Láadan/Lessons/9

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The Manner marker, the Reason marker, the Purpose marker, and the To-Cause-To marker (in this manner, because, in order to, to cause to)

The Manner marker: -nalEdit

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S CP-Manner]

To mark the manner in which something is done (such as quickly, meticulously, etc.), we use the "-nal" suffix.

ExamplesEdit

Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi di be wa. He speaks. di = to speak, be = he/she/it/they (singular)
Bíi di be lóolonal wa. He speaks slowly. lóolo = slow


The Reason-cause marker: -wáanEdit

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S CP-Cause]

This cause marker is used to specify that something is done because of some reason, while "-wan" is to specify "in order to..." or for some purpose.

ExamplesEdit

Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi héeya be wa. She is afraid. héeya = to be afraid
Bíi héeya be óowamidewáan wa. She is afraid because of the dragon. óowamid = dragon


The Purpose-cause marker: -wanEdit

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S CP-Cause]

The "-wan" suffix is used to specify that some action is being done, in order to to do something (that something being whatever has the -wan suffix.)

ExamplesEdit

Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi ulanin be wa. She is studying. ulanin = to study
Bíi ulanin be bediwan wa. She is studying to learn. bedi = to learn


The cause marker: dó-Edit

[(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S CP-Obj]

You can change a verb into "the subject causes the object to [VERB]" by putting "dó-" at the beginning of the verb.


ExamplesEdit

Láadan English Vocab words
Bíi yod le wa. I am eating. yod = to eat
Bíi dóyod le mideth wa. I am feeding the animal. mid = animal


NotesEdit