3.5.1 Outline the issues involved in the imbalance in global food supply
3.5.2 Compare and contrast the efficiency of terrestrial and aquatic food production systems
3.5.3 Compare and contrast the inputs and outputs of materials and energy (energy efficiency), and system characteristics, and evaluate the relative environmental impacts for two named food production systems
3.5.4 Discuss the links that exist between social systems and food production systems
Commercial farming: farming for profit; often a single crop
Subsistence Farming: produce only enough to feed family, with none to sell for profit
both commercial farming and subsistence farming can be intensive or extensive
take up small area of land
very high output (through large inputs of capital and labor)
large in comparison to the money and labor put into them
efficiency of system can be calculated by comparing outputs to inputs
outputs: marketable product
inputs: fuel, labor, transport, fertilizer, dealing with waste products
Links between social systems and food production systemsEdit
Also known as "slash and burn" agriculture
Land is cleared by cutting down small areas of forest and setting fire to them. The ash fertilizes the soil and crops can be grown. When the minerals in the soil is depleted, the farmer moves to a new area. The old area can be returned to once the fertility has recovered.
This is an example of extensive subsistence farming.
Rice agriculture (South-East Asia)
Rice can be grown in dry-fields, but padi field (wet rice) (heavy clay soils) agriculture has become the dominant form of growing rice in South-East Asia.
High population densities lead to high demand for food, especially rice, which is a staple part of the diet and a central part of Asian culture.
This is an example of intensive subsistence farming. (high level input, low level technology)
Agribusiness is when regulation of food production is not to satisfy the community's needs but is to ensure profitable return for capital investment (producing food for people's needs-->producing food for commercial profit)
Distinguishing methods of agribusiness:
large-scale monoculture: huge fields where only one crop is grown
intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides
mechanized ploughing and harvesting
food production geared to mass markets including export
These large farms decreased demand for labor, which led to local migration of people into towns and cities as they sought new work.