In English, we use prepositions like "in", "at", "on", "to". In Láadan, these concepts are conveyed through suffixes.
The Goal marker: -diEdit
Pattern: [(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S (CP-O) CP-GOAL]
The Goal case phrase is where something is directed. This could be in a direction of travel, or towards some recipient.
|Bíi sháad le bethedi wa.||I am going home.||sháad = to come/to go, beth = home|
|Bíi eril ban le doyuth háawithedi wa.||I gave the apple to the child.||eril = past, ban = to give, doyu = apple, háawith = child|
The Source marker: -deEdit
Pattern: [(Aux) Verb (Neg) CP-S (CP-O) CP-SOURCE]
Sentences using the verb "sháad" (to come/to go) will be very similar to each other, and the only way to tell a "come" from a "go" is based on whether the Goal or the Source marker is used.
|Bíi eril sháad le bethedi wa.||I came home.||sháad = to come/to go, beth = home|
|Bíi eril sháad le bethede wa.||I came from home.||sháad = to come/to go, beth = home|
Alternative to -diEdit
For some people, -de and -di might sound too alike. If you prefer, you can use -dim instead of -di. (Suzette Haden Elgin (1988), A First Dictionary and Grammar of Láadan, Second Edition, p. 30 )