Finnish/Grammar-Suffixes

^^Contents^^ <<Grammar-Vowel harmony | Grammar-Suffixes |


Now the big part! In Finnish, like all Finno-Uralic languages, there are a huge series of suffixes to represent plurals, positions, postpositions (prepositions), pronouns and descriptions. They are grouped in to 4 groups of which there is a strict order, Group 1 which are plurals, Group 2 which are positions (2a) and postpositions (2b), Group 3 which are accusative pronouns, and Group 4 which are descriptions (i.e. also, too). To describe the suffixes easily the word auto (car) is used.

Group 1: PluralsEdit

The first group of suffixes are plurals, of which there are 3 different ways.

-tEdit

You can pluralize many words by simply putting a "t" after the word:

  • auto → autot ; car → cars
  • kirja → kirjat ; book → books

If there are "kk", "pp", or "tt" in a word in a similar way like those below, pluralize it in the following way:

  • kukka → kukat ; flower → flowers
  • hattu → hatut ; hat → hats

If a word has "nk" in a similar way like those below, pluralize in the following way:

  • kenkä → kengät ; shoe → shoes
  • sanko → sangot ; bucket → buckets
  • henki → henget ; spirit → spirits

If a word ends with a letter "s" like those below, pluralize it in the following way:

  • varis → varikset ; crow → crows
  • tulos → tulokset ; result → results

If a word ends with "nen" like those below, pluralize it in the following way:

  • kukkanen → kukkaset ; small flower → small flowers
  • VirtanenVirtaset ;

-i (-j)Edit

To pluralise a word with another suffix you put an i in between the word and the suffix(es). If there is a cluster of more than 2 vowels, then the i becomes a j

  • autossani → autoissani in my car → in my cars
  • autoa → autoja car → cars (partitive)

-aEdit

When there is a number before the word to indicate an amount, you put an a after the word (in fact this is not a plural at all, but partitive: it is the number that takes the formal role of auto in the sentence, more about that later)

  • auto → kaksi autoa car → two cars
  • autoni → kaksi autoani my car → my two cars

ExercisesEdit

Answer to these exercises are at the end of the page.

Exercise Number OneEdit

Pluralize these Finnish words. Translations in English are beside some words.

  1. talo (house)
  2. koira (dog)
  3. kirja (book)
  4. lappu (note)
  5. näppäimistö (keyboard)
  6. takki (coat)
  7. mökki (cottage)
  8. koti (home)
  9. katu (street)
  10. jalas (runner)
  11. Leinonen
  12. kello (clock/bell)
  13. mato (worm)
  14. sänky (bed)
  15. piste (dot/point)

Exercise number twoEdit

Pluralize the following words. These are a bit harder than the previous ones.

  1. teko (act)
  2. lumihanki
  3. laite (gadget)
  4. pilvi
  5. haapa
  6. tuuletin
  7. tiede
  8. kanne
  9. kansi
  10. vaaka

Exercise number threeEdit

Pluralize these words which have another suffixes. There are rough translations in English.

  1. autossa (in a car)
  2. autona (as a car)
  3. kellossani (in my clock)
  4. kelloa (clock(partitive))
  5. kynällä (with a pen)
  6. koneessa (in a machine)
  7. korissa (in a basket)
  8. kirjasta (from a book)

AnswersEdit

Exercise Number OneEdit

  1. talot (houses)
  2. koirat (dogs)
  3. kirjat (books)
  4. laput (notes)
  5. näppäimistöt (keyboards)
  6. takit
  7. mökit
  8. kodit
  9. kadut (streets)
  10. jalakset
  11. Leinoset
  12. kellot
  13. madot
  14. sängyt
  15. pisteet

Exercise number twoEdit

  1. teot (acts)
  2. lumihanget
  3. laitteet (gadgets)
  4. pilvet
  5. haavat
  6. tuulettimet
  7. tieteet
  8. kanteet
  9. kannet
  10. vaa'at

Exercise number threeEdit

  1. autoissa (in cars)
  2. autoina (as cars)
  3. kelloissani (in my clocks)
  4. kelloja ((clocks)partitive)
  5. kynillä (with pens)
  6. koneissa (in machines)
  7. koreissa (in baskets)
  8. kirjoista (from books)