaningful.[26] According to the North American Vexillological Association, the following are the 5 principles for making a good flag: [27]

  1. Keep It Simple.  The flag should be so simple that a child can draw it from memory.
  2. Use Meaningful Symbolism.  The flag’s images, colors, or patterns should relate to what it symbolizes.
  3. Use 2 or 3 Basic Colors.  Limit the number of colors on the flag to three which contrast well and come from the standard color set.
  4. No Lettering or Seals.  Never use writing of any kind or an organization’s seal.
  5. Be Distinctive or Be Related.  Avoid duplicating other flags, but use similarities to show connections

Please remember that several micronations do not follow those rules. For example, the Principality of Seborga and Liberland both use seals on their flags. Nova Roma uses lettering on its flag. The flag of Akhivland is definitely not simple enough for a child to draw from memory. Just keep your flag meaningful, and make sure you are glad with your results.

Flags of MicronationsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. What is a Micronation? World Atlas
  2. History of Sealand The principality of Sealand. Archived from the original on 1 October 2015.
  3. Mateusz Kudła,"Jak zostać premierem nie odchodząc od komputera" (in Polish). onet.pl. http://technowinki.onet.pl/komputery/jak-zostac-premierem-nie-odchodzac-od-komputera,1,4909220,artykul.html. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
  4. Springtime of micronations spearheaded by Belgian “Grand-Duke” Niels Brussels Times
  5. Sack, John; Silverstein, Shel (1959). Report from practically nowhere. Harper. https://archive.org/details/reportfrompracti00sack. 
  6. a b c d e f g Sellars, John Ryan, George Dunford, Simon (2006). Micronations :the Lonely Planet guide to home-made nations. London: Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 28–33. ISBN 978-1-74104-730-1. Invalid <ref> tag; name ":0" defined multiple times with different content
  7. "Riemerge l'isola dell'Utopia - Corriere della Sera". www.corriere.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-05-19.
  8. McGirk, Jan (2001-06-08). "Yogi's disciples want to create new utopia". The Independent (London (UK)): p. 17. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-5165376.html. 
  9. MIZROCH, AMIR (2006-07-23). "Forget the F-16s, Israel needs more Yogic Flyers to beat Hizbullah. 30-strong TM group, sole guests at Nof Ginnosar Hotel, say they need another 235 colleagues to make the country safe". Jerusalem Post: p. 4. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110713123549/http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1153291974316&pagename=JPArticle%2FShowFull. 
  10. "Balkans: Czech man claims to establish 'new state'". 16 April 2015. https://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-32332473. 
  11. "Somaliland says it wants closer cooperation with unrecognised Liberland". 26 September 2017. https://www.bbc.com/news/live/world-africa-40829012. 
  12. Sellars, John Ryan, George Dunford, Simon (2006). Micronations : [the Lonely Planet guide to home-made nations]. London: Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 28–33. ISBN 978-1-74104-730-1.
  13. Sellars, John Ryan, George Dunford, Simon (2006). Micronations : [the Lonely Planet guide to home-made nations]. London: Lonely Planet Publications. pp. 28–33. ISBN 978-1-74104-730-1.
  14. "JOURNEYS—THE SPIRIT OF DISCOVERY: Simon Sellars braves wind and waves to visit the unlikely North Sea nation of Sealand". The Australian. Archived from the original on 2007-11-16. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
  15. Hill, Stuart (2008-06-21). "Forvik Declaration of Direct Dependence". The Crown Dependency of Forvik. Archived from the original on 2009-04-19. https://web.archive.org/web/20090419160142/http://www.forvik.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=44&Itemid=53. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  16. "Unrecognised States Numismatic Society". Retrieved 2008-07-31.
  17. Ryan, John; Dunford, George; Sellars, Simon (2006). Micronations. Lonely Planet. pp. 139. ISBN 1-74104-730-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=5ZRrwrlIPSYC&pg=PA139&dq=%22Dominion+of+British+West+Florida%22&num=100&sig=YhBcJM7aMT3_lGOnBxpfyobMMOs. 
  18. "Riemerge l'isola dell'Utopia - Corriere della Sera". www.corriere.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-05-19.
  19. "Mid Wales Arts—Richard Booth". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/mid/halloffame/arts/richard_booth.shtml. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  20. Shigeru Inoue, Nippon Matchidukuri Jiten, pp. 407–409, 2010, ISBN 4-621-08194-2
  21. Bicudo de Castro, Vicente; Kober, Ralph (2018-04-18). "The Principality Of Hutt River: A Territory Marooned in the Western Australian Outback". Shima: The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures 12 (1). doi:10.21463/shima.12.1.13. ISSN 1834-6057. 
  22. Mimh, Stephen (May 25, 2000). "Utopian Rulers, and Spoofs, Stake Out Territory Online". The New York Times. 
  23. Bicudo de Castro, Vicente; Kober, Ralph (2019-04-15). "The Royal Republic of Ladonia: A Micronation built of Driftwood, Concrete and Bytes". Shima: The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures. doi:10.21463/shima.13.1.10. https://shimajournal.org/issues/v13n1/10.-Bicudo-de-Castro-and-Kober-Shima-v13n1.pdf. 
  24. MicroWiki. https://micronations.wiki/wiki/Main_Page. Retrieved October 14, 2016
  25. History of the MicroWiki Community. MicroWiki. https://micronations.wiki/wiki/History_of_the_MicroWiki_Community. Retrieved October 14, 2016
  26. How to make a micronation: Flags and Symbols
  27. Good Flag, Bad Flag | N.A.V.A

The basics of independenceEdit

According to the 1933 Montevideo convention "The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (A) a permanent population; (B) a defined territory; (C) government; and (D) capacity to enter into relations with the other states." However, in practical terms, recognition as an independent state requires other independent states to agree with this status. The best way to get recognition from major countries is for a state to join the UN. For an "island state" a good way to be recognized would be to join SIDS

Note: the United Nations Conference on the Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS) does not recognize artificial islands as holding island status although no restrictions have been on artificial islands constituting the territory of a state.

Who Owns the Ocean?Edit

The Zones:

  • Internal Waters: These are any bodies of water that are above the low-tide mark, such as rivers and deep bays. You can do anything here. These are within your territory in all respects, and you can expel other countries' ships from here even if they do not pose a risk to you because anyone passing within these waters without express permission is trespassing. (However, some countries have agreed to allow ships free passage through some rivers to allow landlocked countries access to the sea.)
  • Territorial Sea: The 12 nautical miles about a territory are usually under the exclusive control of a state and all activities are permitted, most notably harvesting minerals and fishing. Any other countries' ships can pass through without danger, as long as they do not threaten you in any respects. You can regulate other countries' ships' activities here. You can expel other countries' warships, but in peacetime that is usually considered unnecessary.
  • Contiguous Zone: Another 12 miles past the border of the territorial sea, you can enforce your customs, immigration, and sanitation in this area. You can also engage in Hot Pursuit, or chasing lawbreakers.
  • Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): You can do any kind of fishing and mineral exploration here. You are trusted to use it wisely. This zone extends as far as 200 nautical miles, making exceptions for countries that are closer together. All natural resources in this area are yours and yours only, unless agreements have been made to the contrary.
  • The High Seas: This extends beyond the EEZ, and anyone can do anything here, unless it is prohibited by international law. The mineral resources out here are for anyone that can extract them.

Note: the United Nations Conference on the Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS) does not recognize artificial islands as having sea territory, although artificial island are allowed to have a 500 Meter safety zone.


External LinksEdit

  • www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf -complete document of UNCLOS.
  • cdn.vanderbilt.edu/vu-wp0/wp-content/uploads/sites/78/2019/07/12052304/Imogen-Saunders.pdf -article on artificial islands constituting territory.

How micronations functionEdit

Micronations/Rationale

With Recognized StatesEdit

By definition a critical factor that separates micronation from a typical state is recognition by other states. However just because a micronation is not recognized by a state does not preclude a state from interaction with a micronation. Naturally these interactions are characterized by the character of both nations.

Sometimes these relationships can be symbiotic, with both states receiving a benefit. An example can be seen in the Conch Republic, which while humorous, was ultimately established to gain the attention of government authorities about an issue that was causing harm to the local tourism economy.[1][2] Later the Conch Republic itself became a tourist attraction.[3]

Other times relations can be more antagonistic. For example when Liberland established itself on Terra Nullius between two established countries, it effectively entered itself into a border dispute, leading to police vacating the area.[4] The Free State of Jones was able to successfully resist the Confederacy in Jones County, Mississippi during the American Civil War by engaging in guerilla warfare and aligning itself with the Union cause.[5]

With other MicronationsEdit

ReferencesEdit

IncomeEdit

A means to generate income to cover operational costs is critical to the operation of any state. While recognized nations have a variety of tools at their disposal for this purpose, most Micronations lack the ability to tax a substantial number of citizens.

The Principality of the Hutt River had an economy based on tourism, and when COVID-19 decimated that industry, the micronation fell with it.[1]

ReferencesEdit