The basic Loglan sentence just defines a relationship but Loglan allows you to add more information if you wish. These extra words we group together as:
- Sentence modifiers
- Argument modifiers
- Free modifiers
Sentence modifiers include the time and space words and the logical contention words. They also include modal and causal relative operators. You can place a modal anywhere in a sentence but if they appear anywhere other than on the end of a sentence you might need a gu to say when the modeal ends and the remaining part of the sentence continues.
Modal operators add information on who or in what way something relates to something else. They all come in CVV form.
- kii - With as in mi godzi kii tu (I walk with you)
- tie - using tool as in Da pa tie leda najda gu kutla de (someone, with a knife, cut something. Note the use of gu to end the modal)
- hea - with help as in mi kamla le hijra hea tu (I came here with your help)
Causal operators work just the same way as modal operators. Causal operators give the reason why a relationship holds.
- kou - because of physical reason as in mi cetlo kou le crina (I am wet because of the rain)
- moi - because of motive as in mi kamla le hijra moi lepo mi danza lepo mi vizka tu (I came because I wanted to see you)
- rau - because of reason as in mi fundi tu rau lepo tu minspu (I like you because you are clever)
- soa - because of premise as in letu kukreo gu denro soa lepo ra dortau gu denro (your rifle is dangerous because all weapons are dangerous)
Argument modifiers adds additional information to an argument such as making claims or identifying the argument.
- ji - adds more information to identify the argument as in lemi hasfa ji le redro hasfa, gu snire (my house - the red house - is close)
- ja - makes a claim and adds more information about the argument as in lemi hasfa ja le redro hasfa, gu snire (my house, which is a red house, is close)
Theses modifiers add more information about the writer / speaker or about the sentence as a whole. They can go anywhere in a sentence without effecting the sentence (except after le, la and the others in that group). Loglan contains a number of different types of free modifiers, which includes.
These all have a VV form and form groups depending on the first letter. The 'a' series deals with intention, 'e' with requests, 'i' with conviction, 'o' with obligation and 'u' with motive. The second letter deals with degree with 'a' as positive, 'i' mid way and 'u' as negative. Some examples:
- ua - satisfaction
- ui - happy
- uo - anger
- uu - sorrow
- oa - must / feel obliged to do so
- ou - Doesn't matter
- ia - agree
- ii - maybe
- iu - don't know
- ei - is it so
- eo - please
- eu - assume
- ai - intend
- au - don't care