The impact of war on Europe: the situation in 1919 Edit

The human cost of war Edit

Economic consequences Edit

Political consequences Edit

Germany Edit

Russia Edit

The Habsburg Empire Edit

Turkey Edit

Impact of war outside of Europe: the situation in 1919 Edit

America Edit

Japan and China Edit

Problems facing the peacemakers in 1919 Edit

The aims of the peacemakers Edit

The Armistice settlement and the mood of the German population Edit

The popular mood in Britain, France, Italy, and the USA Edit

The terms of the Treaty of Versailles Edit

War guilt Edit

Disarmament Edit

Territorial changes Edit

Mandates Edit

Reparations Edit

Punishment of war criminals Edit

What was the contemporary response to the Treaty of Versailles? Edit

Criticisms of the Treaty of Versailles Edit

The issue of war guilt Edit

Disarmament clauses Edit

Reparations and loss of key resources Edit

Territorial changes to satisfy the issue of self-determination Edit

Removal of colonies Edit

League of Nations Edit

Alternative views of the Treaty of Versailles Edit

Settlement of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe Edit

The Treaty of St Germain (1919) Edit

The Treaty of Trianon (1920) Edit

The Treaty of Neuilly (1919) Edit

The Treaty of Sevres (1920) Edit

Thee Treaty of Laussane (1923) Edit

What were the criticisms of the peace settlements in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe? Edit

What was the impact of the war and the peace treaties by the early 1920s? Edit

Political issues Edit

Economic issues Edit

Social changes Edit