Interesting social sciences/History of the philosophy

History of the Ancient Chinese philosophy

Emperor Qin Shi Huang
Depiction of Laozi in E. T. C. Werner's Myths and Legends of China
Zeno of Elea

Years of life of Confucius: 551-479 BC. His books represent moral lectures. Confucius admired before ancient traditions. The main principle of education at Confucius are an obedience and respect to the elders – to the father or the emperor. It is necessary to adhere to the principle of "golden mean" in behavior, it is necessary to be moderate in the desires. The essence of his doctrine can be put into words: "Treat others as you would like others to treat you.". Confucius describes an image of the person which follows his moral precepts - it is "the noble person" and Confucius opposes of the noble person to the low person. The noble person follows the path of duty and the law, the noble person is exacting to himself, the noble person goes to death for the sake of people and own debt. The low person strives for benefit, the low person is exacting to people and the low person commits suicide in a ditch.

Laozi was the founder of the theory of Taoism, this semi - legendary personality was the senior contemporary of Confucius. Tao is a way, destiny. The wise ruler has to give an opportunity that everything went by own way and the wise ruler has not to interfere in anything, the wise ruler has to lower all affairs on drift, a wise ruler should not interfere to Tao. It is clear, that such ruler can't be by the reformer or the commander.

Supporters of Legalism in China have refused from methods of method of moral persuasion and supporters of Legalism in China have relied on punishments, the ruler has to become by despot whose purpose is a victory of own kingdom in war against other kingdoms, purpose of supporters of Legalism was violent reunification of China. Supporters of Legalism have introduced the system of mutual responsibility, surveillance and denunciations. To bring order in the state, it is necessary to punish cruelly for the slightest crime. The people hasn't accepted methods of management of the author of this theory Shang Yang (4 century BC), and Shang Yang was executed. But his program was executed by the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang which introduced in the empire a single legislation for the whole empire, single monetary units, single units of measurement, a single script, a single gradation of the population, a single state apparatus. Qin Shi Huang has finished construction of the Great Wall of China. Qin Shi Huang has ordered to burn books, to drown philosophers in Pit latrines, to send on a hard labor of those who conceal books. The tyrant Qin Shi Huang has ached by a Persecutory delusion. Hundreds of thousands of people have died on construction of Great Wall of China. The authorities executed people for not denunciations and the authorities awarded of informers. The philosophical tradition was interrupted in the period of the Qin dynasty. But the new Han dynasty has restored tradition. Emperor Wu of Han has built Confucianism before the level of the state ideology, but this Confucianism was complemented by Legalism, methods of conviction and punishment were integrated.

History of Ancient Greek philosophy


Diogenes Laërtius has written the textbook on the Greek philosophy under the name "Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers" in 3 century AD. A modern classic author of history of the western philosophy is Bertrand Russell (years of his life: 1872-1970), who was a theorist on the personality type and Bertrand Russell had excellent scientific style of statement. Bertrand Russell has written the textbook "A HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY And Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day". Arthur Hübscher has written the reference book on philosophy of the 20th century "Thinkers of our time (62 portraits)" in excellent unacademic art style. The support on cognition with help of mind, but not with help of a mystical intuition was made for the first time in the Greek philosophy, unlike east philosophy. The previous east philosophy contained too much mythology. East science is a prephilosophy. The word "philosophy" is translated as love to wisdom. Pythagoras (570 – 495 BC) is the first of thinkers who called himself by the philosopher.[1]

The Greek philosophy has arisen in 7 century BC. Seven Sages are considered as founders of the Greek philosophy. [2] The Greek philosophy can be divided into three parts – physics, ethics and dialectics.[3] The Ancient Greek physics is a studying of the nature and search of a single material substance or element that constitutes all things. The physics was based by Thales of Miletus (624-546 BC) which was one of seven Sages. Ethics are reasonings about customs, what is it good and what is it bad?

Ethics were based by Socrates: (470 – 399 BC).[4] Such philosophers as Antisthenes.( 445 – 365 BC), Diogenes of Sinope (412-323 BC), Aristippus (about 435-356 BC), Epicurus (341-270 BC), Zeno of Citium (334-262 BC) and other representatives of school of Stoicism worked in the field of ethics. They looked for meaning of life. Plato (428-348 BC) was pupil of Socrates. Plato have created the first social utopia.[5]

Plato has created the theory of the ideas or the theory of forms (universals) according to which God has created the general concepts of things in the sky. For example, according to Plato an eternal universal concept "cat" exists. This concept "cat", unlike ordinary animals with such name, expresses essence of all cats, this concept "cat" isn't born and doesn't die.[6] Aristotle (384-322 BC) was Platon's pupil and Aristotle has created two new sciences – political science [7] and formal logic. The political science is a science about political system of society. Aristotle has formulated the most important concept of political science about the forms of government. Aristotle's creativity is a top of development of the Greek philosophy.

Conclusion: The main shortcoming of the Greek philosophy consists that this philosophy remained purely speculative science. The Greek physics never relied on experience and an experiment. Aristotle's political science relied on observations of political activity only partly. Only carrying out experiences, experiments and observations allows to develop science, to reject hypotheses which did not undergo testing in an experiment and to adhere to the hypotheses confirmed in an experiment. It does not make sense to create hypotheses which cannot be checked in an experiment which do not make forecasts and recommendations.

Search of a single material substance or element which constitutes all things in the Ancient Greek physics.


Thales of Miletus considered that a single material substance is water.[8] Anaximenes of Miletus (years of life: 585 - 525 BC) considered that a single material substance is air.[9] Pherecydes of Syros (6th century BC) considered that everything consists of four material substances, one of which – the earth.

Heraclitus of Ephesus (years of life: 535 – 475 BC) considered that everything consists from fire. According to Friedrich Engels, Heraclitus is considered as founder of dialectics as sciences about unity and fight of opposites.[10] Leucippus and Democritus from Abdera taught that a material substances of Universe are atoms and emptiness.[11] Atoms fly on the Universe as whirlwind and it generate all complex – fire, water, air and earth, Atoms aren't subject to influences and atoms are invariable on own hardness. [12]

Empedocles from Sicily (494 – 434 BC) considered that four elements – fire, water, earth and air are a primary substances of things.[13] Anaxagoras from Clazomenae considered that a single material substance is homogeneous parts ("similar particles"): as gold consists from so-called gold dust, and everything consist from infinitesimally small fragments of themselves.[14] Anaximander from Miletus considered that the a single material substance is apeiron (on Greek – infinite). Anaximander hasn't defined him in any way neither as air nor as water nor as something other. Anaximander taught that parts change, whole remains invariable. Apeiron is infinitely divisible. [15] All ancient authors agree that apeiron is material, but it is difficult to say, what is apeiron?

In my opinion, apeiron means infinite divisibility of matter, substance consists from molecules, a molecule consists from atoms, atoms consists from elementary particles, elementary particles, perhaps, consist from quarks and so indefinitely. Thus, Anaximander was closer to the truth, than other Ancient Greek physicists. Neither Ancient Greek physicists, nor modern researchers couldn't find a single material substance because the a single material substance doesn't exist in principle. Existence of a single material substance would mean existence of the beginning in development of matter or total absence of development of matter in the physical world. But matter develops progressively without the beginning and end in development therefore the a single material substance didn't manage to be found, and this search of a single material substance is useless.

Ancient Greek dialectics and formal logic




The dialectics is an art to disprove the opponent in a dispute and to put him in a difficult situation by means of arguments. If it is shorter, then the dialectics is an art of a dispute. Zeno of Elea (495 – 430 BC) was the founder of dialectics.[16] Zeno of Elea took big money for training in this art of a dispute.

The method of the proof of Zeno of Elea wasn't by the direct proof, Zeno of Elea proved from contradiction, reducing the point of view of the opponent to absurdity. Four Zeno's paradoxes (aporias) are known:

  • Dichotomy,
  • Achilles and tortoise,
  • Arrow,
  • The moving rows.

These paradoxes have found application in mathematics. The dichotomy is translated as cutting up in two. The paradox "dichotomy" says that the movement from A to B can't begin because at first the person has to reach a half of a way before to reach the end, but to reach a half of a way, it is necessary to reach at first one quarter and so indefinitely. As a result, a person will not be able to move in general. The paradox "Achilles and tortoise" says that Achilles won't be able to overtake a tortoise because when Achilles comes running in that point where tortoise was at the beginning of a way, tortoise will creep away in the following point and so indefinitely. That to disprove Zeno's paradoxes, it was necessary to find a logical mistake in his words. One of opponents of Zeno – Diogenes of Sinope - couldn't disprove of Zeno words and to prove that the movement exists therefore Diogenes of Sinope began to walk silently before Zeno back and forth.

In my opinion, the essence of a logical mistake of Zeno of Elea consists that Zeno of Elea has applied in the proof the uncertain concept "infinity", and it is forbidden by laws of formal logic. The uncertain concept means that this concept has no definition.

Thomas Aquinas
Sack of Rome by the Visigoths on 24 August 410 by JN Sylvestre 1890



Sophists[17] were paid teachers to think, to prove and to speak beautifully. This art was necessary for each citizen of the Ancient Greek polis for a performance in people's assembly and in court because then there were no professional politicians and lawyers yet, and the citizen was obliged to protect himself in court and to defend own opinion in people's assembly in the conditions of direct democracy.

Protagoras ( 490 - 420 BC) [18] was the most famous sophist in 5 century BC. Sophists considered that the absolute truth doesn't exist. Sophists could prove one today, and Sophists could prove opposite tomorrow for demonstration of this idea. For example, sophists could prove today that gods exist, and sophists could prove tomorrow that gods don't exist. Once Protagoras demanded tuition fees from his pupil, but his pupil objected that the teacher did not teach him and his pupil had not yet won the case in court. Protagoras has answered to pupil that if Protagoras will file the claim to court, then the pupil will pay in both cases, either by court order or by their past contract. To learn to win against sophists in dispute, to catch of sophists on tricks as swindlers, Aristotle has created new science – formal logic which represents the list of tricks.

The formal logic is a science about laws of the correct thinking and ways to catch the opponents in a dispute, for example, to catch of the sophist, on a logical trick or a mistake. Aristotle has opened laws of the correct thinking. Aristotle [19]named formal logic by "organon", that is instrument for getting of the truth. The formal logic was so ingenious invention that remained in almost invariable form before 19 century AD. Formal logic has gained the glory of "dead", dry and fruitless science. Mathematical logic was invented only in the 19th century on basis of formal logic, Mathematical logic has become by basis for programming. The formal logic is a instrument of any science. This is the outstanding value of formal logic.

Conclusion: all antique wisdom is concluded In formal logic of Aristotle.

Religious philosophy of the Roman Empire and Middle Ages


Plotinus (years of life: 204-270 AD) lived during disasters in the history of the Roman Empire and Plotinus has become the founder of neo-Platonism.[20] Plotinus has turned away from a show of ruin and poverty in the real world that to behold everlasting peace of the ideas of the benefit and beauty. This other world was the Kingdom of Heaven found after death. Representatives of Catholic philosophy were Saint Augustine of Hippo (years of life: 354-430 AD) and Thomas Aquinas (years of life: 1225-1274). These philosophers protected religious belief. The philosophy has turned into theology (divinity) at this stage of development, that is into theoretical justification of existence of God and a human soul.

Saint Augustine of Hippo [21] proved the fact of creation of the world by God from nothing. Saint Augustine of Hippo has written the book "The City of God." in 410 AD in response to Sack of Rome by Visigoths. The City of God is a community of Christians.

Scholasticism (from Greek "scientific, school") — the systematic medieval philosophy concentrated around the universities and representing synthesis of Christian (Catholic) theology and Aristotle's logic.

In my opinion, religious philosophers have plunged into the abyss of useless scholasticism and argued about things which don't exist in the nature from the point of view of modern natural sciences – about god, evil spirit, immortality of soul. This direction of "researches" has actually turned development of philosophy back to mysticism which was characteristic of east prephilosophy.

Mysticism (from Greek — "to close" or "to conceal") — the supernatural phenomena and the spirituality directed to communication with the other world and supernatural forces.

In my opinion, supernatural forces and the other world don't exist in the nature therefore it doesn't make sense, to look for communication with that of what doesn't exist in the nature.

Thomas Aquinas was the well-known representative of scholasticism. The scholasticism as philosophical school is distinguished by the following features:

  • This school has concentrated on studying only of religious questions. If the church cathedral condemned views of representative of scholasticism, then representative of scholasticism renounced from this views easily .
  • Representatives of scholasticism relied on authority of formal logic of Aristotle and to a lesser extent on the Theory of Forms (theory of the ideas) of Plato.
  • The love to debates, but not mysticism is more inherent for representatives of scholasticism.

Shortcomings of scholasticism are the support only on abstract reasonings and indifference to the scientific facts, belief in omnipotence of an argument in questions which can be found out only by means of observation and an experiment, and at last, absolutely unreasonable underlining of value of verbal distinctions and subtleties. Conclusion: disputes about words had not enough advantage in the course of search of the truth.

Philosophy during the period from epoch Renaissance before epoch of Protestant Reformation (15-16 centuries)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Galileo before the Holy Office.
Bertrand Russell
Immanuel Kant

There was a falling of the authority of church and growth of the authority of science during this period. [22] Publication of the theory of Nicolaus Copernicus (his years of life:1473-1543) about that the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun became the beginning of war between science and religious dogma. Judgments of scientists relied not on belief, but on experience. Scientists denounced the depravity of priests. The Pope received tribute from all Catholic world with the help of a religious theory that claimed that the Pope had the keys from Heaven in his hands. Niccolo Machiavelli (years of life:1469-1527) [23] began to develop further the political science created by Aristotle, the book of Machiavelli "The Prince" became the textbook on political art.

Philosophers of Renaissance, such as Erasmus (years of life:1466-1536) and Thomas More (years of life:1478-1535) despised scholastic philosophy and considered scholastic philosophy as outdated and useless for knowledge. [24] Erasmus criticized sale of indulgences, conflicts of theologians about a Trinity, practician of an absolution for money, veneration of saints, without excluding the Virgin Mary in the book "In Praise of Folly". Erasmus named monastic orders as groups of "mad idiots". Erasmus finishes the book with words that the true religion is a kind of Folly. Thomas More was a utopian. Thomas More was executed for the fact that Thomas More has refused to recognize the king Henry VIII of England as the head of church in England instead of the Pope.

Fight between the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation has begun in the 16th century. [25] Leaders of the Reformation Martin Luther and John Calvin rejected authority of the Pope, a tribute in the form of church tithe and income from sale of indulgences which the Pope received from Central and northern Europe. Roughly speaking, the Reformation was German, and the Counter-Reformation was Spanish, Spain was at the zenith of the power at this time. Ignatius of Loyola has created an Society of Jesus for protection of Catholic church against the Reformation.

Philosophy in 17 century


Achievements of science in 17 century


The science has achieved amazing success in the 17th century.[26] According to Bertrand Russell, the Modern history begin with the 17th century. The greatest scientists of this time were Johannes Kepler (years of life:1571-1630), Galileo Galilei (years of life:1564-1642) and Isaac Newton (years of life: 1642-1727). Astronomers did not recognize for a long time the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus and astronomers insisted stubbornly on the truth of the geocentric theory, because the Bible testified in favor of the geocentric theory, and only Johannes Kepler recognized the first of large astronomers this heliocentric theory as true.

The heliocentric theory – the theory about rotation of Earth and planets of Solar system around the Sun.

The geocentric theory is a theory about rotation of the Sun, planets and stars around Earth.

Johannes Kepler has opened laws of rotation of planets according to which planets rotate around the Sun by ellipses, the Sun exists in one of focuses of this ellipse. Dutch Hans Lippershey has invented the telescope, but Galileo Galilei has used the telescope to a research of stars by the first of astronomers. Isaac Newton has created the law of universal gravitation and Isaac Newton has achieved full triumph of science. Newton's authority can be compared to Aristotle's authority.

The science is impossible without devices and experimental researches. Galileo Galilei has invented the thermometer and Galileo Galilei has improved the watch considerably. His pupil, Evangelista Torricelli has invented a barometer. William Gilbert has published the book about a magnet in 1600. William Harvey has opened blood circulation and William Harvey has published this invention in 1628 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek has opened spermatozoa, unicellular organisms and bacteria. All these scientific principles posed a threat for religion, all these scientific principles contradicted to the Bible therefore theologians and priests were alarmed. These scientific principles have changed idea about the place of the man in the universe. Earth was considered in the Middle Ages as the center of Heaven, and everything had purpose to serve to the man. Man was in the Newtonian world as pathetic creature which creeps on the minor planet, this planet rotates around a minor star, the sizes of this planet and a star don't exceed the size of a pin head in comparison with huge space distances. But the celebration of science has revived pride for force of human mind. Tatars and Turks have ceased to threaten to Europe, and Europeans grew rich quickly and Europeans became misters of the whole world. Europeans have felt himself as happy people, but not unfortunate sinners, as in the Middle Ages.

History of philosophy in 17 century


Francis Bacon (years of life 1561 – 1626) [27] became the founder of an inductive method of reasoning in science. Francis Bacon fought against domination of the deductive method of reasoning invented by Aristotle, and deductive method of reasoning was applied in scholasticism widely. Geometry of Euclid is a model of application of a deductive method of reasoning. Baruch Spinoza (years of life 1632 –1677) has tried to construct even ethics by means of a deductive method of reasoning using geometry as an example. [28] Both deductive, and inductive methods of reasoning are applied in science successfully, but inductive method of Francis Bacon became the philosophical basis of experimental researches without which the triumph in development of modern science was impossible.

René Descartes (years of life 1596-1650) is considered as founder of modern philosophy.[29] Physics and astronomy have exerted the great influence on views of René Descartes. René Descartes tried to create the finished philosophical building anew, similar attempt didn't happen since the time of Aristotle yet. René Descartes had excellent literary style. René Descartes has created analytical geometry in the field of mathematics and René Descartes has invented the сoordinate system. René Descartes tried to construct philosophy by means of a deductive method of reasoning, and René Descartes considered the truth that "I think, therefore I am" (Cogito ergo sum) as an initial axiom or the innate idea in the course of a logical conclusion.

Philosophy in 18 century


Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (years of life:1646-1716) [30] have created in mathematics differential and integral calculus without knowing that Sir Isaac Newton have performed this work earlier, but Isaac Newton hasn't published this work, the subsequent dispute on a priority became shameful for both parties.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz has told that our world is the best of all possible worlds.

John Locke (years of life:1632-1704) has created the theory of knowledge or epistemology [31] also John Locke became the founder of empiricism, that is the doctrine according to which all our knowledge (perhaps, excepting of logic and mathematics) is brought out of experience. Thus, contrary to opinion of René Descartes, Plato and representatives of scholasticism, John Locke considered that innate ideas don't exist. John Locke criticized theory of a hereditary monarchy and John Locke was a supporter of the theory of the social contract, John Locke has explained origin of the state with help of theory of social contract [32]. According to the theory of divine origin of the state which can be found at Robert Filmer, God has granted power to certain persons and the revolt against them is not only crime against the state, but also a crime against God.

According to the theory of the social contract, people have signed the social contract under which the ruler has to bring order and to watch for performance of laws, and citizens transfer to the king part of own rights, for example, the right for vigilante justice and blood feud. If the king is beyond this contract and makes an arbitrariness, then citizens have the right to overthrow of tyrant and to elect other ruler. John Locke has formulated the main liberal idea - the idea of separation of powers, that is idea about need to divide the Supreme power into three branches – legislative, executive and judicial to prevent abuse of power. This idea has arisen in Britain spontaneously during fight between the king and parliament. Charles-Louis de Montesquieu (years of life: 1689-1755) have developed further idea about separation of powers in the book "The Spirit of the Laws". Charles-Louis de Montesquieu has generalized results of experiment in Britain on creation of separation of powers. Founding Fathers of the constitution of the USA have finished Montesquieu's project. Founding fathers have improved the British model and Founding fathers have created the system of "checks and balances" within the Supreme power.

George Berkeley (years of life: 1685 – 1753) [33] have gained value in philosophy thanks to the paradoxical denial of existence of matter. George Berkeley proved this statement with help of witty arguments which represent tricks actually. George Berkeley claimed that material objects exist only being perceived. His opponents have told that the tree would cease own existanse in case nobody looks at him. George Berkeley responded to this objection that God sees everything and always including this tree. Thus, from point of view of George Berkeley, things are complexes of our sensations, and only our consciousness exists actually but not things. This theory is incorrect. Only matter exists in the nature actually, and consciousness is a property of high-organized matter, that is a property of brain of man.

David Hume (years of life: 1711-1776) [34]developed further ideas of George Berkeley. Ideas of David Hume became deadlock in development of philosophy, David Hume became the supporter of agnosticism as theory about impossibility to know the world around because according to David Hume, the world around doesn't exist, and only a consciousness and sensations of man exists.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (years of life: 1712-1778) [35]was a psychologist as the personality type therefore Jean-Jacques Rousseau became the father of the movement of romanticism. Essence of this movement [36] consists that his representatives had inclination to feeling and to sympathy, but not to use of mind and abstract thinking. Feelings of representatives of romanticism were stormy and sincere. The representative of the movement of romanticism could shed tears sincerely at the sight of poor peasant family, but the representative of the movement of romanticism was cold to a well thought-out plan of improvement of a fate of the peasantry as class.

According to romanticism, the philosopher has to live in the village. The plot of their literary compositions reminds a plot of silly Brazilian series and consists that the poor and virtuous peasant cultivated a piece of the earth and this peasant didn't need in trade, but this peasant has lost the earth because of debts, and his beautiful daughter was forced to follow on way of vice, the immoral lord has used their difficult situation. Psychologists-romantics were great writers and psychologists-romantics were able to cause sympathy of readers and to popularize the silly ideas. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a poor homeless tramp during the long periods of the life, Jean-Jacques Rousseau lived at the expense of rich women often, Jean-Jacques Rousseau served as the footman, Jean-Jacques Rousseau was able to cause sympathy of people and Jean-Jacques Rousseau answered them with black ingratitude. For example, once Jean-Jacques Rousseau has stolen expensive ribbon from own hostess, theft was found, but Jean-Jacques Rousseau has shifted the blame on the young female servant whom, besides, Jean-Jacques Rousseau loved very much, and her name has come to his mind first of all. Jean-Jacques Rousseau has said in the work "Confessions": "Yes, I am a thief, but I have a kind heart!".

The movement of romanticism – it was a revolt against mind. Jean-Jacques Rousseau suggested to return to "Golden Age" - to primitive society, these recommendations became useless attempt of a revolt against progress and a civilization, it became one more utopia. Jean-Jacques Rousseau criticized inequality and such great inventions as a private property, agriculture and metallurgy, Jean-Jacques Rousseau suggested to return to State of nature. Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) as the personality type was a speaker, therefore Voltaire was more sane therefore Voltaire has criticized Rousseau's views. Voltaire has noticed that he, contrary to Rousseau's recommendations, doesn't want to walk on all fours as a monkey and Voltaire prefers to use services of the surgeon. Voltaire was a creator of plays and the enthusiast of theater, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau began to criticize Voltaire for that because savages play plays never. Voltaire has expressed doubt that Providence rules world after an earthquake in Lisbon. Jean-Jacques Rousseau has expressed opinion that the victims of an earthquake are guilty in own death because this victims lived in seven-story houses, but not in caves as savages. Voltaire considered by Jean-Jacques Rousseau as the spiteful madman, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau named by Voltaire as "the troubadour of dishonor". Jean-Jacques Rousseau had a persecutory delusion, Jean-Jacques Rousseau has spent the last years of life in poverty, and his death was similar to suicide.

Representatives of the German philosophy are Immanuel Kant (years of life: 1724-1804), Johann Gottlieb Fichte (years of life:1762-1814) and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (years of life: 1770-1831). They fought against agnosticism and romanticism that to provide a possibility of knowledge and to save virtue from these destructive doctrines. The German philosophy has returned to scholastic tone and refusal from a support on empirical researches, main shortcoming of the German philosophy consists in this. Representatives of German philosophy proved their philosophical systems only with the help of abstract philosophical arguments, but this way seems fruitless for cognition. Bertrand Russell doesn't consider of Immanuel Kant as greatest from philosophers. [37] Immanuel Kant was the technician as the personality type therefore Immanuel Kant was married never and Immanuel Kant was a pedant in life to such an extent that neighbors checked the accuracy of own hours not on base of the Kremlin chiming clock, but on time when Immanuel Kant slammed by door and Immanuel Kant went for walk.

Immanuel Kant wrote own compositions with help of boring academic formal style. Immanuel Kant wrote works on natural sciences – about theory of earthquakes, theory of winds, about origin of Solar system from large cloud of gas (a nebula) thereby Immanuel Kant has anticipated Pierre-Simon Laplace's hypothesis. Immanuel Kant has set the purpose to prove laws of morality not with help of will of God and public requirement, but Immanuel Kant has set the purpose to bring out laws of morality from morality itself with help of a deductive logical conclusion. In my opinion, such attempt is useless because laws of morality can be output only from the public need in control over behavior of people, from need to make this behavior by predictable. For example, Immanuel Kant argues that to borrow money is bad because if all people will borrow money, then money will disappear from a circulation. Immanuel Kant condemned theft and murder in the same way. Such reasonings are represented at least strange from the point of view of common sense.

Philosophy in 19 century

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Джордж George Gordon Byron
Arthur Schopenhauer
Friedrich Nietzsche, photo taken about 1875

General characteristic of currents of social thought in 19 century:

  • Lord Byron ((yeas of life:1788 –1824), Arthur Schopenhauer (yeas of life: 1788 –1860) and Friedrich Nietzsche (yeas of life 1844 –1900) became representatives of romanticism in the 19th century.[38]
  • Germany has received intellectual domination in Europe in 19 century because of the huge authority of the German classical philosophy. Philosophical theories reflected condition of spirit of the strong German nation deprived of her natural political power and national unity as a result of historical accidents. Only Otto von Bismarck has managed to restore national unity of Germany at the end of 19 century. The theory of biological evolution of Charles Darwin became the such revolution in science of 19 century as Galilei and Newton's theory in science of 17 century.
  • The idea of survival the most adapted began to be applied widely in social science. Charles Darwin has taken this idea from the social scientist Thomas Robert Malthus. The idea of evolution has appeared in liberalism in the form of belief in progress.

Communistic theory of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels


It is much easier to understand conclusions from difficult philosophical theories if you know theoretical sources, process of formation of the theory, a circle of contacts of the philosopher and inclinations of this personality type to which the philosopher belongs.

Vladimir Lenin wrote about three sources of Marxism in the article "The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism":

  • Hegel's philosophy,
  • utopian socialism,
  • English political economy of Adam Smith and David Ricardo.[39]

Hegel's theory as one of three sources of Marxism


Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [40] was the author of extremely abstract philosophical theory. Hegel's creativity became culmination in development of the German philosophy. According to Bertrand Russell, almost all doctrine of Hegel is false. Hegel's theory represents the worst sample of scholasticism. In my opinion, teachers urged of students with official tribunes in the period of government of communists in Russia to study Hegel's theory and Marx's theory as top of a scientific thought, but this studying led to feeling of disgust to these theories often. Hegel's theory reminds theology. Hegel's theory represents history of development of "the absolute idea". The purpose of the absolute idea consists in self-cognition, the absolute idea has come to know itself in the face of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Thus, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel equated value of own person in human history to value of such prophet as Jesus Christ. Bertrand Russell sneered about it and Bertrand Russell wrote that God tries to understand of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and God reproduces hasty at each stage in reality what God has managed to read at book of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

The absolute idea passes through three stages in own development:

  • Development of absolute idea in the field of logic, in the field of pure divine thinking. Various concepts and categories fight with each other here, for example "Being" fights with "nothing", as a result of this fight "something" arises. It is a sample of useless scholasticism.
  • Development of absolute idea in the nature.
  • Development of absolute idea in thinking and human history. The end of history of mankind has come after that as absolute idea has come to know itself in the face of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.

Unlike idealist Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx considered himself as materialist. Karl Marx has considered that "rational grain" in Hegel's theory is a dialectics as the doctrine about self-development of matter and human society through struggle of opposites.

Categories fought at Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and social classes fought at Karl Marx. According to Karl Marx, mankind history is a history of fight among themselves of the exploiter classes and exploited classes. There was classless society in primitive society, slaves fought against slaveholders in slaveholding society, serfs fought against feudal lords in feudal society, hired workers fought against bourgeoisie (businessmen) under capitalism, classless society will exist again under communism.

Conclusion: In my opinion, struggle of opposites is a scholastic principle, but scientifically based and close to it on sense a concept the social conflict exists. Development of society happens thanks to the relations of the conflict and control between people. Exploitation of man by man and social inequality in wealth, prestige and the power is an inevitable consequence of the relations of social control. It is impossible to cancel in principle social control, social inequality and exploitation of man by man. It wasn't succeeded to cancel social control, social inequality and exploitation of man by man even at socialism. It was only succeeded to reduce the extent of social inequality under socialism that has led to decrease in stimuluses to labour. It was succeeded to pass to more primitive and archaic forms of social control under socialism, it was succeeded to pass from economic control under capitalism in the sphere of economy to semi-feudal administrative control in the sphere of free labour and to semi-slaveholding military control with application of corporal punishments in the system of GULAG under socialism. Communism is a classless society where relations of the social conflict and social control don't exist. Communism can't be constructed in principle for this reason.

Friedrich Engels postulated three laws of dialectics:

  • Law of unity and struggle of opposites. For example, history of society represents history of fight of classes. In my opinion, opposite classes not only conflict with each other, but also opposite classes cooperate with each other within preservation of the relations of social control.
  • The law of the passage of quantitative changes into qualitative changes. Operation of this law can be illustrated on the example of change of qualitative properties of water in the course of quantitative changes of temperature. The physical condition of water changes from a firm state to liquid state, and then to gaseous state.
  • The law of the negation of the negation. Teachers of "scientific communism" gave an such example that the collective property was in primitive society, then the first negation has occurred, and a private property has arisen in exploiter society, the second negation will occurr soon, and a collective property will arise at communism as repetition of collective property on a new spiral turn of development of human society again. [41] I want to ask: And where this communism and this collective property exists today?

Conclusion: All these three laws of dialectics are a sample of useless scholasticism. Though Friedrich Engels tried unsuccessfully to find the struggle of opposites in work of "Dialectics of Nature" in live and inanimate nature, but Friedrich Engels so has found nothing.

Classics of Marxism were proud most of all by the materialism, and classics of Marxism stigmatized by shame idealism. According to Marx and Engels, Hegel's theory represents a sample of objective idealism, from the point of view of this direction in philosophy only an idea or god exist in the world, idea or god generate matter, for example the absolute idea creates the nature at Georg Wilhelm Friedric Hegel, or God Yahweh creates the Earth, the sky, animals and man in six days.

Friedrich Engels has formulated in work "Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy" (Part 2: Materialism) the main question of philosophy of the relation spiritual and material:

"The answers which the philosophers gave on this question split them into two great camps. Those who asserted the primacy of spirit to nature and, therefore, in the last instance, assumed world creation in some form or other — and among the philosophers, Hegel, for example, this creation often becomes still more intricate and impossible than in Christianity — comprised the camp of idealism. The others, who regarded nature as primary, belong to the various schools of materialism".[42]

Two types of idealism exist: objective idealism and subjective idealism. Materialism also has two varieties: vulgar materialism and dialectical materialism, which differ in the fact that the vulgar materialism doesn't recognize development and dialectics. I consider myself such a materialist who recognize development of the nature and society, but development not on scholastic laws of dialectics, but on the natural - science laws stated in the theory of biological evolution of Charles Darwin. John Stuart Mill in 1831 made a prophetic assessment of socialist ideas, John Stuart Mill called these ideas "crazy nonsense," which is "an overthrow of civilized society, worse than the destructive invasions of the Huns and Tatars."

The romantic direction in philosophy of 19 century


George Gordon Byron (years of life: 1788-1824) was an aristocrat on the birth, the poet and the philosopher. [43] George Gordon Byron was an aristocratic rebel. George Gordon Byron was ashamed of the lameness in the childhood . George Gordon Byron and his ancestors had unrestrained choleric temperament therefore George Gordon Byron looked for adventures all life. His ancestors battled in crusades, and this unrestraint brought them success in life. This unrestraint and thirst of the power of George Gordon Byron has led him to hobby for Satanism. Aristocratic relatives looked with suspicion at George Gordon Byron, thus, according to Pitirim Sorokin's theory, George Gordon Byron was a loser from elite. George Gordon Byron has chosen Napoleon as an example for imitation. George Gordon Byron died as the crusader in fight against Muslims, and it wrote in newspapers that two greatest persons of century – Napoleon and Byron – disappeared almost at the same time.

Arthur Schopenhauer (years of life: 1788-1860) [44] have concentrated own attention not on mind, but on will. The will is the space principle which is the cornerstone of the universe, the will to life is peculiar to the Organic nature. The will of the person is a dark mysterious and egoistical force. The will pushes of person on eternal aspiration, anxiety and the conflicts with other people. The esthetic ideal of Arthur Schopenhauer consists in immersion in Buddhist nirvana, in killing of "will to life", in full asceticism. Other way of release from suffering is to be engaged in art. Schopenhauer's philosophy is the beginning of irrationalism. Irrationalism is such current in philosophy which insists on restriction of a role of reason in the history and cognition where the main role is played not by reason, but by instincts, intuition and feelings. Irrationalism is a revolt against reason and science in general.

Three currents exist in irrationalism:

  • Philosophy of life (Friedrich Nietzsche),
  • Existentialism,
  • Freudianism.

Utilitarianism as the direction in philosophy


Representatives of this direction [45] were Jeremy Bentham (years of life: 1747-1832) and John Stuart Mill (years of life: 1806-1873). They were extreme opponents of romanticism in any form. Jeremy Bentham, first of all, was interested in the right, and then Jeremy Bentham was interested by ethics and policy. Jeremy Bentham asserted that kindly is pleasure or happiness, that evil is suffering, that the man aspires to happiness and man tries to avoid of sufferings. The purpose of legislator is establishment of harmony between personal interests and public interests. It is more important that punishment was inevitable, than punishment was severe. The сapital punishment relied for small offenses under the law in beginnings of the 19th century in England. Therefore jurors acquitted criminal often since jurors considered this punishment as excessive. Jeremy Bentham has supported abolition of the сapital punishment for all crimes, except the heaviest crimes, and the criminal code has been softened in this regard already under his life. These are real achievements of the reasonable person in comparison with useless feelings of the romantic man or with the enormous victims and cataclysms to which the socialist calls.

Development of philosophy in the 20th century


Overall picture of the main directions in philosophy of 20 century


History of philosophy of the 20th century is very difficult science for understanding and narrative. Arthur Hübscher in work "Thinkers of our time. Reference book on philosophy of the 20th century." opposes to each other a historical way of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and a natural - historical way of Arthur Schopenhauer. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel criticizes rationalism of age of Enlightenment and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel proclaims principles of scholastic theology. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels have gone on the way of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were representatives of "belief in progress". But this belief has led to an undercurrent in the form of pessimism, fear before future catastrophe and fear before death of European civilization. This fear was shown in works of George Byron and Friedrich Nietzsche, in work "The Decline of the West" of Oswald Spengler, in works of Arthur de Gobineau who feared o degeneration and disintegration of the highest race. Karl Marx suggested moving from the full dangers of our time to a happy future and utopian paradise.

Arthur Schopenhauer saw human history as continuation of zoology. Moving this way Henry Thomas Buckle has set the purpose before historical science to find natural - science regularities in life of the people. The historical and natural - historical points of view consider differently the doctrine about the person, that is philosophical anthropology. William James (years of life: 1842-1910) begins to develop own pragmatism, from the point of view of this theory the thought is true so far as the faith in her is beneficial for our life. If to exaggerate his reasonings, then such thought is true which is beneficial to us. William James was ready to protect any doctrine directed making people by virtuous. Function of philosophy consists in finding out what picture of the world is more beneficial for us. The theory is a tool, but not a method to answer on mysteries of history and the nature. Emergence of psychology, emergence of theories of Sigmund Freud and Karl Jung has forced anthropologists to pay attention to instincts and to go on the way of Arthur Schopenhauer. An existential philosophy exists in the very center of anthropological researches. Søren Kierkegaard (years of life: 1813-1855) became the founder of existentialism. Representatives of this direction looked for meaning of life of man. Representatives of logical positivism have gone on the way of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Bertrán Russell was brightest representative of logical positivism. Representatives of logical positivism have refused subsequently from Hegel's theory because they didn't accept Hegel's idealism.

Understanding of crisis of a modern epoch

José Ortega y Gasset

Oswald Spengler, Arnold J. Toynbee, Christopher Dawson, Alfred Weber, Nikolai Berdyaev, José Ortega y Gasset were representatives of this direction. Christopher Dawson (years of life: 1889 – 1970) considered that all revolts and revolutions had the religious reasons. The belief in reason and progress has undermined religious belief since 17 century. As result the society has arisen which exists in power of money, materialism and anarchy where people don't believe in ideals. This nihilism threatens to Europe by death.

Alfred Weber (years of life: 1868-1958) have written the book "Farewell to European History or the Conquest of Nihilism" after World War II, Alfred Weber warned about the danger to the third person by the fourth person in this book. The third man is a descendant of the Neanderthal man and primitive ancient cultures. The third man was the carrier of historical process within the last 6000 years from which 5500 years history was limited to Eurasia, but this third man has conquered all Earth last 400 years with help of use of technical equipment, the powerful state and capitalism. All lands on the planet are open already, and the population of Earth accepts threateningly big sizes. The fourth man is the trained person of the future. Alfred Weber offers ways of rescue in the form of hominifying of masses and increase of a role of cultural layers of society.

Nikolai Berdyaev ((years of life:1874-1948) was born in Russia, his personality type was a psychologist and Nikolai Berdyaev was the representative of religious philosophy. Nikolai Berdyaev was sent from Russia by Bolsheviks in 1922. Nikolay Berdyaev has died behind a desk. According to Nikolai Berdyaev, Moscow is a successor of Byzantium, "the third Rome" and the only center of true belief. Nikolai Berdyaev stated a prophecy, that we move towards an era of civilized barbarity that domination of technical equipment and machines prepares for society to apocalyptic death. That to avoid it, it is necessary to construct the new Middle Ages where the man will be not a slave, but mister and the creator. In my opinion, this theory of Nikolai Berdyaev is a utopia, like the communistic theory of Karl Marx.

José Ortega y Gasset (years of life: 1883-1955) became one of founders of "The Grouping at the Service of the Republic" in the years of the civil war in Spain. José Ortega y Gasset has appeared in exile after defeat of socialists and communists. José Ortega y Gasset has written works "Invertebrate Spain" and "The Revolt of the Masses". José Ortega y Gasset has proclaimed in the second work the end of liberalism as unnatural thing when it is necessary to coexist peacefully with own enemy, with opposition. All beginnings of the man are doomed to a failure, doomed to become by utopia. The man wants, but the man can't achieve knowledge, love and justice. José Ortega y Gasset fought all life for human dignity against absolute power of collective.



Henri Bergson, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung became representatives of this direction. Henri Bergson (1859-1941) considered that the world is divided into two parts – life and matter. Life aspires up, and matter falls down. Life possesses by vital impulse. Evolution is creative. This mystical ideas are complemented with a picture of development of life on Earth at Henri Bergson. The stream was divided into plants and animals at first, then the intuition and intelligence were divided at animals. Ants and bees possess by intuition, and only man possess by intelligence. Life is similar on the shell which tears into fragments. Bertrand Russell criticized by Henri Bergson for the fact that Henri Bergson doesn't even try to prove own ideas, and Henri Bergson relies on beauty of style only. There is nothing surprising in that because Henri Bergson was a psychologist as the personality type. In my opinion, to be by poet is more would suit to him, than to be by scientist.

From natural sciences to philosophy

Thomas Henry Huxley

Representatives of this direction were Thomas Henry Huxley, Max Planck, Albert Einstein. They were by scientists who have addressed to philosophy. Three generations of family of Huxley had the world scientific glory. Thomas Henry Huxley-grandfather was a fighter for Darwinism and Thomas Henry Huxley-grandfather has put forward theory of origin of man from an ape. Thomas Henry Huxley has got a nickname "the Bulldog of Darwin" for own bright polemic performances. The bishop of Oxford Samuel Wilberforce was one of opponents of Charles Darwin. Samuel Wilberforce named work of Charles Darwin "Origin of species" as badly written book in June, 1860, speaking in the British scientific forum.

The bishop has asked by Thomas Henry Huxley as one of supporters of Charles Darwin:

"As to whether Huxley was descended from an ape on his mother's side or his father's side "[46]

Later Thomas Henry Huxley said that he has turned to the sitting next friend and Thomas Henry Huxley has told: "The God himself has given of Samuel Wilberforce in my hands ".

Thomas Henry Huxley has answered that

"He would rather be descended from an ape than a man who misused his great talents to suppress debate". [47]

The public expected tensely that the bishop will answer him, but the bishop has left the hall without saying even a single word.

His grandson Julian Huxley (years of life: 1887-1975) in work "Evolution: the modern synthesis" proved the theory of evolution by stages - through an inorganic stage, a biological stage and development of man. Evolution in the inorganic world is made most slowly: life of stars has to be calculated in trillions of years. Already biological evolution from primary cage to man demands one billion years only. Human evolution is the shortest. The use of language and conceptual thinking does evolution more and more fast. Any excessive specialization results in stagnation and therefore excessive specialization is harmful. The general development of an organism accelerates by evolution and therefore the general development of an organism is useful. That to avoid stagnation, man has to avoid excessive specialization and to develop general abilities.



John Dewey (years of life: 1859-1952) has developed pragmatism further – to "instrumentalism". All functions of thinking should be understood biologically. Thinking is the same means of adaptation to changeable conditions of environment as hands, legs and teeth. The religion and metaphysics are the products of imagination arising in adverse conditions for life. The philosophy has the only task: to learn the world not in order that to know the world but in order that to seize the world. Francis Bacon's statement "Knowledge is power" ( Latin aphorism "Scientia potentia est") [48] could serve as introduction to John Dewey's doctrine. John Dewey's theory has received a great influence in the West. Great achievements of science has to be used for improvement of mankind. Authorities have introduced labor education at school according to his offer. John Dewey fought for political equality of women. John Dewey was never engaged in one philosophy. John Dewey went to Russia and John Dewey considered that hardly the Soviet regime would be better if Leon Trotsky was Lenin's successor instead of Joseph Stalin. John Dewey considered that violent revolution can't lead to good society.

Philosophy of the logical analysis


Alfred North Whitehead, Bertrand Russell, Rudolf Carnap, Ernst Kassirer, Ludwig Wittgenstein were by representatives of this direction. Alfred North Whitehead (years of life: 1861-1947) and Bertrand Russell (years of his life: 1872-1970) as the personality types were theorists therefore they were capable to write in the commonwealth work "The principles of mathematics" where they could in a new way prove and systematically state fundamentals of mathematics, mathematical and symbolical logic. This book has brought them international recognition. Their ways dispersed after that. Bertrand Russell continued to develop mathematical logic, and Alfred North Whitehead has devoted further life to work on big philosophy of the nature and metaphysics based on Albert Einstein's theory. Bertrand Russell was a descendant of the English aristocrats. Bertrand Russell has shown of own unfitness to a profession of the diplomat and Bertrand Russell became by scientist. Bertrand Russell had amazingly precisely made plan of life – to write a series of books on the theory of natural sciences, mathematics, history of the western philosophy. Bertrand Russell became Nobel Prize laureate in 1931. Bertrand Russell has divided of all philosophers on two big groups. Thoughts were stimulated by mathematics at the first group of philosophers. Platon, Thomas Aquinas, Baruch Spinoza and Immanuel Kant were representatives of first group. The second group of philosophers were influenced more of empirical sciences. Democritus, Aristotle and John Locke were representatives of this second group.

Ludwig Wittgenstein (years of his life: 1889-1951) have concentrated own attention on language. Sentences are generalization of the facts. The fact that cannot be expressed clearly, for example, about mysticism and ethics, it is better to simply remain silent. Mystical and ethical judgments can't be checked on truth or falsehood. The philosophy can't consist of scientific sentences because unlike science the philosophy has no access to the facts. Therefore, philosophical sentences aren't true and philosophical sentences aren't false, philosophical sentences are senseless.

Representatives of logical positivism, such as Rudolf Karnap (years of his life: 1891-1970), denied metaphysics, that is representatives of logical positivism denied doctrine about the main principles of philosophy. Representatives of logical positivism urged to apply the procedure of verification to philosophical concepts, that is representatives of logical positivism urged to check philosophical concepts on scientific character, on compliance to the facts. Those philosophical statements which haven't undergone procedure of verification need to be thrown out on the dustbin of history, as unscientific and senseless. Perhaps, this procedure of verification means end of history of philosophy.

Citations and references.

  1. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.Book I.Intpoduction. VIII
  2. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.Book I.Introduction. IX
  3. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.Book I. Introduction. XIII
  4. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.Book I. Introduction. XIII
  5. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book one. Ancient philosophy.Part II. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Chapter XIV Plato's Utopia.
  6. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book one. Ancient philosophy.Part II. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Chapter XV The Theory of Ideas.
  7. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book one. Ancient philosophy. Part II. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.Chapter XXI Aristotle's Politics.
  8. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book one. Ancient philosophy. Part I. The Pre-Socratics. Chapter II. The Milesian School.
  9. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.Book II. Anaximenes.
  10. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book one. Ancient philosophy. Part I. The Pre-Socratics. Chapter IV Heraclitus
  11. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book one. Ancient philosophy. Part I. The Pre-Socratics.Chapter IX The Atomists.
  12. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.Book IX. Leucippus. Democritus.
  13. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. Book VIII. Empedocles.
  14. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. Book II. Life of Anaxagoras.
  15. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. Book II. Life of Anaximander.
  16. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. Book IX. Life of Zeno, the Eleatic.
  17. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book one. Ancient philosophy. Chapter X. Protagoras .
  18. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. Part I. The Pre-Socratics. Book IX. Life of Protagoras.
  19. Diogenes Laërtius. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. Book V. Life of Aristotle.
  20. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book one. Ancient philosophy. Part III. Ancient Philosophy after Aristotle.Chapter XXX Plotinus.
  21. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book Two. Catholic philosophy. Part I. The Fathers. Chapter IV. Saint Augustine's Philosophy and Theology
  22. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter I. General Characteristics.
  23. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy.Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter III. Machiavelli.
  24. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter IV. Erasmus and More.
  25. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter V. The Reformation and CounterReformation.
  26. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter VI. The Rise of Science.
  27. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter VII. Francis Bacon.
  28. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter X. Spinoza.
  29. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter IX. Descartes.
  30. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter XI. Leibniz
  31. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter XIII. Locke's Theory of Knowledge.
  32. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter XIV. Locke's Political Philosophy .
  33. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter XVI. Berkeley .
  34. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part I. From the Renaissance to Hume. Chapter XVII Hume.
  35. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part II. From Rousseau to the Present Day. Chapter XIX Rousseau.
  36. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part II. From Rousseau to the Present Day. Chapter XVIII The Romantic Movement.
  37. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part II. From Rousseau to the Present Day. Chapter XX Kant. B. Outline of Kant's philisophy.
  38. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part II. From Rousseau to the Present Day. Chapter XXI Currents of Thought in the Nineteenth Century.
  39. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism.
  40. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part II. From Rousseau to the Present Day. Chapter XXII Hegel
  41. Frederick Engels (1873-1886). Dialectics of Nature II. Dialectics.
  42. Friedrich Engels. Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy. Part 2: Materialism
  43. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part II. From Rousseau to the Present Day. Chapter XXIII Byron.
  44. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part II. From Rousseau to the Present Day. Chapter XXIV Schopenhauer.
  45. Bertrand Russell A history of western philosophy. Book three. Modern philosophy. Part II. From Rousseau to the Present Day. Chapter XXVI The Utilitarians.
  46. Thomas Henry Huxley. Debate with Wilberforce. Wikipedia
  47. Thomas Henry Huxley. Debate with Wilberforce. Wikipedia
  48. Scientia potentia est. Wikipedia