First Aid/Appendix A: Glossary

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A superficial wound in which the topmost layers of the skin are scraped off
Airway, breathing and circulation
Automated External Defibrillator
The passages which transfer air from the outside environment to the lungs; the tracha, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli
A blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart; contains oxygen-rich, high-pressure blood in the systemic cardiorespiratory system
A tearing away of a section of skin from the layers of tissue beneath it
Any person, trained or untrained, who assists in an emergency situation, but not as part of a duty of employment
The smallest blood vessels in the body; the skin is rife with capillaries
Carotid artery
The main artery providing blood supply to the head.
The carotid artery is the largest artery shown here; click for a larger version.
Determination of whether the defendant's actions are causally linked to any harm
The movement of blood throughout the body; performed by the heart
Consciousness (level of)
A state of awareness or lack thereof
A legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
The bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated blood near the skin surface; occurs when the oxygen saturation of arterial blood falls below 85%
Delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart with a device called a defibrillator
a disease causing an inability to regulate the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood
The point on a limb furthest from its point of attachment to the body
Duty of care
A legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they exercise a reasonable standard of care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others
Emergency Medical System or Emergency Medical Services
One of the 3 parts of a secondary survey
A condition in which insufficient oxygen reaches body tissue
A clean cut caused by a sharp-edged object
a hormone that allows glucose to travel from the bloodstream into the cells
Irregular wounds caused by a blunt impact to soft tissue which lies over hard tissue; tearing of skin
The location of compressions; on the midline of the chest, even with the nipples
A legal doctrine that makes a person responsible for the damage and loss caused by their acts and omissions regardless of culpability; the requirements to prove liability are a)a duty of care exists b)the standard of care was breached c)causation exists
Myocardial Infarction
Heart attack; bleeding or blockage cuts off blood flow to part of the heart muscle
The tissue under the nail; pinching the nail and observing the blood return to the nailbed is a good test of circulation at that location
Oedema (Edema)
Swelling in the lower legs and ankles. Oedema is caused by a fluid build-up in the body.
The point on a limb closest to its point of attachment to the body
A wound caused by an object puncturing the skin
Semi-prone position
A position which keeps the tongue from obstructing the airway and allows any fluids to drain from the mouth (aka recovery position)
Standard of Care
The degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who is under a duty of care; the requirements of the standard are closely dependent on circumstances
A rapid pulse generally a pulse over 100 at rest
A blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart; most veins carry low-oxygen blood