Exercise as it relates to Disease/Exercise on Ankylosing spondylitis
Background to Ankylosing SpondylitisEdit
Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory disease primarily affecting the axial skeleton and sacroiliac joints. Ankylosing Spondylitis is a rheumatic disease with no known cause but is genetically linked to the HLA-B27 gene. AS affects men more than women (2:1) and commonly presents in patients aged 20 to 30 years old. Ankylosing Spondylitis is typically characterised by back pain and reduced spinal mobility. The back pain originates from the inflammation of and potential fusing of the joints. In an attempt to heal, the body forms new bone on the sites of inflammation, fusing sections of the spine.
Management of Ankylosing SpondylitisEdit
Management of AS is aimed at controlling disease activity (flare-ups) as there is no known cure for the condition. Physical therapy is highly recommended along with medication for the treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Exercise for the treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis largely focuses around controlling disease activity and improvement and maintenance of mobility. There is also focus on strengthening postural and breathing muscles, especially back, hip neck and shoulder extensors. The vertebral fusion and subsequent loss of lumbar spinal curve causes a spinal kyphosis and additionally there is a growing body of evidence that that patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Exercise has been strongly linked to the reduction in inflammation markers (including IL-6 and C-reactive protein), therefore aerobic exercise in the disease management of patients with AS should be included.
Exercise Management of Ankylosing Spondylitis=Edit
As with any exercise prescription, the two main considerations are adherence and maximising benefits. For patients with AS this should also result in maintained function and quality of life. A Cochrane review suggested that much better spinal mobility, pain reduction, and fatigue is achieved with supervised sessions. Group physical therapy such as Pilates, Yoga and Physiocise twice a week for up to 60 minute duration, displayed a significant improvement in long term outcomes when compared to home-based programs. Conversely, with aerobic exercise for patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis, the type of exercise appears not to matter. Regular aerobic exercise is recommended for lowering the risk of CVD and most likely to succeed for AS patients is therefore choosing something they can fit into their daily lives. Daily aerobic exercise of 30 minute duration is recommended to reduce the risk of both CVD and MetS and daily exercise yields the greatest disease management for AS patients.
Exercise Program SummaryEdit
- strengthening postural and breathing muscles
- strengthening back and hip extensors
- strengthening neck and shoulder extensors
Adherence to exercise programs will result in reducing flare ups which will result in reduced pain and inflammation and an improvement in function and quality of life.
Management of weight and cardiorespiratory fitness will assist patients with AS in reducing their risks of CVD and MetS.
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