Fortran/OOP in Fortran

parallel processing Fortran
OOP in Fortran
language extensions

Object-oriented programmingEdit

ModuleEdit

OverviewEdit

Data can be gathered in modules. The general form is given by

module <name>
    [use <module_names>]
    [<declarations>]
contains
    [<subroutines and functions>]
end module [<name>]

Data accessEdit

There are three possible access properties: public, private, protected.

  • public: Outside code has read and write access.
  • private: Outside code has no access.
  • public, protected: Outside code has read access.

Using module in other codeEdit

One can include the module's public data in outside code. There are three ways.

  • use <moduleName>: includes all public data and methods
  • use <moduleName>, <renames>: includes all public data and methods, but renames some public data or methods
  • use <moduleName>, only: <subset>: includes only some public data and methods

ExampleEdit

General overviewEdit
module test_m
    implicit none
    private  ! All data is by default private.
    ! These procedures are set public -> accessible outside
    public print_coords, set_coords 
    real :: x, y  ! Not accessible outside module.
contains
    subroutine print_coords
        print *, "x, y", x, y
    end subroutine

    subroutine set_coords(new_x, new_y)
        real, intent(in) :: new_x, new_y

        x = new_x
        y = new_y
    end subroutine
end module

program main
    use test_m  ! Import the "test_m" module
    implicit none

    call set_coords(1.0, 1.0)  ! Call the public procedure from test_mod
    call print_coords
end program
Data accessEdit
module data_access_m
    implicit none
    private
    public a, b
    protected b
    private c
    integer :: a = 1
    integer :: b = 1
    integer :: c = 1
end module

program main
    use data_access_m

    ! Accessing public object works.
    print *, a
    ! Editing public object works.
    a = 2
    ! Accessing protected object works.
    print *, b
    ! Editing protected object does not work.
    !b = 2 <- ERROR
    ! Accessing private object does not work
    !print *, c <- ERROR
    ! Editing private object does not work
    !c = 2 <- ERROR
end program
Using modulesEdit
module test_module
    implicit none
    private
    integer, public :: a = 1
    integer, public, protected :: b = 1
    integer, private :: c = 1
end module test_module

!> Import all public data of test_module.
program main
    use test_module

    print *, a, b
end program main

!> Import all data, and rename.
program main
    use test_module, better_name => a

    ! New name use available.
    print *, better_name
    ! Old name is not available anymore.
    !print *, a  <- ERROR
end program main

!> Import only a subset of the public data.
program main
    use test_module, only : a

    ! Only a is loaded
    print *, a
    ! b is not loaded
    !print *, b  <- ERROR
end program main

SubmoduleEdit

Modules can be extended using submodules. Multiple advantages arise

  • splitting of large modules
  • splitting of interface definitions and implementations such that dependent modules do not need to be recompiled if the implementations change
  • two modules need data from each other.

ExampleEdit

Splitting of definitions and implementationsEdit
!> simple module about circles
module circle_mod
    implicit none
    private
    public :: area, radius
    real            :: radius
    real, parameter :: PI = 3.1415

    interface  ! Interface block needed. Each function implemented via submodule needs an entry here.
        module function area() ! Important. Note the "module" keyword.
            real :: area
        end function 
    end interface
end module 

submodule (circle_mod) circle_subm  ! Submodule (parent_mod) child_mod.
contains
    module function area()  ! Again "module" keyword.
        area = PI*radius**2
    end function 
end submodule

program main
    use circle_mod
    implicit none

    radius = 1.0
    print *, "area:", area()
end program

Derived data typesEdit

In Fortran one can derive structures off of other structures, so called derived data types. The derived types will have the features of the parent type as well as the newly added ones and the general syntax is given by:

type, extends(<parentTypeName>) :: <newTypeName>
    <definitions>
end type

The following example shows different types of people within a company.

module company_data_mod
    implicit none
    private
    public phone_type, address_type, person_type, employee_type, salaried_worker_type, hourly_worker_type

    type phone_type
        integer :: area_code, number
    end type

    type address_type
        integer                        :: number
        character (len=:), allocatable :: street, city
        character (len=2)              :: state
        integer                        :: zip_code
    end type

    type person_type
        character (len=:), allocatable :: name
        type (address_type)            :: address
        type (phone_type)              :: phone
        character (len=:), allocatable :: remarks
    end type

    type, extends (person_type) :: employee_type
        integer :: phone_extension, mail_stop, id_number
    end type

    type, extends (employee_type) :: salaried_worker_type
        real :: weekly_salary
    end type

    type, extends (employee_type) :: hourly_worker_type
        real :: hourly_wage, overtime_factor, hours_worked
    end type
end module

program main
    use company_data_mod
    implicit none

    type (hourly_worker_type) :: obj
end program

DestructorsEdit

One can define procedures which will be invoked before the object is automatically deleted (out of scope). This is done with the statement final. The following example illustrates it

module person_m
    implicit none

    type person
        integer, allocatable :: numbers(:)
    contains
        final :: del
    end type
contains
    subroutine del(this)
        !! example for a derived type's destructor. allocatables are
        !! deallocated automatically anyways. this is just to show the usage of
        !! "final".
        type (person), intent (inout) :: this

        if (allocated(this%numbers)) deallocate (this%numbers)
    end subroutine 
end module

Abstract base type and deferred procedureEdit

One can set the base type as abstract such that one cannot initialize objects of that type but one can derive sub-types of it (via extends). Specific procedures which should be defined in the sub-type need the property deferred as well as an explicit interface.

The following example illustrates their use.

module shape_m
    implicit none

    type, abstract :: shape
        real :: a, b
    contains
        procedure :: print => shape_print
        procedure (area_shape), deferred :: area
    end type

    interface
        real function area_shape(this)
            import :: shape
            class (shape), intent (in) :: this
        end function
    end interface
contains
    subroutine shape_print(this)
        class (shape), intent (in) :: this

        print *, 'a,b', this%a, this%b
    end subroutine
end module

module line_m
    use shape_m
    implicit none
    private
    public line

    type, extends (shape) :: line
    contains
        procedure :: area
    end type
contains
    real function area(this)
        class (line), intent (in) :: this

        area = abs(this%a - this%b)
    end function
end module

module rectangle_m
    use shape_m
    implicit none
    private
    public rectangle

    type, extends(shape) :: rectangle
    contains
        procedure :: area
    end type
contains
    real function area(this)
        class (rectangle), intent (in) :: this

        area = this%a * this%b
    end function
end module

program main
    use line_m
    use rectangle_m
    implicit none

    type (line)      :: l
    type (rectangle) :: r

    ! line
    l%a = 2.0
    l%b = 4.0
    print *, "line ...  "
    call l%print
    print *, "-> from:  ", l%a
    print *, "-> to:    ", l%b
    print *, "-> length:", l%area()

    ! rectangle
    r%a = 3.0
    r%b = 5.0
    print *
    print *, "rectangle ..."
    call r%print
    print *, "-> side a:", r%a
    print *, "-> side b:", r%b
    print *, "-> area:  ", r%area()
end program

Polymorphic PointerEdit

One can create pointers to child classes by using type definitions in allocate statements and the select type environment. The following example highlights its use.

module shape_m
    implicit none

    type, abstract :: shape
        ! Just an empty class used to implement a parent class.
        ! reason for abstract: there shouldnt be objects of TYPE(!) shape, just 
        ! polymorphic CLASS instances.
    end type
end module

module line_m
    use shape_m
    implicit none

    type, extends (shape) :: line
        ! A child class w/ one attribute.
        ! Reason for extends(shape): polymorphic shape pointer can point to
        ! objects of this type.
        real :: length
    end type
end module

module rectangle_m
    use shape_m
    implicit none

    type, extends (shape) :: rectangle
        ! A child class w/ another attribute
        ! Reason for extends(shape): (see explanation in line type)
        real :: area
    end type
end module

program main
    use rectangle_m
    use line_m
    implicit none

    class (shape), allocatable :: sh  ! Pointer to parent class.
    ! allocate (line :: sh)
    allocate (rectangle :: sh)  ! Allocate using child types
    select type (x => sh)   ! Associate block. "x" will be a pointer to the child object and of its type(!!)
        type is (line)      ! Select the right child type (the one we used in the allocate statement)
            x%length = 1.0
            print *, 'line length', x%length
        type is (rectangle)
            x%area = 2.0
            print *, 'rectangle area', x%area
        ! class is ()  ! Select by using classes.
        class default  ! If nothing of the above applied.
            error stop 'class/type not specified!'
    end select
end program