Medical Informatics

The purpose of this work is to survey computer usage in the health sciences.

With contributions from:

  1. Kevin C. O'Kane


Development of Medical Information Systems


Pioneering Work

  1. MUMPS - Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming Language (R. Greenes and N. Pappalardo)
  2. COSTAR - Computer Stored Ambulatory Record - Costar (O. Barnett)
  3. University of Missouri - Columbia System (D.A. Lindberg)
  4. Technicon Lockheed/Technicon System
  5. PROMIS University of Vermont PROMIS System (L. L. Weed)
  6. Texas Institute for Research and Rehabilitation Information System (C. Valbonna & W. Spencer)
  7. LDS Hospital System (H. Warner, et al)
  8. Kaiser-Permanente System (M. Collen)
  9. VISTA - Veterans Administration (DCHP)
  10. Johns Hopkins Oncology Clinical Information System and Tedium (B. Blum)
  11. Dietary Systems

Computer Based Medical Records Systems

  1. Overview of Computer Based Medical Records
  2. Case Studies of Computer Based Medical Records

Economics of Health Care Delivery

  1. Societal Factors
  2. Rising Tide of Clinical Data and Reporting Requirements

Impact of New Technologies

  1. The Structure of the Patient Encounter with the Health Care System
  2. Confidentiality and Data Security
  3. Medical Linkage, Patient Tracking and Scheduling
  4. Pharmacy Systems
  5. Utilization Review and Quality Assurance

Clinical Decision Support Systems

  1. Clinical Decision Support Overview
  2. Expert Systems
    1. MYCIN (E. Shortliffe)
      1. EMYCIN
    2. Internist (Pople & Myers)
      1. Caduceus
      2. QMR - Quick Medical Reference
    3. CASNET Causal ASsociational NETworks (Kulikowski and Weiss)
      1. CASNET/Glaucoma
    4. PIP Present Illness Program (Gorry and Parker)
    5. ABEL Acid-Base and ELectrolyte program
    6. ONCOCIN Oncology protocol management
    7. MDX (Chandrasekaran and Mittal)
    8. DXPlain (MGH Laboratory for Computer Science)
  3. Probability Based Diagnostic Systems
    1. Bayesian Systems
      1. Reasoning Foundations of Medical Diagnosis (Ledley and Lusted)
  4. Arden Syntax

Systems of Nomenclature

  1. International Classification of Diseases 9 - Clinical Modification (ICD)
  2. International Classification of Diseases 10
  3. Standard Nomenclature of Diseases and Operations (SNDO)
  4. Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology (SNOP)
  5. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - (DSM)
  6. Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED)
  7. Current Medical Terminology (CMT)
  8. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)
  9. NLM Medical Subject Headings (MESH) and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)
  10. Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC)
  11. Diagnostic Related Groups
  12. HL7
  13. HIPAA - Health Insurance Portability Act
  14. National Drug Codes
  15. Read Codes

Other Topics

  1. Automated Interviewing and Multiphasic Screening
  2. Bioinformatics
  3. Screening - Disease Detection and Treatment
  4. Computer Aided Instruction
  5. Computed Tomography and Image Processing
  6. Online Resources
  7. Communication Networks
  8. Patient Monitoring
  9. Pharmaceutical Research Support Systems
  10. Ethics and Privacy
  11. Standards