Computer Organisation

The Computer Organisation can be viewed as layers building on top of each other, each layer adding some new abstraction.

The Information Layer edit

2.1.9 Define the terms: bit, byte, binary, denary/decimal, hexadecimal.

2.1.10 Outline the way in which data is represented in the computer. (colors, music, images)

This subpage covers positional notation systems, including binary, hexadecimal, and octal. It explains the basics of binary, hexadecimal, and octal systems, conversion methods, and their applications in representing text, floating-point numbers, music, and images. It discusses encoding schemes like ASCII, Unicode, and UTF-8.

The Hardware Layer edit

2.1.11 Define the Boolean operators: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XOR.

2.1.12 Construct truth tables using the above operators.

2.1.13 Construct a logic diagram using AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XOR gates.

2.1.5 Identify the need for persistent storage.

The subpage covers a new layer of abstraction, over the information layer, starting with transistors and integrated circuits. It then dives into Boolean gates, explaining Boolean logic, gate construction using transistors, and methods for truth table and logic diagram construction. The discussion extends to logic components like adders, ALUs, and comparators, as well as memory components like latches, registers, and ROM. It also touches on primary and secondary memory, including storage devices.

The Instruction Cycle Layer edit

2.1.1 Outline the architecture of the central processing unit (CPU) and the functions of the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and the control unit (CU) and the registers within the CPU.

2.1.2 Describe primary memory.

2.1.3 Explain the use of cache memory.

2.1.4 Explain the machine instruction cycle.

The subpage covers a new layer of abstraction, over the Hardware Layer, starting with an overview of what a CPU is and how it operates through the fetch-decode-execute cycle. It covers components like the control unit, RAM, cache memory, and bus systems such as the data and address buses. Additionally, it discusses instructions, MDR, MAR, and provides examples of CPUs executing various programs. The Von Neumann Architecture is also introduced.

The Operating System Layer edit

2.1.6 Describe the main functions of an operating system.

The subpage covers a new layer of abstraction, over the Instruction Cycle Layer, describing what operating systems (OS) are, covering their key functions like resource management, security, and memory management.

The Application Layer edit

2.1.7 Outline the use of a range of application software.

2.1.8 Identify common features of applications.

The subpage covers a new layer of abstraction, over the Operating System Layer, describing common features of applications and their use.