Lowland Scots/Print version

Lowland Scots

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The name "Scots" signifies that the language is from Scotland, which was from the Latin word scotti. "Lowland" is just used to distinguish the language from Scottish Gaelic, which is completely unrelated, and many people refer to the Germanic Scots language as simply "Scots". Scots is a Germanic language closely related to English and spoken by about 1.5 million people in Scotland. Scots is descended from the language of the Angles who settled in northern Britain, in an area now known as Northumbria and southern Scotland, in the 5th century AD. The language was originally known as 'Inglis' and has since been influenced by Gaelic, Norse, Latin, Dutch, Norman French, Standard French and English.

By the 14th century Scots was the main language of Scotland and was used in literature, education, government and in legal documents. This was the period when Scots literature began to take off and notable literary works include Barbour's Brus, Whyntoun's Kronykil and Blin Harry's Wallace.

After the union of the Scottish and English parliaments in 1707, English became the language of government and of polite society in Scotland, though the vast majority of people continued to speak Scots. English also began to replace Scots as the main written language in Scotland.

During the 19th and early 20th century efforts were made to eradicate Scots, mainly by punishing children for speaking it at school. In the 1980s and 1990s attitudes began to change and there is limited use of Scots in education, the media and in literature. In 1983 a Scots translation of the New Testament was published and in 1985 SNDA's Concise Scots Dictionary was published.

Here is an example of a sample sentence in the two languages, and Dutch, another close relative;

  • English: I eat an apple.
  • Scots: A eat a aiple.
  • Dutch: Ik eet een appel.

Archaic English words show its Germanic roots, which are reflected in Scots:

  • English: hound, fowl, house, milk
  • Scots: hoond, foul, hoose1, milk

It might not be as easy to learn for an English speaker as, say, Esperanto, but is probably the easiest natural language to learn for English speakers due to the fact that it is so similar to English. In fact, Scots and English share approximately 80% to 90% of the same lexicon.

1: Also "haudin".

Can Scots people and English people understand each other?

In the majority of instances Scottish people and English people can understand each other with few problems since most Scots can just change to standard English. Many Scots only speak Lowland Scots at home with family and friends. Standard English is used for business and communicating with tourists.

"Missing" letters

Many writers now strictly avoid apostrophes where they supposedly represent "missing" English letters. Such letters were never actually missing in Scots. For example, in the 14th century, John Barbour spelt the Scots cognate of 'taken' as tane. Since there has been no k in the word for over 700 years, representing its omission with an apostrophe seems pointless. The current spelling is usually taen.


  • Like most languages, Scots has its own distinct regional dialects. Most Scots can tell which part of the country someone is from simply by their dialect.
  • There is another language used in Scotland. As well as English and Lowland Scots there is also Scottish Gaelic. This is a Celtic language similar to Irish. It's mainly spoken in the North West Highlands and Islands. Luckily most Gaelic speakers also know standard English so there are few communication problems.
  • You are probably more likely to hear more Scots spoken in the country rather than big cities. Urban Scots generally tend to speak a more diluted version which is more like standard English.
  • Scots is recognised by the UK government as a minority language which is distinct from English.
  • "River City" is a Scots soap opera set in a fictional Glasgow suburb. Many of the actors on the show speak a form of Urban Scots. The TV program is produced by Scottish Television.

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On to Pronunciation!>>


The following is more a guide for readers. How the spellings are applied in practice is beyond the scope of such a short description. Phonetics are in IPA.


Most consonants are usually pronounced much as in English but:

  • c: /k/ or /s/, much as in English.
  • ch: /x/, also gh. Medial 'cht' may be /ð/ in Northern dialects. loch (fjord or lake), nicht (night), dochter (daughter), dreich (dreary), etc. Similar to the German "Nacht".
  • ch: word initial or where it follows 'r' /tʃ/. airch (arch), mairch (march), etc.
  • gn: /n/. In Northern dialects /gn/ may occur.
  • kn: /n/. In Northern dialects /kn/ or /tn/ may occur. knap (talk), knee, knowe (knoll), etc.
  • ng: is always /ŋ/.
  • nch: usually /nʃ/. brainch (branch), dunch (push), etc.
  • r: /r/ or /ɹ/ is pronounced in all positions, i.e. rhotically.
  • s or se: /s/ or /z/.
  • t: may be a glottal stop between vowels or word final. In Ulster dentalised pronunciations may also occur, also for 'd'.
  • th: /ð/ or /θ/ much as is English. Initial 'th' in thing, think and thank, etc. may be /h/.
  • wh: usually /ʍ/, older /xʍ/. Northern dialects also have /f/.
  • wr: /wr/ more often /r/ but may be /vr/ in Northern dialects. wrack (wreck), wrang (wrong), write, wrocht (worked), etc.
  • z: /jɪ/ or /ŋ/, may occur in some words as a substitute for the older ȝ (yogh). For example: brulzie (broil), gaberlunzie (a beggar) and the names Menzies, [inzean, Culzean, MacKenzie etc. (As a result of the lack of education in Scots, MacKenzie is now generally pronounced with a /z/ following the perceived realisation of the written form, as more controversially is sometimes Menzies.)

Silent letters

  • The word final 'd' in nd and ld: but often pronounced in derived forms. Sometimes simply 'n' and 'l' or 'n'' and 'l''. auld (old), haund (hand), etc.
  • 't' in medial cht: ('ch' = /x/) and st and before final en. fochten (fought), thristle (thistle) also 't' in aften (often), etc.
  • 't' in word final ct and pt but often pronounced in derived forms. respect, accept, etc.


In Scots, vowel length is usually conditioned by the Scots vowel length rule. Words which differ only slightly in pronunciation from Scottish English are generally spelled as in English. Other words may be spelt the same but differ in pronunciation, for example: aunt, swap, want and wash with /a/, bull, full v. and pull with /ʌ/, bind, find and wind v., etc. with /ɪ/.

  • The unstressed vowel /ə/ may be represented by any vowel letter.
  • a: usually /a/ but in south west and Ulster dialects often /ɑ/. Note final a in awa (away), twa (two) and wha (who) may also be /ɑ/ or /ɔ/ or /e/ depending on dialect.
  • au, aw and sometimes a, a' or aa: /ɑː/ or /ɔː/ in Southern, Central and Ulster dialects but /aː/ in Northern dialects. The cluster 'auld' may also be /ʌul/ in Ulster. aw (all), cauld (cold), braw (handsome), faw (fall), snaw (snow), etc.
  • ae, ai, a(consonant)e: /e/. Often /ɛ/ before /r/. In Northern dialects the vowel in the cluster -'ane' is often /i/. brae (slope), saip (soap), hale (whole), ane (one), ance (once), bane (bone), etc.
  • ea, ei, ie: /iː/ or /eː/ depending on dialect. /ɛ/ may occur before /r/. Root final this may be /əi/ in Southern dialects. In the far north /əi/ may occur. deid (dead), heid (head), meat (food), clear, speir (enquire), sea, etc.
  • ee, e(Consonant)e: /iː/. Root final this may be /əi/ in Southern dialects. ee (eye), een (eyes), steek (shut), here, etc.
  • e: /ɛ/. bed, het (heated), yett (gate), etc.
  • eu: /(j)u/ or /(j)ʌ/ depending on dialect. Sometimes erroneously 'oo', 'u(consonant)e', 'u' or 'ui'. beuk (book), ceuk (cook), eneuch (enough), leuk (look), teuk (took), etc.
  • ew: /ju/. In Northern dialects a root final 'ew' may be /jʌu/. few, new, etc.
  • i: /ɪ/, but often varies between /ɪ/ and /ʌ/ especially after 'w' and 'wh'. /æ/ also occurs in Ulster before voiceless consonants. big, fit (foot), wid (wood), etc.
  • i(consonant)e, y(consonant)e, ey: /əi/ or /aɪ/. 'ay' is usually /e/ but /əi/ in ay (yes) and aye (always). In Dundee it is noticeably /ɛ/.
  • o: /ɔ/ but often /o/.
  • oa: /o/.
  • ow, owe (root final), seldom ou: /ʌu/. Before 'k' vocalisation to /o/ may occur especially in western and Ulster dialects. bowk (retch), bowe (bow), howe (hollow), knowe (knoll), cowp (overturn), yowe (ewe), etc.
  • ou, oo, u(consonant)e: /u/. Root final /ʌu/ may occur in Southern dialects. cou (cow), broun (brown), hoose (house), moose (mouse) etc.
  • u: /ʌ/. but, cut, etc.
  • ui, also u(consonant)e, oo: /ø/ in conservative dialects. In parts of Fife, Dundee and north Antrim /e/. In Northern dialects usually /i/ but /wi/ after /g/ and /k/ and also /u/ before /r/ in some areas eg. fuird (ford). Mid Down and Donegal dialects have /i/. In central and north Down dialects /ɪ/ when short and /e/ when long. buird (board), buit (boot), cuit (ankle), fluir (floor), guid (good), schuil (school), etc. In central dialects uise v. and uiss n. (use) are [jeːz] and [jɪs].


  • Negative na: /ɑ/, /ɪ/ or /e/ depending on dialect. Also 'nae' or 'y' eg. canna (can't), dinna (don't) and maunna (mustn't).
  • fu (ful): /u/, /ɪ/, /ɑ/ or /e/ depending on dialect. Also 'fu'', 'fie', 'fy', 'fae' and 'fa'.
  • The word ending ae: /ɑ/, /ɪ/ or /e/ depending on dialect. Also 'a', 'ow' or 'y', for example: arrae (arrow), barrae (barrow) and windae (window), etc.

<<Back to Introduction

On to Lesson One!>>


Lesson One

Lowland Scots Lesson One: The Basics



English has the words "the", "a" and "an". These words are called "articles" and are used to refer to concepts which are specific (the, which is definite) or general (a and an, which are indefinite).

  • A man. The man. A group of men. The men.

Some languages will have one but not the other. Some languages have neither. Scots has both, and the rules are slightly simpler than in English.


The Scottish word for "the" is also the (pronounced more like "theh" instead of how we pronounce it "thuh") and it almost exactly like in English. The only difference is that it is also used before the names of seasons, days of the week, many nouns, diseases, trades, occupations, sciences and academic subjects. It is also often used in place of the indefinite article and instead of a possessive pronoun: the hairst (autumn), the Wadensday (Wednesday), awa tae the kirk (off to church), the nou (at the moment), the day (today), the haingles (influenza), the Laitin (Latin), The deuk ett the bit breid (The duck ate a piece of bread), the wife (my wife) etc.

  • Scots: The hoond. The tree. The waw.
  • English: The dog. The tree. The wall.


The Lowlands word for "a" and "an" is simply "a".

  • Scots: The hoose. A aiple. The loanin an a tree.
  • English: The house. An apple. The field and a tree.

Am, Is, are, was, were

"Am", "is", and "are" are the same in Scots, but "was" and "were" are simply "wis", though "were" is sometimes "war" in the language.

  • Scots: A am, she is, we are, he wis, thay wis/war.
  • English: I am, she is, we are, he was, they were.


Words like "he" and "she" are pronouns. The Scottish system has a few differences over English, as you will see below:

  • A1 I
  • me2 me
  • ma3 my
  • ye4 singular "you"
  • he he
  • his his
  • she she
  • her her
  • him him
  • it5 it
  • we6 we
  • us7 us, me
  • thay they
  • thaim them
  • thair their
  • yese8 plural "you"
  • yer9 your

The most recognizable difference is the distinction between singular and plural "you". English used to have the same distinction; it used "thou" for singular "you" and "ye" for plural "you". However, "thou" fell into disuse, and "ye" took its place and became modern "you". "Yese/Youse" would be used in a sentence such as, "A lue10 yese/youse", which translates to, "I love you all". "Ye" would be used in all other cases, like "Wha are ye?", meaning "Who are you?" Scots:

  • Hou11 are ye?
  • Hou are yese?


  • How are you? (Friendly)
  • How are you? (More than one person) or How are you all? or How are all of you?

  • 1: Also "I" when used to emphasize.
  • 2: Also "us" or "hus".
  • 3: Also "ma certes".
  • 4: Also "you".
  • 5: Also "hit".
  • 6: Also "oo".
  • 7: Also "hus", "us".
  • 8: Also "youse".
  • 9: Also "your".
  • 10: Also "amour" or "love".
  • 11: Also "whitwey".


Prepositions, like the name suggests, describe positions and the relationships between things. Some language courses choose to describe these in more advanced lessons, but it's difficult to form sentences without them. Here we will introduce a few basic prepositions, but we will discuss them in greater depth in a future lesson.

  • amang among
  • in in
  • on1 on (as in I put my books on my desk)
  • unner under (very similar to the English word)
  • ahint2 behind
  • atween between
  • wi with
  • neist tae3 next to
  • forbye besides

The number of sentences which you can now build with a minimal vocabulary has increased dramatically.

  • Scots: We are in the hoose.
  • English: We are in the house.

  • 1: Also "ontae".
  • 2: Also "aback" or "hinder".
  • 3: Also "til".

Vocabulary list

This is a vocabulary list. Some of these words have appeared previously in this lesson and some are new.

  • aiple apple
  • tree tree
  • door door
  • eat eat, to eat
  • hair hair, a small portion
  • dug1 dog
  • cat2 cat
  • meat3 food
  • lassie4 girl
  • ken know
  • moose mouse
  • hoose house
  • kirk church
  • waw wall
  • fowk people
  • reid red
  • leid language
  • laddie5 boy
  • son son
  • bairn child
  • tuith tooth
  • sit sit, to sit
  • sleep sleep, to sleep
  • the toun city
  • chyre chair
  • black black
  • table6 table
  • hackit7 ugly
  • loanin8 field, paddock, lane
  • bide to reside, live at, lodge, stay

  • 1: Also "duggie", "hoond", or "tike".
  • 2: Also "baudrons", "cheetie", "pous", or "pousie".
  • 3: Also "farin", "leevin", "mealtith", or "fuid".
  • 4: Also "lassie" or "quean".
  • 5: Also "callant", "lad", "boy", or "loun".
  • 6: Also "buird".
  • 7: Also "grugous", "ill-farrant", "uggsome", or "ougly".
  • 8: Also "lea".


Translate these sentences into English.

  • Ye are John.
  • The hoose is reid.
  • She bides in the toun.
  • The lassie wi black hair.
  • The dug sleeps unner a tree.
  • The cat eats the meat.
  • A sit on the chyre neist tae the table.
  • Yese are ahint the door in the waw.

Translate these sentences into Lowland Scots.

  • I am Jack.
  • It is under the table.
  • The door is in the red wall.
  • The mouse lives under the house.
  • A dog is sleeping behind the chair.
  • The tree is in the field.
  • The boy with food.
  • You eat an apple.


Answers to the above exercises.

  • You are John.
  • The house is red.
  • She lives in the city.
  • The girl with black hair.
  • The dog sleeps/is sleeping under a tree.
  • The cat eats/is eating the food.
  • I sit/am sitting on the chair next to the table.
  • You are behind the door in the wall.
  • A am Jack.
  • It is unner the table.
  • The door is in the reid waw.
  • The moose bides unner the hoose.
  • A dug sleeps ahint the chyre.
  • The tree is in the loanin.
  • The laddie wi the meat.
  • Ye eat an aiple.

End of lesson one

That concludes the very first Lowland Scots lesson, and by now you should already be able to form simple sentences. Use the vocabulary you have learned to form your own sentences!

<<Back to Pronunciation

On to Lesson Two!>>

Lesson Two

Lowland Scots Lesson Two: Numbers and Greetings

Number Basics

The number system in Scots is very similar to English, which is obvious because Lowlands is English's closest relative. The numbers are as follows;

  • 'wan"1 one
  • twa two
  • three three
  • fower four
  • five five
  • sax six
  • seiven seven
  • aicht eight
  • nine nine
  • ten ten
  • eleiven eleven
  • twal twelve
  • thirteen2 thirteen
  • fowerteen fourteen
  • fifteen fifteen
  • saxteen sixteen
  • seiventeen seventeen
  • aichteen eighteen
  • nineteen nineteen
  • twinty twenty
  • 1: Also pronounced "yin" "een" or "wan" and "ae" also pronounced "yae".
  • 2: Also "thritteen" or "deil's dizzen".


Some common phrases include as follows:

  • Scots: walcome. hous it gaun?1 a'am daein fine.2,3 thank ye. thanks. hou much. cheerio.
  • English: welcome. how are you? I am well. thank you. Thanks. how much? good-bye.

  • 1: It literally says "how is it going?".
  • 2: It literally says "I'm doing fine".
  • 3: "A am" would coloquially be contracted into the word "A'm".



  • John: Whit like?1
  • Mary: A'm daein fine. An yersel?2
  • John: A'm daein fine an aw. Thanks for askin! A'm awa the nou. See ye efter.3
  • Mary: See ye efter.


  • John: How are you?
  • Mary: I'm well. You?
  • John: I'm well, too. Thanks for asking! I got to go now. Bye.
  • Mary: Bye.

Literal Translations:
1 "What like?" - similar in meaning to: "How's things?"
2 "I'm doing fine. And yourself?"
3 "I'm doing fine and all. Thanks for asking. I'm away the now. See you after"

End of lesson two

Now that lesson two is complete, you'd should also be able to have a simple conversation with anybody that speaks Scots. You can even count up to "twinty"! In the next lesson, we will discuss more advanced number material.

<<Back to Lesson One

On to Lesson Three!>>

Lesson Three

Lesson Three: Advanced numbers, Plurals, and Interrogatives


Here is a list of more advanced numbers; thirty1 thirty fowerty forty fifty fifty saxty sixty seiventy seventy aichty eighty hunder hundred thoosand thousand

Ordinal, Cardinal

Numbers like "ane", "twa", and "three" are cardinal numbers, and that means that they are a generalized kind of number used to denote the size of a set. That's what you've learned so far. Ordinal numbers, however are another type of number used to accommodate infinite sequences and to classify sets with certain kinds of order structures on them. In English, Cardinal numbers would be "first", "second", and "third", though most numbers have "-th" added to them. In Scots, you generally add a "-t" to the end of the word, like so.

  • Scots: seicont, fowert, fift, saxt, seivent.
  • English: second, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh.

Notice how "first" and "third" weren't included in that list. That's because they are irregular like in English. In Scots, "first" is "first", or sometimes "foremaist", and "third" is "thrid" or "third".

  • 1: Also "thritty".

Plural form

Plural is when the word becomes more than one. In English, the plural form is usually "-(e)s". In Lowland Scots, nouns usually form their plural by adding "-(e)s" to the end of a word, but some irregular plurals occur. For example; "ee"/"een" ("eye"/"eyes"), "cauf"/"caur" ("calf"/"calves"), "horse"/"horse" ("horse"/"horses"), "cou"/"kye" ("cow"/"cows"), "shae"/"shuin" ("shoe"/"shoes"). Nouns of measure and quantity unchanged in the plural. Words include, "fower fit" ("four feet"), "twa mile" ("two miles"), "five pund" ("five pounds"), "three hunderwecht" ("three hundredweight"). Regular plurals include "laifs" ("loaves"), "leafs" ("leaves"), "shelfs" ("shelves") and "wifes" ("wives"), etc.


  • wha who
  • whit what
  • hou how
  • why why
  • whilk which
  • whaur where
  • whan when

<<Back to Lesson Two

On to Lesson Four!>>

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You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

  1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
  3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
  4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
  6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
  7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  9. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
  10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
  11. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
  12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  13. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified version.
  14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
  15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".


You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.


You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License, and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.

The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.