Esperanto/Appendix/Table of affixes


-aĉ- Negative affect or a poor opinion of the object or action; makes the word derogatory skribaĉi (to scrawl, from 'write'); veteraĉo (foul weather); domaĉo (a hovel, from 'house'); rigardaĉi (to gape at, from 'look at'); aĉa (rotten, awful); aĉaĵo (a piece of junk, from -aĵo); aĉigi (to spoil, ruin, with -igi)
-ad- frequent, repeated, or continual action; as a noun, an action or process kuradi (to keep on running); parolado (a speech, from 'talk, speak'); naĝado (swimming, from 'swim'); sangado (bleeding, from 'blood')
-aĵ- a concrete manifestation; (with a noun root) a product manĝaĵo (food, from 'eat'); novaĵo (news, a novelty, from 'new'); glaciaĵo (an ice[cream], from 'ice'); bovaĵo (beef, from 'bovine'); konstruaĵo (a building, from 'to build'); aĵo (a thing);
-ano a member, follower, participant, inhabitant kristano (a Christian); vilaĝano (a villager); usonano (a US American) [cf. amerikano (a continental American)]; ŝipano (a crew member); samkursano (a classmate, from 'same' and 'course'); samideano (a kindred spirit, from 'same' and 'idea'); ano (a member)
-ar- a collective group without specific number arbaro (a forest, from 'tree'); vortaro (a dictionary, from 'word' [a set expression]); homaro (humanity, from 'human' [a set expression; 'crowd, mob' is homamaso]); ŝafaro (a flock of sheep); kamparo (countryside, from 'field'); ŝiparo (a fleet of ships); anaro (a society [group of members], from -ano); aro (a herd, group, set)
-ĉjo masculine affectionate form; the root is truncated Joĉjo (Jack); Miĉjo (Mike); paĉjo (daddy); fraĉjo (bro); amiĉjo (dear friend)
-ebl- possible, "-able" kredebla (believable); videbla (visible); eble (possibly)
-ec- an abstract quality, "-ness" amikeco (friendship); boneco (goodness); italeca (Italianesque); infaneca (childish, from 'infano')
-eg- augmentative; biggens or intensifies the word domego (a mansion, from 'house'); virego (a giant, from 'man'); librego (a tome, from 'book'); varmega (boiling hot); grandega (huge); ridegi (to guffaw, from 'laugh'); ega (great, humongous)
-ejo a place characterized by the root word lernejo (a school, from 'to learn'), vendejo (a store, from 'to sell'), juĝejo (a court, from 'to judge'), kuirejo (a kitchen, from 'to cook'), hundejo (a kennel, from 'dog'), naĝejo (swimming pool, from 'to swim'); ejo (a place)
-ema having a propensity or tendency towards an action ludema (playful), parolema (talkative), kredema (credulous, from 'believe'); brulema (flammable, from 'burn'); timema (timid); emo (inclination); malema (unwilling, with mal-); eriĝema (friable)
-end- mandatory pagenda (payable); lavenda (must be washed); legendaĵo (required reading)
-ero the smallest part ĉenero (a link, from 'chain'); fajrero (a spark, from 'fire'); neĝero (a snowflake, from 'snow'); kudrero (a stitch, from 'sew'), lignero (a splinter, from 'wood'); panero (a crumb, from 'bread'); monero (a coin, from 'money')
-estr- a leader, boss lernejestro (a school principal [see -ejo]); urbestro (a mayor, from 'city'); ŝipestro (captain of a ship); estraro (board of directors, with -aro)
-et- diminutive dometo (a hut, from 'house'); libreto (a booklet); varmeta (lukewarm); rideti (to smile, from 'laugh'); rompeti (to crack, fracture, from 'break'); boleti (to simmer, from 'boil'); eta (small, little)
-iĉo male (unofficial, neologism) amikiĉo (a male friend); knabiĉo (a boy)
-ido an offspring, young (of an animal) katido (a kitten); reĝido (a prince, from 'king'); arbido (a sapling, from 'tree'); izraelido (an Israelite); ido (a kit, pup, kid, etc.)
-igi to make, to cause (transitivizer/causative) mortigi (to kill, from 'die'); purigi (to clean); konstruigi (to have built); igi (to cause)
-iĝ- to become (intransitivizer/inchoative/middle voice) amuziĝi (to enjoy oneself); naskiĝi (to be born); ruĝiĝi (to blush, from 'red'); aniĝi (to join, from -ano); iĝi (to become)
-ilo an instrument ludilo (a toy, from 'play'); tranĉilo (a knife, from 'cut'); helpilo (a remedy, from 'help'); skribilo (a pen, from 'to write'); ilo (a tool); ilaro (equipment, set of tools, with -aro)
-in- female bovino (a cow); patrino (a mother); amikino (a female friend); knabino (a girl); ino (a female); ina (female, feminine)
-inda worthy of memorinda (memorable); kredinda (credible, from 'believe'); fidinda (dependable, trustworthy, from 'trust'); plorindaĵo (something to cry about, from 'weep, cry' and -aĵo); inda (worthy)
-ing- a holder, sheath glavingo (a scabbard, from 'sword'); kandelingo (a candle-holder, candlestick); ovingo (an egg cup); ŝraŭbingo (a nut, from 'bolt'), piedingo (stirrup, from 'foot'); ingo (a socket etc.)
-ist- someone who professionally, continually or preferably occupies themselves with an activity, or an adept or supporter of an idea. instruisto (teacher); dentisto (dentist); abelisto (a beekeeper); komunisto (a communist); registaro (a government, from 'rule, govern' and -aro)
-it- passive past participle; the past tense of the root word. nomita (named); amita (loved); konstruita (built)
-njo feminine affectionate form; the root is shortened Jonjo (Joanie); Anjo (Annie); panjo (mommy); avinjo (granny); onjo (aunty)
-obl- multiplication by the root number duobla (double); trioble (triply); multobla (manifold); oble (multiplied by)
-on- fraction duono (a half); kvarono (a quarter); centono (one hundredth); ono (a fraction)
-op- in a collective group of specific number duope (two together; by twos: = po du); triopo (a threesome); triope (in threes, three by three); unuopa (isolated, individual)
-ujo a container, country, a tree of a certain fruit monujo (a purse, from 'money'); sukerujo (a sugarbowl, from 'sugar'); lavujo (a washbasin, from 'wash'); abelujo (a beehive, from 'bee'); Anglujo (England); Kurdujo (Kurdistan, the Kurdish lands); pomujo (appletree); ujo (a container)
-ul- one characterized by the root junulo (a youth); sanktulo (a saint, from 'holy'); mamulo (a mammal, from 'breast'); bonulo (a good person); longharulino (a woman with long hair, from longa 'long' and haroj 'hair'); aĉulo (a wretch, from the suffix ); etulino (a wisp of a girl); ulo (a fellow)
-um- undefined ad hoc suffix when no other suffix is appropriate
(used sparingly: see list)
kolumo (a collar, from 'neck'); kalkanumo (shoe-heel, from 'heel of foot'); krucumi (to crucify, from 'cross'); malvarmumo (a cold, from 'cold'); plenumi (to fulfill, from 'full'); brakumi (to hug, from 'arm'); amindumi (to woo, from 'lovable' [see -ind]); mondumo (high society, from 'world'); komunumo (a community, from 'common'); proksimume (approximately, from 'near')


bo- relation by marriage, -in-law bopatro (a father-in-law); bofratino (sister-in-law)
dis- separation, scattering disĵeti (to throw about, from 'throw'); dissendi (to broadcast, from 'send'); disdoni (to distribute, from 'give')
ek- beginning, sudden, or momentary action (often perfective) ekbruli (to catch fire, from 'burn'); ekdormi (to fall asleep); ekami (to fall in love); ekkrii (to cry out); ekvidi (to catch sight of); ekde (since); ek al la batalo! (off to war!); ek! (hop to!)
eks- former, ex- eksedzo (an ex-husband); eksprezidanto (ex-president); eksa (former); eksiĝi (resign, leave office); eksigi (to sack, to fire)
fi- shameful, nasty, disgusting, filthy fihomo (a wicked person); fimensa (foul-minded); fivorto (a profane word); fibesto (vermin, from 'animal, beast'); fiherbo (a weed, from 'grass'); fia (vile); fi! (For shame!); Fi al vi! (Shame on you!)
ge- both sexes together gepatroj (parents); gesinjoroj (ladies and gentlemen); la geZamenhofoj (the Zamenhofs); geonkloj (uncles and aunts)
mal- exact opposite of the root word malgranda (small, from 'large'); malriĉa (poor, from 'rich'); malplena (empty, from 'full'); maldekstre (on the left, from dekstra 'right'); malami (to hate); malaperi (to disappear); malo (the opposite)
mis- incorrectly, awry miskompreni (to misunderstand); misakuzi (to wrongly accuse); misfamigi (to defame, slander, from famo 'fame' and the causative suffix -ig); mise (incorrectly)
pra- great-(grand-), primordial, primitive, proto- praavo (a great-grandfather); prapatro (a forefather); prabesto (a prehistoric beast); prahistoria (prehistoric); prahindeŭropa (Proto-Indoeuropean)
re- over again, back again resendi (to send back); rekonstrui (to rebuild); resalti (to rebound, from 'jump'); rediri (to repeat); reaboni (to renew a subscription, from 'subscribe'); rebrilo (reflection, glare, from 'shine'); reira bileto (a return ticket, from iri 'to go'); refoje (once again, from '[x] times'); ĝis (la) revido (au revoir, from ĝis 'until' and vido 'sight')