Dakuten ( ﾞ ) and Handakuten ( ﾟ ) are marks placed after certain hiragana that modify the way the consonant is pronounced. These marks indicate that the consonant of the syllable should be voiced.
|normal||with dakuten ( ﾞ )||with handakuten ( ﾟ )|
|か = ka||が = ga|
|さ = sa||ざ = za|
|た = ta||だ = da|
|は = ha||ば = ba||ぱ = pa|
"Shi" (し) turns into "Ji" (じ)
"Chi" (ち) also turns into "Ji" (ぢ)
"Tsu" (つ) turns into "Zu" (づ)
Iteration marks ( ゝ) indicate that a sound is to be repeated. Iteration marks can also be combined with dakuten.
|normal||with iteration ( ゝ )||with dakuten iteration ( ゞ )|
|す = su||すゝ = susu||すゞ = suzu|
Sokuon (っ) is a symbol consisting of a small Tsu (compare with normal Tsu: つ). It is used to insert a slight pause.
Chōonpu (ー) is a symbol used to indicate a long vowel sound. Long vowels can also be written by using the cooresponding vowel hiragana.
|normal||with chōonpu ( ー )||is the same as|
|ぷ = pu||ぷー = puu||ぷう = puu|