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Korean/Advanced Pronunciation Rules

< Korean


  • ㅗㅏ becomes ㅘ
  • ㅜㅓ becomes ㅝ


The sounds of some final consonants (받침, batchim) are different from their sounds as initials.

Only seven consonant sounds are found at the end of syllables.

In general, obstruents before nasals are assimilated to nasals, while keeping the same place of articulation as before: Notice the pattern: 1) ㄱ, ㅋ becomes ㅇ 2) The 't-stops' ㄷ,ㅅ,ㅆ,ㅈ,ㅊ,ㅌ,ㅎ becomes ㄴ 3) ㅂ, ㅍ becomes ㅁ

  • ㄱㄴ becomes ㅇㄴ
 ex) 격노하다(to be incensed), pronounced [경노]
  • ㄱㅁ becomes ㅇㅁ
 ex) 국물 (broth), pronounced [궁물]
  • ㅋ,ㄲ,ㄱㄴ becomes ㅇㄴ
 ex) 학년 (grade, school/academic year, form, standard), prounounced [항년]
  • ㅋㅁ becomes ㅇㅁ
 ex) 부엌문 (kitchen door), pronounced [부엉문]
  • ㄷㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ
 ex) 닫는 (closing, present participle form), pronounced [단는]
  • ㄷㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ
 not common
 ex) 맏며느리 (wife of one's eldest son), pronounced [만며느리]
  • ㅅㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ
 ex) 덧니 (snaggletooth), pronounced [던니]
  • ㅆㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ
  • ㅅㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ
 ex) 옷맵시 (line of cloth, style), pronounced [온맵씨]
  • ㅈㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ
 ex) 젖니 (baby tooth), pronounced [전니]
  • ㅈㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ
 ex) 낮말, pronounced [난말]
  • ㅊㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ
 not common
 ex) 옻나무 (lacquer tree), pronounced [온나무]
  • ㅊㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ
 not common
 ex) 옻물 (lacquer sap), pronounced [온물]
  • ㅌㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ
 not common
 ex) 밭농사 (dry-field farming), pronounced [반농사]
  • ㅌㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ
 ex) 낱말 (a word), pronounced [난말]
  • ㅎㄴ becomes ㄴㄴ
 ex) 놓는 (putting down, participle form), pronounced [논는]
  • ㅎㅁ becomes ㄴㅁ
 ex) not common
  • ㅂㄴ becomes ㅁㄴ
 ex) 굽는 (roasting, participle form), pronounced [굼는]
 ex) 줍는 (picking up, participle form), pronounced [줌는]
  • ㅂㅁ becomes ㅁㅁ
 ex) 업무 (duties), pronounced [엄무]
  • ㅍㄴ becomes ㅁㄴ
 ex) 엎는 (flipping, participle form), pronounced [엄는]
 ex) 덮는 (covering, participle form), pronounced [덤는]
  • ㅍㅁ becomes ㅁㅁ
 not common
 ex) 앞문 (front door), pronounced [암문]

Some combinations involve aspiration:

  • ㄱㅎ becomes ㅋ
 ex) 북한 (North Korea), pronounced [부칸]
 ex) 익숙한 (familiar), pronounced [익쑤칸]
 ex) 착한 (good-natured), pronounced [차칸]
 ex) 악한 (evil), pronounced [아칸]
  • ㅎㄱ becomes ㅋ
 ex) 하얗게 (whitely), pronounced [하야케]
  • ㅎㄷ becomes ㅌ
 ex) 빨갛다 (to be red), pronounced [빨가타]
  • ㄷㅎ becomes ㅌ
  • ㅂㅎ becomes ㅍ
 ex) 입학 (entrance), pronounced [이팍]
  • ㅎㅂ becomes ㅍ
  • ㅈㅎ becomes ㅊ
  • ㅎㅈ becomes ㅊ
  • ㅎㅅ becomes ㅆ
  • ㄱㅅ becomes ㅆ

Some combinations involve palatalization:

  • ㄷ이 becomes 지
  • ㅌ이 becomes 치

Some involve complex assimilation/alterations:

  • ㄱㄹ becomes ㅇㄴ
  • ㄴㄹ becomes ㄹㄹ, or sometimes ㄴㄴ
  • ㅁㄹ becomes ㅁㄴ
  • ㅇㄹ becomes ㅇㄴ
  • ㅂㄹ becomes ㅁㄴ

받침 followed by ㅇ: replace ㅇ with 받침 (use second 받침 if there are two). Otherwise, 받침 followed by consonant:

  • ㄱ, ㅋ: like ㄱ
  • ㄴ: like ㄴ
  • ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ, ㅎ: like ㄷ
  • ㄹ: like /l/
  • ㅁ: like ㅁ
  • ㅂ, ㅍ: like ㅂ
  • ㅇ: like /ng/


Written Pronounced
ㄱ, ㅋ
ㅂ, ㅍ
ㄱㅁ, ㅋㅁ ㅇㅁ
ㅋ,ㄲ,ㄱㄴ ㅇㄴ
ㄷㄴ, ㅅㄴ, ㅆㄴ, ㅈㄴ, ㅊㄴ, ㅌㄴ, ㅎㄴ ㄴㄴ
ㄷㅁ, ㅅㅁ, ㅈㅁ, ㅊㅁ, ㅌㅁ, ㅎㅁ ㄴㅁ
ㅂㄴ, ㅍㄴ ㅁㄴ
ㅂㅁ, ㅍㅁ ㅁㅁ
ㄱㅎ, ㅎㄱ
ㅎㄷ, ㄷㅎ
ㅂㅎ, ㅎㅂ
ㅈㅎ, ㅎㅈ
ㅎㅅ, ㄱㅅ
ㄷ이, ㅌ이
ㄱㄹ, ㅇㄹ ㅇㄴ
ㅁㄹ, ㅂㄹ ㅁㄴ
ㄴㄹ ㄹㄹ, or sometimes ㄴㄴ

Learn Korean (Introduction)
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