Memorizing the Katakana/Dakuten

Dakuten ( ゙ ) and Handakuten ( ゚ ) are marks placed after certain katakana that modify the way the consonant is pronounced. These marks indicate that the consonant of the syllable should be voiced.

normal with dakuten ( ゙ ) with handakuten ( ゚ )
カ = ka ガ = ga
サ = sa ザ = za
タ = ta ダ = da
ハ = ha バ = ba パ = pa

"Shi" (シ) turns into "Ji" (ジ)
"Chi" (チ) also turns into "Ji" (ヂ)
"Tsu" (ツ) turns into "Zu" (ヅ)
"U" (ウ) turns into "Vu" (ヴ)


Sokuon (ッ) is a symbol consisting of a small Tsu (compare with normal Tsu: ツッ). It is used to insert a slight pause.


Chōonpu (ー) is a symbol used to indicate a long vowel sound. Long vowels can also be written by using the corresponding vowel katakana.

normal with chōonpu ( ー ) is the same as
プ = pu プー = puu プウ = puu

Memorizing the Katakana
Tough characters Dakuten Easy quiz