Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry/Resources for Students and Teachers

  Resources for Students and TeachersEdit

Powerpoint slides to accompany the chapters of this book will be provided to instructors upon request (tem5@psu.edu)

Additional resources:

  12.1 VIPEr: Virtual Inorganic Pedagogical Electronic Resource: A community for teachers and students of inorganic chemistryEdit

IONIC VIPEr is a cyber-interface that facilitates collaborative development of learning materials and their dissemination to the wider inorganic community. This website, VIPEr (Virtual Inorganic Pedagogical Electronic Resource), serves both as a repository and as a user-friendly platform for social networking tools that facilitate virtual collaboration and community building. The VIPEr community seeks to develop and disseminate best practices for teaching inorganic chemistry.

IONIC VIPEr website


  12.2 Beloit College/University of Wisconsin Video Lab ManualEdit

The video lab manual provides a broad range of videos of laboratory experiments in inorganic nanoscience and materials chemistry. This is an especially useful resource for teachers who would like to develop laboratory experiments for their classes in inorganic chemistry.

Video Lab Manual website


  12.3 Atomic and Molecular Orbitals (University of Liverpool)Edit

The University of Liverpool website shows animations of atomic orbitals, selected molecular orbital diagrams, and the VSEPR shapes of selected molecules.

Structure and Bonding website


  12.4 Interactive 3D Crystal Structures (University of Liverpool)Edit

The University of Liverpool website also provides a menu of inorganic structures (both molecules and extended solids) that can be visualized and manipulated in 3D. This is a valuable tool that supplements the descriptions of structures in Chapters 5-8 of this book.

3D Crystal Structure website


  12.5 Appendix 1: Periodic TablesEdit


Interactive Periodic Table (Wikipedia)


-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-.-


 
Mendeleev's periodic table (1869)
 
18-column periodic table
 
A 32-column periodic table with Sc, Y, Lu and Lr in group 3


  12.6 Appendix 2: Selected Thermodynamic ValuesEdit

Selected Thermodynamic Values (at 298.15 K)

Substance ΔHf° (kJ/mol) S° (J/K·mol) ΔGf° (kJ/mol)
Aluminum
Al(s) 0 28.3 0
AlCl3(s) -704.2 110.67 -628.8
Al2O3(s) -1675.7 50.92 -1582.3
Barium
BaCl2(s) -858.6 123.68 -810.4
BaCl2 • 2 H2O (s) -1460.1 203 -1296.5
BaO(s) -553.5 70.42 -525.1
Ba(OH)2 • 8 H2O (s) -3342 427 -2793
BaSO4(s) -1473.2 132.2 -1362.2
Beryllium
Be(s) 0 9.5 0
Be(OH)2(s) -902.5 51.9 -815
Bromine
Br(g) 111.884 175.022 82.396
Br2(liq) 0 152.2 0
Br2(g) 30.907 245.463 3.11
BrF3(g) -255.6 292.53 -229.43
HBr(g) -36.4 198.695 -53.45
Calcium
Ca(s) 0 41.42 0
Ca(g) 178.2 158.884 144.3
Ca2+(g) 1925.9
CaC2(s) -59.8 69.96 -64.9
CaCO3 (s; calcite) -1206.92 92.9 -1128.79
CaCl2(s) -795.8 104.6 -748.1
CaF2(s) -1219.6 68.87 -1167.3
CaH2(s) -186.2 42 -147.2
CaO(s) -635.09 39.75 -604.03
CaS(s) -482.4 56.5 -477.4
Ca(OH)2(s) -986.09 83.39 -898.49
Ca(OH)2(aq) -1002.82 -74.5 -868.07
CaSO4(s) -1434.11 106.7 -1321.79
Carbon
C(s, graphite) 0 5.74 0
C(s, diamond) 1.895 2.377 2.9
C(g) 716.682 158.096 671.257
CCl4(liq) -135.44 216.4 -65.21
CCl4(g) -102.9 309.85 -60.59
CHCl3(liq) -134.47 201.7 -73.66
CHCl3(g) -103.14 295.71 -70.34
CH4 (g, methane) -74.81 186.264 -50.72
C2H2 (g, ethyne) 226.73 200.94 209.2
C2H4 (g,ethene) 52.26 219.56 68.15
C2H6 (g, ethane) -84.68 229.6 -32.82
C3H8 (g, propane) -103.8 269.9 -23.49
C4H10 (g, butane) -888.0
C6H6 (liq, benzene) 49.03 172.8 124.5
C6H14(liq) -198.782 296.018 -4.035
C8H18(liq) -249.952 361.205 6.707
CH3OH(liq, methanol) -238.66 126.8 -166.27
CH3OH(g, methanol) -200.66 239.81 -161.96
C2H5OH(liq, ethanol) -277.69 160.7 -174.78
C2H5OH(g, ethanol) -235.1 282.7 -168.49
CH3COOH(liq) -276.981 160.666 -173.991
CO(NH2)2(s, urea) -333.5 104.6 -197.4
CO(g) -110.525 197.674 -137.168
CO2(g) -393.509 213.74 -394.359
CS2(g) 117.36 237.84 67.12
COCl2(g) -218.8 283.53 -204.6
Cesium
Cs(s) 0 85.23 0
Cs+(g) 457.964
CsCl(s) -443.04 101.17 -414.53
Chlorine
Cl(g) 121.679 165.198 105.68
Cl-(g) -233.13
Cl2(g) 0 223.066 0
HCl(g) -92.307 186.908 -95.299
HCl(aq) -167.159 56.5 -131.228
Chromium
Cr(s) 0 23.77 0
Cr2O3(s) -1139.7 81.2 -1058.1
CrCl3(s) -556.5 123 -486.1
Copper
Cu(s) 0 33.15 0
CuO(s) -157.3 42.63 -129.7
CuCl2(s) -220.1 108.07 -175.7
Fluorine
F2(g) 0 202.78 0
F(g) 78.99 158.754 61.91
F-(g) -255.39
F-(aq) -332.63 -13.8 -278.79
HF(g) -271.1 173.779 -273.2
HF(aq) -332.63 -13.8 -278.79
Hydrogen
H2(g) 0 130.684 0
H(g) 217.965 114.713 203.247
H+(g) 1536.202
H2O(liq) -285.83 69.91 -237.129
H2O(g) -241.818 188.825 -228.572
H2O2(liq) -187.78 109.6 -120.35
Iodine
I2(s) 0 116.135 0
I2(g) 62.438 260.69 19.327
I(g) 106.838 180.791 70.25
I-(g) -197
ICl(g) 17.78 247.551 -5.46
Iron
Fe(s) 0 27.78 0
FeO(s) -272
Fe2O3(s, hematite) -824.2 87.4 -742.2
Fe3O4(s, magnetite) -1118.4 146.4 -1015.4
FeCl2(s) -341.79 117.95 -302.3
FeCl3(s) -399.49 142.3 -344
FeS2(s, pyrite) -178.2 52.93 -166.9
Fe(CO)5(liq) -774 338.1 -705.3
Lead
Pb(s) 0 64.81 0
PbCl2(s) -359.41 136 -314.1
PbO(s, yellow) -217.32 68.7 -187.89
PbS(s) -100.4 91.2 -98.7
Lithium
Li(s) 0 29.12 0
Li+(g) 685.783
LiOH(s) -484.93 42.8 -438.95
LiOH(aq) -508.48 2.8 -450.58
LiCl(s) -408.701 59.33 -384.37
Magnesium
Mg(s) 0 32.68 0
MgCl2(g) -641.32 89.62 -591.79
MgO(s) -601.7 26.94 -569.43
Mg(OH)2(s) -924.54 63.18 -833.51
MgS(s) -346 50.33 -341.8
Mercury
Hg(liq) 0 29.87 0
HgCl2(s) -224.3 146 -178.6
HgO(s, red) -90.83 70.29 -58.539
HgS(s, red) -58.2 82.4 -50.6
Nickel
Ni(s) 0 29.87 0
NiO(s) -239.7 37.99 -211.7
NiCl2(s) -305.332 97.65 -259.032
Nitrogen
N2(g) 0 191.61 0
N(g) 472.704 153.298 455.563
NH3(g) -46.11 192.45 -16.45
N2H4(liq) 50.63 121.21 149.34
NH4Cl(s) -314.43 94.6 -202.87
NH4Cl(aq) -299.66 169.9 -210.52
NH4NO3(s) -365.56 151.08 -183.87
NH4NO3(aq) -339.87 259.8 -190.56
NO(g) 90.25 210.76 86.55
NO2(g) 33.18 240.06 51.31
N2O(g) 82.05 219.85 104.2
N2O4(g) 9.16 304.29 97.89
NOCl(g) 51.71 261.69 66.08
HNO3(liq) -174.1 155.6 -80.71
HNO3(g) -135.06 266.38 -74.72
HNO3(aq) -207.36 146.4 -111.25
Oxygen
O2(g) 0 205.138 0
O(g) 249.17 161.055 231.731
O3(g) 142.7 238.93 163.2
Phosphorus
P4(s, white) 0 164.36 0
P4(s, red) -70.4 91.2 -48.4
P(g) 314.64 163.193 278.25
PH3(g) 5.4 310.23 13.4
PCl3(g) -287 311.78 -267.8
P4O10(s) -2984 228.86 -2697.7
H3PO4(s) -1279 110.5 -1119.1
Potassium
K(s) 0 64.18 0
KCl(s) -436.747 82.59 -409.14
KClO3(s) -397.73 143.1 -296.25
KI(s) -327.9 106.32 -324.892
KOH(s) -424.764 78.9 -379.08
KOH(aq) -482.37 91.6 -440.5
Silicon
Si(s) 0 18.83 0
SiBr4(liq) -457.3 277.8 -443.8
SiC(s) -65.3 16.61 -62.8
SiCl4(g) -657.01 330.73 -616.98
SiH4(g) 34.3 204.62 56.9
SiF4(g) -1614.94 282.49 -1572.65
SiO2(s, quartz) -910.94 41.84 -856.64
Silver
Ag(s) 0 42.55 0
Ag2O(s) -31.05 121.3 -11.2
AgCl(s) -127.068 96.2 -109.789
AgNO3(s) -124.39 140.92 -33.41
Sodium
Na(s) 0 51.21 0
Na(g) 107.32 153.712 76.761
Na+(g) 609.358
NaBr(s) -361.062 86.82 -348.983
NaCl(s) -411.153 72.13 -384.138
NaCl(g) -176.65 229.81 -196.66
NaCl(aq) -407.27 115.5 -393.133
NaOH(s) -425.609 64.455 -379.484
NaOH(aq) -470.114 48.1 -419.15
Na2CO3(s) -1130.68 134.98 -1044.44
Sulfur
S(s, rhombic) 0 31.8 0
S(g) 278.805 167.821 238.25
S2Cl2(g) -18.4 331.5 -31.8
SF6(g) 1209 291.82 -1105.3
H2S(g) -20.63 205.79 -33.56
SO2(g) -296.83 248.22 -300.194
SO3(g) -395.72 256.76 -371.06
SOCl2(g) -212.5 309.77 -198.3
H2SO4(liq) -813.989 156.904 -690.003
H2SO4(aq) -909.27 20.1 -744.53
Tin
Sn(s, white) 0 51.55 0
Sn(s, gray) -2.09 44.14 0.13
SnCl4(liq) -511.3 248.6 -440.1
SnCl4(g) -471.5 365.8 -432.2
SnO2(s) -580.7 52.3 -519.6
Titanium
Ti(s) 0 30.63 0
TiCl4(liq) -804.2 252.34 -737.2
TiCl4(g) -763.2 354.9 -726.7
TiO2(s) -939.7 49.92 -884.5
Zinc
Zn(s) 0 41.63 0
ZnCl2(s) -415.05 111.46 -369.398
ZnO(s) -348.28 43.64 -318.3
ZnS(s, sphalerite) -205.98 57.7 -201.29
Aqueous Ions and Molecules
Ca2+(aq) -542.96 -55.2 -553.04
CO32-(aq) -676.26 -53.1 -528.1
CO2(aq) -413.8 117.6 -386.0
Cl-(aq) -167.16 56.5 -131.26
H+(aq) 0 0
HCO2-(aq) -410 91.6 -335
HCO2H(aq) -410 164 -356
HCO3-(aq) -691.11 95 -587.06
H2CO3(aq) -698.7 191 -623.42
NH3(aq) -80.29 111 -26.6
OH-(aq) -229.94 -10.54 -157.3
Ag+(aq) 105.58 72.68 77.124

  12.7 Appendix 3: Bond EnthalpiesEdit

Average single bond enthalpies (kJ/mol)

H-H   436    C-H   413    N-H   391    O-H   483    F-F   155   
H-F   567    C-C   348 N-N   163 O-O   146    
H-Cl   431    C-N   293    N-O   201    O-F   190    Cl-F   253   
H-Br   366    C-O   358    N-F   272    O-Cl   203    Cl-Cl   242   
H-I    299    C-F   485 N-Cl   200 O-I    234    
  C-Cl   328    N-Br   243      Br-F   237   
  C-Br   276      S-H   339    Br-Cl   218   
  C-I   240    P-H   322    S-F   327    Br-Br   193   
  C-S   259    P-F   490    S-Cl   253     
      S-Br   218    I-Cl   208   
  Si-H   323      S-S   266    I-Br   175   
  Si-Si   226        I-I      151   
  Si-C   301         
  Si-O   368         
  Si-F   565         
  Si-Cl   464         

Average double bond enthalpies (kJ/mol)

C=C   614    N=N   418     O=O   495   
C=N   615    N=O   607     S=O   523   
C=O   799      S=S   418    

Average triple bond enthalpies (kJ/mol)

C≡C   839    C≡N   891    N≡N   941    C≡O   1072