Lower Sorbian/Grammar/Gradation of adjectives

< Lower Sorbian‎ | Grammar

Comparative gradeEdit

  • there exist following endings, used to form comparative grade of adjectives: (a) –šy, (b) –jejšy
  • there also exist adjectivs gradated (c)irregularly and (d) descriptively

(a) adjectives with comparative ending with –šy – those, which stem ends with 1 consonant

  • if the last consonant of the stem is ł, n, g, ch, s, zit's being softened (palatalised); note that groups žš, šš are being simplified into š, e.g.. běły-bělšy `white`, drogi-drošy `expensive, precious`
  • if the last consonant of the stem is d, t, w, b, r – it remains unchanged, e.g. swěty-swětšy `holy`
  • if the equal grade of adjective ends with –ki, -oki, than this ending is being omitted while forming comparative grade, e.g. wusoki-wušy `high`

(b) adjectives with a comparative grade ending with –jejšy – those, which stem ends with 2 and more consonants

  • if the last consonant of the stem is d, t, st, ł, tš, it's being softened (palatalised) (tš >tś), np. žołty-žołśejšy `yellow`, wótšy-wótśejšy `sharp`
  • in other cases the ending is added without chanes, np. mudry-mudrjejšy `clever, wise`
  • following adjectives ending with –ki form comparating grade ending with –jejšy: (1) górki-górcejšy `bitter`, (2) wuzki-wuzčejšy `narrow`, (3) lažki-lažčejšy `light`, (4)śěžki-śežšejšy `heavy`

(c) adjectives gradated irregularly: (1) dobry-lěpšy `good`, (2) zły-goršy `bad`, (3) wjeliki-wětšy `great`, (4) mały-měńšy `small`, (5) dłujki-dlejšy `long`

(d) descriptive gradation – by adding the adverbs lěpjej albo wěcej in front of the adjective

  • it's used for all adjectives ending with –ski and a significant number of those ending with –aty
  • as well as for the adjectives (1) cuzy `strange, alien`, (2) gorucy `hot`

Superlative gradeEdit

superlative grade – is formed by adding prefix nej- to the comparative grade of the adjective, np. lažki-nejlažčejšy, gorucy-nejwěcej gorucy