Fundamentals of Human Nutrition/Lipid intake

< Fundamentals of Human Nutrition

6.4 Lipid IntakeEdit

Total fat intake for

  1. Children 2 - 3 yeas: 30-35% of calories for date
  2. Children 4-18 yeas: 25 - 35% of calories for date
  3. Adults: 25-30% of calories for date

Less than 10% of daily calories should be from saturated fatty acids

Maximize the amount of poly - monounsaturated fats compared to other sources of fat.

Minimize the amount of sutured fat intake.

Minimize trans fat as much as possible

Fat intake great than 35% of calories and increased intake of sutured fat are both associated with height risk of heat disease
Omega-3 Intake: Cardiac societies recommend the intake of 1 g/day of the two omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for cardiovascular disease prevention, treatment after a myocardial infarction, prevention of sudden death, and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (Review Cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids Clemens von Schacky, William S. Harri, Cardiovascular Research 73 (2007) 310–315.

6.4.1 ExcessEdit

Cardiovascular Health [1]: Excessive fat intake is most detrimental to cardiovascular health. Saturated fat is the leading cause of high cholesterol levels in most adults. It is found in a wide variety of foods, many of which are often promoted as healthy, such as milk, cheese and other dairy products. For optimal heart health, limit your intake of saturated fat to less than 10 percent of your overall calorie intake.

Besides the cholesterol implications due to high fat intake, obesity is a factor in the causation of disease. Being overweight or obese is highly associated with increasing the risk of type II diabetes, gallbladder disease, cardiovascular disease, hypertension , and osteoarthritis [2].

Cancer[3]: An excess of fat and a shortage fiber in your diet can cause cancerous cellular growth, which can spread too many organs. The Office of the Surgeon General reports that overweight conditions resulting from too much fat consumption also increase your risk for developing cancer of the colon, gallbladder, kidney and reproductive organs.

A high cholesterol level is detrimental to health and leads to a condition known as atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the build-up of cholesterol on the walls of arteries, which may eventually result in the blocking of blood flow. When this occurs in the arteries of the heart, it is called coronary artery disease[4].


Diseases Associated with a Natural Fat Deficiency[5]:

  1. Immune disorders
  2. triglycerides
  3. High Blood Pressure
  4. Heart Disease
  5. Fibroids
  6. Eczema
  7. Dyslexia
  8. Diabetes: type 2
  9. Cancer
  10. Arthritis
  11. Alzheimer’s disease, dementia
  12. Allergies
  13. Psoriasis
  14. Obesity
  15. Inflammation
  16. Infertility
  17. Vision loss

Essential fatty acid deficiency

Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency

Clinical signs of essential fatty acid deficiency include a dry scaly rash, decreased growth in infants and children, increased susceptibility to infection, and poor wound healing. Omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids compete for the same desaturase enzymes. The desaturase enzymes show preference for the different series of fatty acids in the following order: omega-3 > omega-6 > omega-9. Consequently, synthesis of the omega-9 fatty acid eicosatrienoic acid increases only when dietary intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are very low; therefore, mead acid is one marker of essential fatty acid deficiency. A plasma eicosatrienoic acid:arachidonic acid ratio greater than 0.2 is generally considered indicative of essential fatty acid deficiency . In patients who were given total parenteral nutrition containing fat-free glucose-amino acid mixtures, biochemical signs of essential fatty acid deficiency developed in as little as 7-10 days. In these cases, the continuous glucose infusion resulted in high circulating insulin levels, which inhibited the release of essential fatty acids stored in adipose tissue. When glucose-free amino acid solutions were used, parenteral nutrition up to 14 days did not result in biochemical signs of essential fatty acid deficiency. Essential fatty acid deficiency has also been found to occur in patients with chronic fat mal absorption and in patients with cystic fibrosis. Recently, it has been proposed that essential fatty acid deficiency may play a role in the pathology of protein-energy malnutrition

Omega-3 fatty acids and health
Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  1. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an independent and inverse association exists between n-3 fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarkers.
  2. Omega-3 fatty acids improve macro- and microvascular function in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements decreases homocysteine levels in diabetic patients.
  4. Fish oil supplementation improves walking distance in peripheral arterial disease.
  5. The omega-3 fatty acid docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) reduces the risk of peripheral arterial diseaseassociated with smoking.
  6. Omega-3 fatty acids appear to be an effective treatment for children with autism.
  7. Fish oil supplementation has a significant therapeutic effect on children with autism.
  8. A combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc consumption provide a beneficial effect on attentional, behavioural, and emotional problems of children and adolescents.
  9. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has a therapeutic effect in children with ADHD.
  10. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has a therapeutic effect in children with ADHD.
  11. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery.
  12. Consuming small quantities of fish is associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease.
  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D supplementation results in a substantial reduction in coronary calcium scores and slowed plaque growth.
  14. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces total mortality and sudden death in patients who have already had a heart attack.
  15. Raising blood levels of omega-3 fatty acid levels may be 8 times effective than distributing automated external defibrillators (AEDs), and 2 times more effective than implanting implanting cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in preventing sudden death.
  16. Omega-3 fatty acid reduce the total mortality and sudden death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
  17. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces the incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with myocardial infarction.
  18. Omega-3 in modest doses reduces cardiac deaths, and in high doses reduces nonfatal cardiovascular events.
  19. Dietary supplementation with flax seed oil lowers blood pressure in dyslipidaemic patients.
  20. Omega 3 fatty acids improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity.
  21. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil lowers blood pressure in dyslipidaemic patients.
  22. Omega 3 fatty acids improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity.
  23. Fish oil improves tubular dysfunction, lipid profiles and oxidative stress in patients with IgA nephropathy.
  24. Clinical studies have reported that oral fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis and among some asthmatics.
  25. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is associated with reduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder.
  26. There is strong evidence that omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect in bipolar disorder.
  27. Omega-3 fatty acids improve endothelial function in peripheral arterial disease.
  28. Fish oil has a beneficial effect on blood viscosity in peripheral vascular disease.
  29. An 8-month treatment with omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) has a positive effects, such as decreasing inflammation, in patients with cystic fibrosis.
  30. Omega-3 fatty acids may have a protective effect against mucus over-production caused by pulmonary bacterial colonization in cystic fibrosis.
  31. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces inflammatory biomarkers, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and interleukin-8 concentrations in cystic fibrosis patients.
  32. DHA increases resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.
  33. EPA and DHA have therapeutic value in the treatment of systemic lupus erythmeatosus
  34. EPA supplementation has therapeutic value in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients.
  35. Omega-3 fish oil reduces the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  36. Higher plasma concentrations of EPA and DPA are associated with a lower risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction among women.
  37. Fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and total mortalityin diabetic women.
  38. A moderate intake of EPA and DHA may postpone cognitive decline in elderly men.
  39. The consumption of fish reduces the risk of ischemic stroke in elderly individuals.
  40. Omega-3 fatty acid consumption is inversely associated with incidence of hypertension.
  41. Fish oil, but not flaxseed oil, decreases inflammation and prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction.
  42. Omega-3 fatty acids may have a therapeutic effect on postpartum depression.
  43. Omega-3 fatty acids may have therapeutic value in the treatment of dry eye syndrome.
  44. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation exhibits therapeutic value in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology.
  45. Omega-3 Fatty acids supplementation prevents and reverses insulin resistance.
  46. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent the formation of urinary calcium oxalate stone formation.
  47. Omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for children with bronchial asthma.
  48. Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation may contribute to the prevention of early preterm birth in both low-risk and high-risk pregnancies.
  49. Omega 3 fatty acids decrease the severity of autoimmune disorders.
  50. Omega-3 fatty acids resulted in an improvement in weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.
  51. Omega-3 Fatty Acids has significant therapeutic benefits and drug sparing activity in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
  52. Dietary Omega-3 fatty acids may protect smokers against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  53. Omega-3 fatty acids alleviate insulin resistance and fatty liver in obese mice.
  54. Omega-3 fatty acids were shown to be more effective than placebo for depression in both adults and children in small controlled studies and in an open study of bipolar depression.
  55. The omega-3 fatty acid EPA is as effective as fluoxetine (Prozac) in treating major depressive disorder.
  56. Fish consumption reduces the risk of ischemic stroke in men
  57. Fish consumption is associated with a 63% reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality.
  58. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may have a therapeutic role in attenuating pulmonary hypertension.
  59. Intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish may be associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic rhinitis.
  60. Cod liver oil (omega-3 Fatty Acids) reduces the need for NSAIDs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
  61. Diets containing EPA and DHA have an inhibitory effect on breast cancer growth and metastasis.
  62. Primary open-angle glaucoma patients have reduced blood levels of DHA and EPA.
  63. Higher intake of omega 3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of pneumonia.
  64. A diet low in trans-unsaturated fat and rich in omega-3 fatty acids and olive oil may reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration.