Interesting social sciences/Psychology

4 temperaments

English subtitles exist in this video. Hippocrates and Ivan Pavlov abour 4 temperaments. Sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic.


English subtitles exist in this video. The hypnotist Anatoly Kashpirovsky is on the cover.

Fatal love.

On the cover is Brigitte Bardot. A fatal woman can lead to suicide, break her career, break up her family, push her to crime.

Sigmund Freud.

English subtitles exist in this video. The unconscious resembles a cauldron that releases a lot of sexual and aggressive energy that requires a way out. On the cover is an iceberg as a metaphor for personality structure.

Alfred Adler. Inferiority complex.

Alfred Adler is on the cover. English subtitles exist in this video. Alfred Adler on the order of birth.Eric Erickson about 8 periods in life and 8 crises.

The essence of the psychological theory of Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud
Natalya Andrejchenko


consciousness  is top of the iceberg only
"Fatal" woman Nadezhda Andreevna Klamm
Portrait of Francisco D'Andrade as Don Juan in Mozart's Don Giovanni by Max Slevogt, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt, 1915
Giacomo Casanova
Ivan Pavlov
Margot Grahame as Milady de Winter in the film version "The Three Musketeers" (1935)

A man and a great apes had occurred from the general ancestor therefore instincts, intuition and unconscious mind play the very large role in the behavior of man, man inherited this instincts, intuition and unconscious mind from this general ancestor. Аccording to Sigmund Freud, consciousness is top of the iceberg only[1]), under which unconscious mind hides itself, unconscious mind is enormous underwater part of the iceberg, unconscious mind has an enormous effect on the behavior of man. Unconscious mind resembles the cauldron full of seething excitations [2]), this cauldron manufactures much sexual and aggressive energy. This energy requires output otherwise cauldron can explode and disease will begin the in the form of neurosis. When man frees self from the tension, that man feel a brief a state of pleasure in the process of the unlimited exit of energy. Sigmund Freud named two instincts (instinct of life - Eros and instinct of death - Thanatos). The instinct of life includes by hunger, thirst, sex. Libido (from the Latin “to want” or “to desire”) is the form of psychic energy. The instincts of death can be directed both inside in the form the suicide and outside in the form of hatred and aggression.[3]) Sigmund Freud treated soldiers in the hospital during World War I. These soldiers are trained to kill in war, therefore they had received the inclination after service in army to the murder or to the suicide.  [4]   

It can compare unconscious mind  with the blind king which demands of satisfaction of own instincts in spite of dangers. Morals and social norms call conditions, time and place for the satisfaction of instincts. If the desires of man contradict to the norms of morals, that man attempts to suppress these desires, to forget, to force out them into the sphere of unconscious mind. Anxiety appears as a result contradiction between instincts and requirements of morals. The main method to get rid from the anxiety is sublimation that is a safe exit of energy along other channels. Man can splash out own aggression with help of strength kinds of sports (boxing, fight or olympic weightlifting), with help of the training to the profession of soldier in the war. Woman with the sadistic inclinations can become surgeon or the author of best criminal novels. Man can remove own superfluous energy through such channels as art, science or policy. The nervous and passionate temperament of such politicians, as Vladimir Zhirinovsky or Adolf Hitler, testifies that their “cauldron” boils simply. If man can not organize the sublimation, that “cauldron” can explode and man begins to be ill in the form of neurosis or hysteria. Neurosis is manifested in different fears that are the phobias. Sigmund Freud earned to itself to the life with help of treatment of people with such diagnosis as neurosis with help of the psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud used two methods of treatment (hypnosis and the method of free association [5]). Sigmund Freud recognized the authentic thoroughly hidden even from itself reasons of the disease of patient with help of this methods, then Sigmund Freud explained these reasons to patient and thus Sigmund Freud could cure of patient with help of this method. A shortcoming of the psychoanalytical method consists in that the paid procedure of treatment can last by many years; this is much more expensive than simple tablet.        

Conclusion: subconsciousness is the reason for conflicts between the people frequently, but subconsciousness gives to man the energy frequently, the energy is necessary for achievement of victory in the conflict and for survival of man.

The hypnosis as the method of psychological control. Hypnotist professor Matveyev


           Hypnosis is a suggestion of norms of behavior through immersion of the person in a trance. Professor Matveyev was my teacher of psychology at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Matveyev was competent hypnotist and Matveyev tried to explain to students at the lectures all secrets of this method. Hypnotist must possess confident, imperious, juicy, artistic voice, that is reached by the way of prolonged trainings. Furthermore, hypnotist must see the people, inclined to submit to suggestion; hypnotizer must see the people with the weak will and the rich imagination.  Women and children amenable to hypnosis more easily than adult men. The people belonging to such the personality type as psychologist are most inclined to submit to the hypnotist. Blue ‐ eyed blondes with the bad imagination, with developed thinking (for example, chess players) and with strong will amenable to hypnosis badly. Professor Matveyev organized the shows of hypnosis on his lectures in University frequently. At first professor Matveyev revealed people, inclined to the suggestion, with help of the simple procedure. Professor Matveyev ordered to entire class to shut the eyes and to squeeze hand into the fist. People, inclined to the suggestion, could not unclench own fist without command of hypnosist. Professor Matveyev ordered to these people to step on the scene and then professor Matveyev carried out experiments over them under the shocked looks of other students. Experimental students, who were immersed in a condition of a hypnotic trance, imagined on command of hypnotist as they catch fish, as they play to the piano, as they draw the picture and so on.  

Sociological polls show that there is a lot of people inclined to submit to suggestion — from 40% to 75%.

Four temperaments and their styles of behavior in the conflict


Hippocrates have named correctly  four temperaments:





But Hippocrates had given the incorrect substantiation of this correct classification. In his opinion, four temperaments are formed owing to predominance of one of four body fluids (called "humors") ‐  blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm. Ivan Pavlov had given the correct scientific substantiation of the classification of temperaments in its theory about the types of higher nervous activity. Ivan Pavlov established that the features of higher nervous activity are determined by different correlations of excitation and inhibition.

Nervous system can be characterized by the following features:  

• “strength of nervous processes”;    

• “a balance between excitation and inhibition”;    

• “mobility of nervous processes”.         

Different combinations of these features give the specific types of the nervous system:   

• Strong equilibrated and lively type is sanguine person.

• Strong and impetuous type is choleric person;  

• Strong equilibrated and quiet type is phlegmatic person,

• Weak type is melancholic person.

The sanguine person is characterized by large mobility, sanguine person adapts to changed living conditions easily. Sanguine person has a the ability to shift attention quickly. Sanguine person makes the acquaintance with the new people easily. Its feelings are variable then he is jolly, then he is sad, then he laughs; then he cries. Its negative trait of character is that he is not able to keep the promise, he is not able to finish business and he grabs new business. Example of sanguine person is Ostap Bender from the novel of Ilya Ilf and Yevgeny Petrov “The Twelve Chairs”.

The phlegmatic person is sluggish, but hardworking man. The phlegmatic person differs in endurance, self-control, patience. Feelings of phlegmatic person are characterized by weak external expressiveness.  Its negative trait of character is that he can become puzzled in the unexpected situation. Example of phlegmatic person  is  Pierre Bezukhov from the novel of Leo Tolstoy “War and Peace”.

Choleric person is fervent and passionate person. The will of choleric person is gusty; choleric person is characterized by the increased irritability, unbalance, fieriness, straightforward and sharpness. Choleric's negative trait of character is the increased inclination to conflict. Example of choleric person is Peter the Great.           

Melancholic person possesses the increased emotionality and sensitivity, passivity, suspiciousness. Melancholic person yields to sadness and fear easily. Unusual situation and new people frightens to him. Melancholic person is very careful person. Negative trait of character of melancholic person is weakness in the conflicts. Melancholic person possesses by increased sensitivity and the finesse of feelings, therefore many poets and composers were by melancholic persons, for example, Alexander Blok, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Anton Chekhov were by melancholic persons.  

The representatives of different temperaments behave in the course of conflict differently. Choleric person is the instigator of a large quantity of senseless conflicts frequently. Sanguine person knows how to settle the conflicts easily. Phlegmatic person avoids conflicts as far as possible, but before a certain limit. If enemy is not stopped and passes the limits of that permitted, then phlegmatic person is converted into the infuriated bull, phlegmatic person manifests the maximum degree of aggressiveness and phlegmatic person calms only after the final victory above the enemy. Melancholic person is potential victim in the conflict.                                                

“Fatal love”


“Fatal love” is psychological struggle or the game between the representatives of opposite sexes, as a result of this struggle or game one person becomes by “victim”, and the second person becomes by “hunter” “Hunter” knows how “to break the hearts” of his “victims”. Each person is fated to have at least once this disease in youth and to receive immunity. Carl Jung introduced into psychology the concept “Anima” and “Animus”. “Anima” is the image of absolute woman, “female”, this image exists in subconsciousness of any man. “Anima” is the image of the mysterious, extraordinarily beautiful, acute, strong woman. From one side, anima is goddess, while with another side, anima is witch. “Fatal” women are capable to play the role “Anima” intuitively. This image possesses by enormous mystical force. Young man learn at first sight this image, because this image existed in his subconsciousness from the birth, and young man begins to love at first sight of “fatal” women. Then young man falls on the knees and he begins to beg about mutual love vainly. “Fatal” woman receives the pleasure from understanding of the absolute power above the men. “Fatal” woman has the capability to destroy of own victims simply. “Fatal” woman can break the family of own victims. “Fatal” woman can break career of own victims, to push of own victims into the crime, to lead of own victims to the suicide. As the heroine of French film “Don Juan 73" (which Brigitte Bardot played) said: “To tempt ‐ this is not difficult, to subjugate ‐ this is art. You subjugate in order to destroy”. Having recovered, "victim" remembers that it was as delirious. This image “Anima” is identical for all men, therefore “fatal” woman leaves an enormous quantity of “victims” on own life’s course, this image acts on all men without refusals. If “victim” could survive, then “victim” remember about first and unsuccessful love on all remaining life, and “victim” try to avoid of similar “fatal” women subsequently or “victim” begin to play the role “fatal” man themselves and “victim” begin to revenge to all women. Each woman has an image "Animus" in her subconsciousness as an image of male, that it leads to the analogous consequences.        

Examples “fatal” men from the artistic literature:

  • Don Juan,
  • Grigory Pechorin from novel Mikhail Lermontov “A Hero of Our Time”,
  • Giacomo Casanova,  
  • “Bluebeard”.  


Examples of “fatal” women from the artistic literature:

  • Milady de Winter from the novel of Alexandre Dumas “Three musketeers”,
  • the heroine of the a short novel of Alexander Kuprin  “The Garnet bracelet”  Princess Vera Sheina,
  • the heroine of the film of “Azazel” Amalia Kazimirovna Bezhetskaya from novel of Boris Akunin,   
  • Luba (actress Natalya Andrejchenko) from the film “Wartime Romance”.

Maria Tarnovskaya's criminal case


Criminal cases exists about "black widows" who marry the several victims in turn,"black widow" insure life of the husband for the large sum, and then "black widow" begins to poison of husband with slow and inconspicuous action for examination or "black widows" hires bandits to kill their own husband. It is possible to give an example of concrete criminal case of Maria Tarnovska (a maiden name - O'Rourke), this criminal case was investigated by the famous investigator Vladimir Gavrilovich Filippov in 1908. Tarnovska's process (1910) became a world sensation, Maria Tarnovska became "star" of newspaper reports... The count Pavel Komarovsky insured own life in favor of Maria Tarnovska for 500 thousand francs. Nicholas Naumov has killed count Pavel Komarovsky by the order of Maria Tarnovska from a revolver in Venice. Lawyer Donat Prilukow monitored for implementation of this order. These three men were by lovers of Maria Tarnovska, and Maria Tarnovska operated by them as the skilled puppeteer. Maria Tarnovska and Donat Prilukow were arrested in Vienna under attempt to receive money on an insurance.

As a result of investigation the court has sentenced Nicholas Naumov to 3 years of imprisonment, Donat Prilukow - to 10 years of imprisonment, Maria Tarnovska – to 8 years of corrective works on salt-mines. After prison Maria Tarnovska has married on the American rich man and Maria Tarnovska has gone to Argentina.

Alfred Adler about inferiority complex

Alfred Adler

The inferiority complex is a deep feeling of own inferiority in comparison with other people.

The child has following problems in the childhood:

  • Corporal shortcomings, for example, inferiority of any body organ or small growth.
  • Excessive guardianship from parents, this guardianship leads to the fact that the child isn't able to solve by own problems independently.
  • Rejection from parents, this rejection reduces confidence of the child in own forces.

That to compensate of corporal shortcomings, the child begins to play sports or to train this body organ strenuously. For example, Demosthenes stuttered from childhood, but Demosthenes had become by one of great orators with help of strengthened trainings. Vilma Rudolph had a physical illness in the childhood, but Vilma Rudolph had become by three-time Olympic champion in track and field athletics. Theodore Roosevelt was weak and painful in the childhood, but Theodore Roosevelt had become by U.S. President. An impression exist that all great people had similar problems in the childhood. If the child hasn't managed to solve these problems, then it can lead to neurosis in mature years. Neurosis manifested in feelings of alarm, fear and thoughts about death as though such person lives in a camp of enemies. Neurosis can bring of person into a madhouse or even to suicide. It is necessary to teach of such patients with a neurasthenia to communicate, be interested and to cooperate with other people. Sometimes the inferiority complex manifested externally in superiority complex – in boasting and arrogance. Alfred Adler considered in the last years of life that aspiration to superiority, aspiration to the power is the fundamental law of human life.[6]   

Citations and references

  1. Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz. A History of Modern Psychology. TENTH EDITION Chapter 13: Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings. Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality. Page 309.
  2. Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz. A History of Modern Psychology. TENTH EDITION Chapter 13: Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings.Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality. Page 310.
  3. Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz. A History of Modern Psychology. TENTH EDITION Chapter 13: Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings.Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality. Page 309.
  4. Larry A. Hjelle, Daniel J. Ziegler. Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions, Research, and Applications. Chapter 3. The psychodynamic direction in the theory of the personality: Sigmund Freud.
  5. Duane P. Schultz, Sydney Ellen Schultz. A History of Modern Psychology. TENTH EDITION Chapter 13: Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings. Page 298