Lego Mindstorms is a lego product that allows users to build robots with lego parts. It has a programmable brick, software, motors, sensors, and technic parts. The package also comes with software that allows users to program the robots. There are two types of robot controllers that are found anywhere; RCX and NXT. NXT is the latest version.
Touch sensor - The touch sensor allows the robot to have the sense of touch. It detects when the button at the front of it is being pressed and released. You can use the touch sensor for many purposes. If you were making a football playing robot you could program the NXT to push with an arm when it detects an object infront of it.
Sound Sensor - The sound sensor can hear both decibels and adjusted decibels. The sensor can detect sounds up to 90 decibels.
Light sensor - The Light Sensor is one of two sensors that give the NXT sight [The Ultrasonic Sensor is the other]. The Light Sensor allows your NXT to tell the difference between light and dark. It can read the light intensity in a room and measure the light intensity of colored surfaces.
Ultrasonic Sensor - This sensor allows your NXT to detect objects infront of it, and how far away the object is. It can see objects up to 255 cm away and is very precise.
Servo motor - This motor gives your NXT the ability to move. It has a built in rotation sensor so you can state how many turns it has to take. You get 3 of these motors in the LEGO Mindstorms NXT set.
The NXT is the piece that controls your robot creations. It has 3 motor ports and 4 sensor ports as well as a USB port to connect it to your computer to program. It also has a built in Loudspeaker.