Lower Sorbian/Grammar/Numerals

Numeral with noun groupsEdit

(a) accommodation of numeral groups in a sentence - as a subject

  • the numeral jaden, jadna, jadno `1` is formally an adjective– i.e. it creates with a noun a relationship of agreement, in which the noun is the domining part
  • the numeral dwa, dwě `2`,

being a main part of the numeral group, it goes into a relationship of a mutual accommodation: it triggers dual number in a noun, the noun triggers than a dual number in a verb

  • the numerals tśo, tśi `3` and styrjo, styri `4` behave like the numeral 2, however they trigger in a noun (and directly - in a verb) plural number
  • numerals higher than 5[apart from compounds with numeral 1-4, what will be mentioned here later] are formally singular nouns, the objects of which are the quantified nouns on a principle of government – triggering GEN. pl.; those numerals trigger plural number in a verb** [!] (np. Gospoza jo wšykno wurěšyła a te šesć paršonow su zasej zgromaźone, SC-1926-032, Po 10 dnjach su něto hyšći pěś zasypanych gornikow žywe k swětłu pśišli, NSC-1923-024)

[* - the numerals 1-10 have alternative forms, extended with an ending –o, which are used to quantify masculine nouns – those than take w NOM. pl., e.g. Šesćo Nimce su jogo wobstupili, SC-1926-040]

[** - if the numeral group follows linearly a verb, the verb can also take singular number, e.g. Běšo wosym wosobow śěžko a šesć lažko zranjonych, NSC-1923-016]

(b) accommodation of numeral groups and oblique cases

  • the numerals 1-4 mandatory take categorial forms, expected by a government binding, e.g. Njejsu mogli z tśomi konimi woz wuśěgnuś, SC-1926-024
  • the numerals 5-40 can take categorial forms, expected by a government binding, yet they can do otherwise, e.g. Jěł jo Hansko nalědy, k šesćim korcam nawora, MWi_DobWjac, Nowy sud ze styrźasćimi politiskimi a juristiskimi sobucłonkami, NSC-1923-005

wobec Cogodla ma južo we styrźasća lětach šere włosy, Prat-1935, W slědnych šesć dnjach woranja jo bur był lichy, SC-1924-039

Declension of the numerals 1-4Edit

(a) jaden, jadna, jadno `1`



NOM. sg.



GEN. sg.


DAT. sg.


ACC. sg.

=NOM./GEN. (anim.)


INS. sg.


LOC. sg.


[NOM. f. and du. i pl. - strictly according to the adjectival pattern]

(b) dwa, dwěma `2`


f, n

NOM. sg.



GEN. sg.


ACC. sg.

=NOM./GEN. (pers.)


DAT. INS. LOC. sg.


(c) tśo, tśi `3` i styrjo, styri `4` - pluralia tantum

m. pers.

m. impers., f, n

NOM. pl.

tśo, styrjo

i, styri

GEN. pl.

och, styrjoch

ich, styrich

DAT. pl.

om, styrjom

im, styrim

ACC. pl.

och, styrjoch


INS. pl.

omi, styrjomi

imi, styrimi

LOC. pl.

och, styrjoch

ich, styrich

(d) inflective numerals over 4 are inflected like tśi, styri

Cardinal numeralsEdit

n: 1. jaden, 2. dwa, 3. tśi, 4. śtyri, 5. pěś, 6. šesć, 7. sedym, 8. wosym, 9.źewjeś, 10. źaseś

10 + n, n < 10: n + nasćo /11. jadnasćo/

d = 10n, 4 > n > 1: n + źasća /40. styŕzasća/

d' = 10n, 10 > n > 4: n + źaset

d + n, n < 10: n + a + d / d + a + n, e.g. 21. jaden a dwaźasća, dwaźasća a jaden

a) numerals over 100 are treated as nouns, including the rules of accommodation to the numerals-multipliers, e.g. sto – dwě sćě

b) lower positions are added to them by attaching to them a coordinate group after a conjunction a, e.g. dwě sće a jaden

100 sto
1000 towzynt (tysac)
1 000 000 milion

Ordinal numeralsEdit

Formally they are adjectives.

1. prědny, 2. drugi, 3. tśeśi, 4. stworty, 5. pěty, 6. šesty,7. sedymy, 8. wosymy, 9.źewjety, 10. źasety

G - cardinal numeral, P - ordinal numeral

G[x...nasćo] > P[x...nasty]
G[x...źasća] > P[x...źasty]
G[x...źaset] > P[x...źasety]

100.'' hundertny (stoty)
100n, n < 10: G+
hundertny, np. 200. dwahundertny
100 + n, n < 100:
sto + P[n], np. 150. sto a pěśźasety
1000. ''towzyntny (tysacny)

a) in compound ordinal numerals by a rule only the last part takes a form of an ordinal numeral, while the remaining ones retain the form of ordinal numerals, e.g. 583. pěś stow a tśi a wosymźasety

b) in tens-ones compounds both parts can take inflective form of an ordinal numeral, even independently of the order of the tens and ones, np. we tśeśem a wosymźasetem

Adjectival derivates of numeralsEdit

a) frequentative numeral adjective - (1. jadnaki), 2. dwoji, 3. tšoji, 4. stwory, ... [G + ory ]; from the frequentatives are also derived collective nouns + they stay before pluralia tantum (in neuter gender)

b) manifold adjectives - 1. jadnaki, 2. dwojaki, 3.tšojaki, 4. stworaki, ... [G + raki]

c) frequentative adverbs - 1. raz, 2. dwojcy; higher ones G + a noun raz or krot

Fractional numeralsEdit

a) 1/x, 11 > x > 2: x+in /3. tśeśina, 4. stworśina/, np. pěśina

b) x/(x+1): x + adequately inflected noun źěł, np. 2/3. dwa źěła

c) x/y: x + źěł wót + P[y] w GEN., np. 2/5. dwa źěła wót pěśich