Graph Theory/Juggling with Binomial Coefficients


Fluency with binomial coefficients is a great help in combinatorial arguments about graphs. You should learn to juggle with binomial coefficients as easily as you juggle with normal algebraic equations.


  • Substitute specific values in the general equations, e.g. careful choice of x and y in:
  • Sledgehammer proof using recursion formula. You may find it helpful to 'chase' binomial coefficients on a diagram of Pascal's triangle.
  • Differentiation of a previous identity to get a new one.
  • Combinatorial arguments about permutations and combinations.

Worked ExamplesEdit

Example: 2n

To get:


Put   in


The IdentitiesEdit



where F(n) denote the nth Fibonacci number.



  • Find probability of cycles of certain length in a permutation.