This tutorial covers some of the more advanced, multi-user features of git. For the single-user features, please go to the Single developer basics.
Checking out remote repositoriesEdit
One way to check out a remote git repository is
Now you have a local copy of that repository. You can use all the commands that were introduced in the Single developer basics. Once you are done, you might want to check in your changes to the central repository again.
First you want to do a
git pull in case the repository has changed in the meantime and you might have to merge your branch with the repository. After merging, you can use
git push to send your changes to the repository:
$ git pull /remote/path/to/repo
$ cd repo $ git pull
$ git push
Checking out local repositoriesEdit
git clone also works for local repositories:
$ git clone /local/path/to/repo
Checking out remote branchesEdit
You might also want to check out remote branches, work on them and check in your local branches. First you might want to know which branches are available:
$ git branch -r $ git remote show origin
Get a remote branch (pull into a local branch):
$ git pull origin remoteBranchName:localBranchName
Update a remote branch (push a local branch into a remote branch):
$ git push origin localBranchName:remoteBranchName
This assumes that you have a remote repository called "origin". You can check this with
If you want to create a local branch from a remote branch, use:
$ git checkout -b mylocalbranch origin/maint
Deleting remote branches works like this
$ git push origin :remoteBranchNameToDelete
The following command synchronizes branches $ git fetch origin
Git allows you to specify some tags in order to focus on some things in the history.
In order to add an annotated tag:
$ git tag -a mytag
$ git tag -a mytag my-branch
To add a lightweight tag:
$ git tag mytag
To force overwriting existing tag:
$ git tag -f mytag HEAD
To display previous tags:
$ git tag
Tags can be pushed to remote with
$ git push --tags
To position the repo on a tag:
git checkout tags/0.3.4
Tags vs BranchesEdit
Both tags and branches point to a commit, they are thus aliases for a specific hash and will save you time by not requiring to type in a hash.
The difference between tags and branches are that a branch always points to the top of a development line and will change when a new commit is pushed whereas a tag will not change. Thus tags are more useful to "tag" a specific version and the tag will then always stay on that version and usually not be changed.
In practice, tags are used to designate the software versioning, and are named with numbers (ex: v1.0.2).
Create and Apply a PatchEdit
In order to create a plain text patch (series) for the changes between origin and master, use
$ git format-patch origin/master
In order to apply a submitted plain text patch (series), use
$ git apply --stat P1.txt #see the stats, how much will the path change? $ git apply --check P1.txt #check for problems $ git am < P1.txt #apply the patches in the correct order