This online textbook serves to provide an introduction to the science of linguistics, its major subfields, and its theoretical consequences.

Part of the Linguistics Collection



00.Introduction- How does language work?

linguistics, descriptivism, hidden knowledge, deep structure, experimental data


01.Phonetics- The sounds of speech

articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics, auditory phonetics, the International Phonetic Alphabet


02.Phonology- Internal Representations and Rules of Sounds

phonemes, allophony, morphophonology


03.Morphology- How we make words

morphemes, affixes, other morphemes, inflectional morphology, derivational morphology, morphosyntax, non-morphemic theories





07.Typology- The unity and diversity of language

phonological, morphological, morphosyntactic, syntactic



09.Orthography- The use of written language

directionality, spelling systems, alphabets, abjads, abugidas, syllabaries, logographies, mixed scripts, unwritten language and new orthographies



11.Psycholinguistics- Language in the mind

understanding of language







definition of terms

IPA Chart

IPA chart

See alsoEdit