In the 50,000 years since humans successfully settled the world's habitable continents, a long story emerges of environmental stimuli and human response. Innovation, migration, settlement, development of material culture are likely responses, but result in landscape modification. The modern human world is the culmination of these stimuli-response iterations.

Agricultural scene in Asia.
Agricultural scene in Asia.
Human Geography
The interdependence of humanity and their environment.

Earth processes create regions of climate, landforms, soils, vegetation, and other resources. Variations in human population distributions coincide with all possible permutations of physical environmental factors. These permutations are not randomly distributed. A property of geographical distributions is that similarity amongst features is directly related to their proximity.

Thus human population distribution is not random. It is the result of human exploration and expansion to lands suitable for supporting a population. Conversely stated, it is the slow culmination of individual and group decisions to choose habitats suitable for survival, and secondarily, for comfort.



Geography -- What Is It?

  • A Content Area
  • A Mode of Inquiry
  • A history of man and with necessary accident.

Scale and Perspective

  • Types of Stimuli
  • Types of Human Response
  • Scales of Human Response
    • Individual
    • Group
    • Community
    • City
    • State
    • National
    • International
  • Time
    • Modern
    • Historical
      • Years
      • Decades
      • Centuries
      • Millennia
  • Space
    • Local
    • Regional
    • National
    • International
    • Global

Basic Concepts

  • The First Law of Geography
  • Distribution
    • Cluster
  • Diffusion
  • Connections
  • Place
  • Region
  • Scale

Human Requirements

  • What all humans do
    • Eat
    • Drink
    • Sleep
    • Reproduce
    • Defecate
    • Communicate
    • Think
    • Innovate
  • What all Humans Need
    • Food
      • Hunter-Gatherer
      • Agriculture
        • Subsistence
        • Trade
        • Agribusiness
    • Water
    • Shelter
    • Fuel
    • Clothes
    • Other Humans
  • How Human Needs Are Expressed
    • Materials in Environment

Humans coincide with the distribution of physical factors

  • Climate
  • Vegetation
  • Landforms
  • Soils
  • Resources

Current and Historical Population Distributions

  • Ecumene
  • Combination of the physical factors and human innovation dictate how much population a piece of land can support
  • Population Density
  • Arable
  • Environmental Determinism
  • Environmental Possiblism
    • Innovation


  • Material Culture
  • Religion
  • Ethnicity
  • Language
  • The Effect of Isolation


Urban Geography


History of Rural Geography