Gothic/3/Adjectives

Gothic AdjectivesEdit

Gothic adjectives can be declined as strong or weak. They are declined according to gender, number, and case. As a rule of thumb, the strong forms are used without a demonstrative pronoun, and the weak forms are used with a demonstrative pronoun. However, certain adjectives are always declined in the weak forms or the strong forms.

Gothic strong adjectives take many of their endings from the declension of pronouns.

braid daur jah rums wigs (Mt 7:13)

"broad (is) is the door and roomy the way".

Weak adjectives take the endings of -n stem nouns, regardless of the underlying stem class of the adjective. Their primary use in Gothic is appositional. The following contrast is most informative:

ik im hairdeis gods

"I am shepherd good"

hairdeis sa goda saiwala seina lagjiþ. (Jn 10:11)

"the shepherd, the good, lays down his soul.

Weak adjectives also accompany a noun in the vocative:

atta weiha (Jn 17:11)

"holy father"

Strong a-stem AdjectivesEdit

A-stems are subdivided into pure a-stems, ja-stems, and wa-stems. The endings of a-stem adjectives reflect the endings of a-stem nouns. Wa-stem adjectives decline just like pure a-stems. The adjectives blinds (blind) will serve as a model.

The strong -a declensionEdit

Case blinds, blind/blindata, blinda
blind
Singular Plural
Masculine Neuter Feminine Masculine Neuter Feminine
Nominative blinds –s blind(ata) –(ata) blinda –a blindái –ái blinda –a blindōs –ōs
Accusative blindana –ana blindans –ans
Genitive blindis –is blindis –is blindáizōs –áizōs blindáizē –áizē blindáizē –áizē blindáizō –áizō
Dative blindamma –amma blindamma –amma blindái –ái blindáim –áim blindáim –áim blindáim –áim

Ja-stemsEdit

Ja-stem adjectives are subdivided into two classes like the corresponding declension of nouns: ja-stems with a short syllable and ja-stems with a long syllable.

Ja-stems With a Short SyllableEdit

The adjective midjis (middle) will serve as a model.

Case midjis, midi/midjata, midja
middle
Singular Plural
Masculine Neuter Feminine Masculine Neuter Feminine
Nominative midjis –jis midi, midjata –i, –jata midja –ja midjái –jái midja –ja midjōs –jōs
Accusative midjana –ana midjans –ans midjōs
Genitive midjis –jis midjis –jis midjáizōs –jáizōs midjáizē –jáizē midjáizē –jáizē midjáizō –jáizō
Dative midjamma –jamma midjamma –jamma midjái –jái midjáim –jáim midjáim –jáim midjáim –jáim

Ja-stems With a Long SyllableEdit

This declension is built out of long-stemmed -ja masculine and neuter nouns and long-stemmed -jō feminine nouns. The adjective wilþeis (wild) will serve as a model.

Case wilþeis, wilþi/wilþjata, wilþi
wild
Singular Plural
Masculine Neuter Feminine Masculine Neuter Feminine
Nominative wilþeis –eis wilþi, wilþjata –i, –jata wilþi –i wilþjái –jái wilþja –ja wilþjōs –jōs
Accusative wilþjana –ana wilþja –ja wilþjans –ans
Genitive wilþeis –eis wilþeis (or -jis?) –eis (–jis?) wilþjáizōs –jáizōs wilþjáizē –jáizē wilþjáizē –jáizē wilþjáizō –jáizō
Dative wilþjamma –jamma wilþjamma –jamma wilþjái –jái wilþjáim –jáim wilþjáim –jáim wilþjáim –jáim

This declension is built out of long-stemmed -ja masculine and neuter nouns and long-stemmed -jō feminine nouns.

Strong i-stem AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives of this class have replaced most forms with forms taken from the -ja declension. The adjective hrains (clean) will serve as a model.

Case hráins, hráin, hráins
clean
Singular Plural
Masculine Neuter Feminine Masculine Neuter Feminine
Nominative hráins –s hráin hráins –s hráinjái –jái hráinja –ja hráinjōs –jōs
Accusative hráinjana –jana hráinja –ja hráinjans –ans
Genitive hráinis –is hráinis –is *hráinjáizōs *–jáizōs hráinjáizē –jáizē hráinjáizē –jáizē hráinjáizō –jáizō
Dative hráinjamma –jamma hráinjamma –jamma hráinjái –jái hráinjáim –jáim hráinjáim –jáim hráinjáim –jáim

U-stem AdjectivesEdit

The u-stem adjectives decline like their corresponding noun declension. The genitive and dative of all genders are wanting. The adjective hardus (hard) will serve as a model.

Case hardus, hardu/hardjata, hardus
hard
Singular Plural
Masculine Neuter Feminine Masculine Neuter Feminine
Nominative hardus –us hardu, hardjata –u, –jata hardus –us hardjái –jái *hardja *–ja hardjōs –jōs
Accusative hardjana –jana hardjans –ans
Genitive *hardáus *–áus *hardáus *–áus *hardjáizōs *–jáizōs hardjáizē –jáizē hardjáizē –jáizē hardjáizō –jáizō
Dative *hardjamma *–jamma *hardjamma *–jamma *hardjái *–jái hardjáim –jáim hardjáim –jáim hardjáim –jáim

Weak Declension of AdjectivesEdit

The weak declension of adjectives agrees exactly with the three nouns hana (cock), hairto (heart), and tuggo (tongue). All adjectives have the same endings, regardless of the underlying stem class of the adjective. The only difference is that ja-stems, i-stems and u-stems have a -j- at the end of the stem.

Case blinda, blindō, blindō
blind
Singular Plural
Masculine Neuter Feminine Masculine Neuter Feminine
Nominative blinda –a blindō –ō blindō –ō blindans –ans blindōna –ōna blindōns –ōns
Accusative blindan –an blindōn –ōn blindans –ans
Genitive blindins –ins blindins –ins blindōns –ōns blindanē –anē blindanē –anē blindōnō –ōnō
Dative blindin –in blindin –in blindōn –ōn blindam –am blindam –am blindōm –ōm

ReferencesEdit