Esperanto/Appendix/Esperanto-English word list

In the Part of speech column there is an abbreviation indicating how the word is to be used. The following is a key, listing the abbreviations and explaining what they stand for:

Abbreviation Meaning Purpose
adj adjective describes an object (e.g. The key was green, The idea is disturbing.)
adv adverb describes how a verb is done (e.g. I ran quickly, She easily passed the test.)
conj conjunction connects two words, clauses or phrase together (e.g. life or death, I would vote for my gerbil but I'm sane.)
exp expression
int interjection used to convey emotion, not related to any other part of speech (e.g. Ow!, Hooray!)
n noun an object (e.g. dog, chair.)
num number (e.g. four, one.)
prep preposition the location of the object, relative to something else (e.g. Smoke over water, the ball is on the table.)
pron pronoun (e.g. I, You, She, He, They, We, It, One.)
v verb an action, one which can be used both transitively and intransitively (e.g. We celebrated the party.)
vi intransitive verb verbs which can only be done without objects (e.g. Trees rustled, he died.)
vt transitive verb verbs which can be applied to an object (e.g. I killed him, I am a hamster.)

Word listEdit


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
absolute adv absolutely
acero n maple
aĉeti vt to buy
adapti v to adapt
adiaŭ adieu, farewell, bye, goodbye, good-bye
aero n air
adjektivo n adjective
admiri vt to admire
admirinda adj admirable
adreso n address
adverbo n adverb
aeroplano n airplane, aeroplane
afabla adj kind, friendly
afero n matter, affair, thing
Afriko n Africa
agrabla adj pleasant, nice
agi vi to act, to take action
ago n act, action
o n age
aha int aha, ah-ha
int ah, oh, ow
aj int ow, ouch
ajn -ever
eo: kiu ajn
en: whoever
eo: iam ajn
en: whenever
akcento n accent, stress
akcepti vt to accept
akcidento n accident
akordi vi to agree
akvo n water
al prep to, towards
aliĝi vi to join
alveni vi to arrive
alia adj other
almenaŭ adv at least
alta adj high, tall
ami vt to love, to like
ambaŭ both
amiko n friend
Anglolando n England
Anglio n England This is a more modern way of saying England.
angla adj English
eo: Mi parolas (la) anglan (lingvon).
en: I speak English. (Lit: I speak (the) English (language).)
angle adv in English, in the English way
eo: Mi parolas angle.
en: I speak English. (Lit: I speak in the English way.)
Anglo n Englishperson, Englishman
Anglujo n England This is a more traditional way of saying England.
ankaŭ adv also, too
ankoraŭ adv still, yet
anstataŭ conj-prep instead of
antaŭ prep before
aparta adj separate
apenaŭ adv barely, scarcely
aperi vi to appear
aprilo April
apud prep beside, near
arbo n tree
arto n art
asisti vt to assist
atendi vi to wait
atenta adj attentive, careful
conj or
aŭ ... aŭ conj either ... or
aŭdi vt to hear
aŭgusto n August
aŭskulti vi to listen
aŭto n automobile, car
aŭtobuso n bus
aŭtuno n autumn, fall
avo n grandfather
averto n warning
Azio n Asia


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ba int bah, pooh, nuts
baldaŭ adv soon
banĉambro n bathroom
banejo n bathroom
bani vi to bathe
bati vt to hit, to beat
batali vi to fight
bedaŭri v to be sorry, to regret
bedo n bed
bela adj lovely, beautiful
besto n animal, beast
bezoni vt to need, to require
biblioteko n library
biciklo n bicycle
biero n beer
bildo n picture, image
birdo n bird
bis adv encore, one more time
blanka adj white
blua adj blue
bona adj good
eo: (Mi esperas, ke vi havas) bonan matenon.
en: (I hope you are having a) good morning.
eo: Bonan nokton.
en: Good night.
eo: Bonan posttagmezon.
en: Good afternoon.
eo: Bonan ŝancon.
en: Good luck.
eo: Bonan tagon.
en: Good day.
eo: Bonan vesperon.
en: Good evening.
bonvenigi vt to welcome, to greet
bonvenon int welcome
brako n arm
Brazilo n Brazil, Brasil
brili vi to shine, to be bright
Britio n Britain, Great Britain This is a more modern way of saying Britain.
Britujo n Britain, Great Britain This is a more traditional way of saying Britain.
brui vi to make a noise
bruli vi to burn, to be on fire
bruna adj brown
buso n bus
buŝo n mouth
bv. exp please Comes from bonvolu.


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
cedi v to cede, to give in, to give up, to give way, to relinquish, to yield
celi vt to aim at
cent num (one) hundred, 100
centmil num (one) hundred thousand, 100000
centro n centre, center
certa adj sure, certain
certe adv surely, certainly
cetera adj remaining
cetere adv besides, for the rest, moreover, what's more
cirklo n circle


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ĉambro n room
ĉapelo n hat
ĉagreni v to annoy, to grieve, to trouble, to vex, to worry
eo: ĉagreni sin
en: to worry oneself
ĉar conj because, since
ĉe prep at, by
ĉef- prefix arch-, chief-
ĉi prep indicates proximity
eo: tio/tio ĉi
en: that/this
eo: tie/ĉi tie
en: there/here
ĉia adj all, every kind of
ĉial for every reason
ĉiam always, ever
ĉie adv everywhere
ĉiel in every way
ĉielo n heaven, sky
ĉies everyone's
ĉio n all, everything
ĉina adj Chinese
eo: Mi ŝatas ĉinan manĝaĵon.
en: I like Chinese food.
Ĉinio n China, 中国, 中國 This is a more modern way of saying China.
Ĉinujo n China, 中国, 中國 This is a more traditional way of saying China.
ĉiom all, all of it
ĉirkaŭ adv around, approximately
ĉiu each, every
ĉiuj all
ĉokolado n chocolate
ĉu whether
eo: Ĉu tio estas akvo?
en: Is that water?
ĉu ne exp isn't that so? or not?
eo: Tio estas akvo, ĉu ne?
en: That's water, right?


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
d-ro n Dr., Doctor
da prep of (follows quantity or measure)
eo: Mi havas du litrojn da akvo.
en: I have two litres of water.
damne adv damn
danci vi to dance
danki vt to thank
daŭri vi to last, to continue, to go on
de prep of, from
decidi vt to decide
denove adv again, once more, all over again, anew
decembro n December
dek num ten
dekstra adj right, right-hand To make "left", use the mal- prefix: maldekstra.
demandi vt to ask (a question)
demando n question
dento n tooth
dependi vt to depend
devi vt to have to, must
deveni vi to come, to derive, to originate, to result
deziri vt to wish, to desire
dika adj thick, fat
dimanĉo n Sunday
diri vt to say
direkto n direction
diversa adj varied
do conj therefore, so, then
doktoro n doctor
dolĉa adj sweet
doloro n pain
domaĝe adv that's too bad, what a pity
domo n house, building
doni vt to give
dormi vi to sleep
dorso n back
du num two
dubi vt to doubt
dum conj-prep for, during, whereas, while, whilst
dura adj hard Hard as in "not soft", not hard as in "difficult".


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ebena adj even, flat, level, smooth
eble adv maybe, perhaps, possibly
ebli vi to be possible
ebria adj drunk, intoxicated
adv even
edzo n husband
efika adj effective, effectual, efficacious
egala adj equal, even, level
ege adv extremely
o n echo
ejo n place
ek! int let's go!, move it!
ekde adv from, since
ekhavi vi to get
eko n beginning, commencement, inception, opening, outset, start
ekscese adv excessively
ekskuzi vt to excuse
ekspliki vt to explain
ekster prep outside, out of
ekzemplo n example
ekzerci vi to exercise, to practice
el prep out of, from
elekti vt to choose, to elect
en prep a, in, inside, into, on, per, within
enui vi to be bored, to be tired of something
enuigi vi to bore
enuiĝi vi to get bored
erari vi to err, to make a mistake
ero n element, fragment, item, particle
esperi vi to hope
esti vi to be
estonto n future
estro n boss, chief, leader
Eŭropo n Europe
evolui vi to evolve, to develop


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
facila adj easy
facile adv easily
fajro n fire
fali vi to fall
falko n falcon
fama adj famous
familio n family
fari vt to do, to make
farti vt to fare, to feel
eo: Kiel vi fartas?
en: How are you? (Lit: How do you fare?)
februaro n February
feliĉa adj happy
felo n skin, hide, fur
fenestro n window
fero n iron (metal)
fermi v to close
festi v to celebrate
fidi vt to have faith, to trust
filo n son
fina adj final
fini vt to finish, to end (something)
fingro n finger
fiŝo n fish
flanko n side
flava adj yellow
floro n flower
flughaveno n airport
flugi vi to fly
fojo n time, occasion
for adv far, away
forgesi vt to forget
forigi vi to do away with, to get rid of, to remove
foriro n departure
formo n form
forta adj strong
franca adj French
eo: Mi parolas (la) francan (lingvon).
en: I speak French. (Lit: I speak (the) French (language).)
Francio n France This is a more modern way of saying France.
Francujo n France This is a more traditional way of saying France.
frapi vt to hit, to strike
frato n brother
fraŭlo n bachelor
fremda adj foreign, alien
frida adj cold, frigid
fromaĵo n cheese
fronte al opposite
frua adj early
frukto n fruit
funkcii vi to function, to work


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
gaja adj happy, cheerful
gajni vt to win, to acquire
gardi vt to guard, to keep, to look after, to watch over
gasto n guest
gazeto n magazine
germana adj German
eo: Mi parolas (la) germanan (lingvon).
en: I speak German. (Lit: I speak (the) German (language).)
Germanio n Germany, Deutschland This is a more modern way of saying Germany.
Germanujo n Germany, Deutschland This is a more traditional way of saying Germany.
glacio n ice
glaso n (drinking) glass
globo n globe, sphere
golo n goal (scored)
gramatiko n grammar
granda adj large, great
grava adj important
griza adj gray
grupo n group
gusto n taste
gustumi vt to taste (something)


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ĝangalo n jungle
ĝardeno n garden
ĝi pron it
ĝis conj-prep till, until, as far as You can often hear people saying good-bye with ĝis. "Ĝis" means "later" or, "until then" or, "until next time". "Ĝis baldaŭ" means the same, but also implies it won't be long: "see you soon".
ĝoji vi to be glad, to rejoice
ĝusta adj correct, exact


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ha! int ah!
halti vi to stop
haro n (one) hair
hararo n hair
haste adv hastily, hurriedly
haŭto n skin, flesh
havi vt to have
havigi vt to get, to procure
havebla adj available
hejmo n home
hela adj bright, clear
helpi vt to help
hieraŭ adv yesterday
hinda adj Indian
eo: Mi ŝatas hindajn filmojn.
en: I like Indian movies.
Hindio n India, भारत This is a more modern way of saying India.
Hindujo n India, भारत This is a more traditional way of saying India.
hispana adj Spanish
eo: Mi parolas (la) hispanan (lingvon).
en: I speak Spanish. (Lit: I speak (the) Spanish (language).)
Hispanio n Spain, España This is a more modern way of saying Spain.
Hispanujo n Spain, España This is a more traditional way of saying Spain.
historio n history
ho! int o!, oh!
ho ve! int oh dear!, alas!
hodiaŭ adv today
homo n person, human
horo n hour
hundo n dog
hurai vi to cheer


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ĥina adj Chinese
eo: Mi ŝatas ĥinan manĝaĵon.
en: I like Chinese food.
Ĥinio n China, 中国, 中國 This is a more modern way of saying China.
Ĥinujo n China, 中国, 中國 This is a more traditional way of saying China.


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ia adj some kind of
ial for some reason
iam at some time, ever, sometime
ideo n idea
idioto n idiot
ido n child, offspring
ie anywhere, somewhere
iel anyway, somehow
ien somewhere, to some place
ies someone's
igi vt to cause, to get, to make
i vt to become, to get, to grow
ili pron they
ilo n tool, means
imagi v to imagine
ina adj female, feminine
infano n child
informi vt to inform
informiĝi v to be advised, to be informed, to find out
insekto n insect
instrui v to teach
insulo n island
insulta adj insulting, offensive
inter prep between, among
inter ... kaj ... exp ... to ..., from ... to ...
intereso n interest
interesi vt to interest, to be interesting to
interesiĝi vt to be interested, to take an interest
eo: Mi interesiĝas pri Esperanto.
en: I am interested in Esperanto.
interna adj internal, inside
iom adv a little, rather, some, somewhat, to some extent
iom post iom adv gradually, little by little
iri v to go
iu a, any, anybody, some, somebody, one, someone, some one
iu ajn any
iuj a few, some


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ja indeed
jam adv already
januaro n January
Japanlando n Japan, 日本
Japanio n Japan, 日本 This is a more modern way of saying Japan.
japana adj Japanese
eo: Mi parolas (la) japanan (lingvon).
en: I speak Japanese. (Lit: I speak (the) Japanese (language).)
Japanujo n Japan, 日本 This is a more traditional way of saying Japan.
jaro n year
je prep as regards, in relation to
jen here is (are), look!
jen ... jen ... exp sometimes ... sometimes ..., now ... now ...
jes yes
julio n July
juna adj young
junio n June
justa adj just, fair


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ĵaluza adj jealous
ĵaŭdo n Thursday
ĵeti vt to throw
ĵurnalo n newspaper
ĵus adv just, just now


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
kafo n coffee
kaj conj and
kaj ... kaj ... exp both ... and ...
kalkuli vt to calculate, to count
kampo n field, area
kanti v to sing
kapo n head
kapti vt to catch
kara adj dear, expensive, lovely, valuable
kaŝi vt to hide (something)
kato n cat
kaŭzo n cause
ke conj that
kelka adj some
kia adj what kind of, what sort of
kial what for, why
kiam when
kie where
kiel as, how, like
kies of which, which one's, whose
kio what, which
kiom how many, how much
kisi vt kiss
kiu that, which, which one, who
klara adj clear
klubo n club, group
knabo n boy
kolekti vt to collect
koleri vi to be angry
koleriĝi vi to get angry
kolo n neck
koloro n color
komenci vt to begin (something)
komerci vt to trade, to do business
komforta adj comfortable
kompreni vt to understand, to realise, to realize
komuna adj common, general
komuniki vi to communicate
koni vi to know
konduki v to lead
kongreso n congress, convention
konsenti vi to agree
konsili vt to advise
konstrui vt to build
kontenta adj satisfied, content
kontraŭ prep across from, against, in exchange for, opposed to, opposite, upon
korespondi vi to correspond, to exchange letters
koro n heart
korpo n body
korto n yard, courtyard
kosti vt to cost
koverto n envelope
kovri vt to cover
kredi vt to believe
kreski vi to grow
krii vi to yell, to cry out
krom prep apart from, besides, except, except for
ksilofono n xylophone
ktp exp and so on, et cetera Stands for "kaj tiel plu".
kuiri v to cook
kuko n cake
kun prep with
kunuzi vt to share
kuraĝa adj brave, courageous
kuri vi to run
kurso n course, series of lessons
kuŝi vi to lie down
kutimo n custom, habit
kvankam conj although
kvar num four
kvazaŭ adv-conj as if, as though
kvieta adj quiet
kvin num five


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
la the (definite article)
labori vi to work
laca adj tired
lakto n milk
lando n country, land
larĝa adj wide
lasi vt to leave, to allow
lasta adj last
laŭ prep according to, along
lavi vt to wash
leciono n lesson
legi vt to read
lerni vt to learn
letero n letter (correspondence)
levi vt to lift
li pron he
libera adj free, independent
libro n book
ligo n league, alliance
ligi vt to tie, to bind
ligno n wood
lingvo n language
linio n line
lito n bed
loĝi vt to live, to inhabit
loko n place, position
longa adj long
ludi v to play
ludo n game
lumi vi to shine, to give light
lundo n Monday


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
majo n May (month)
mano n hand
manĝi v to eat
manki v to be lacking, to be absent
maro n sea, ocean
mardo n Tuesday
marko n sign, mark
marto n March (month)
mateno n morning
matenmanĝo n breakfast
mem -self, -selves
membro n member
memori v to remember
merkredo n Wednesday
meti vt to put, to place
mezo n middle
mezuri vt to measure (something)
mi pron I, me
mil num (one) thousand
militi vi to wage war
minuto n minute
miri vt to marvel, to be amazed
mirinda adj wonderful
misuzi vt to misuse
momento n moment
mono n money
monato n month
mondo n world
monto n mountain
montri vt to show
morgaŭ adv tomorrow
morti vi to die
movi vt to move (something)
multa adj much, a lot of
muro n wall


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
nacio n nation
naĝi vi to swim
naski vt to give birth (to)
naturo n nature
naŭ num nine
nazo n nose
ne no, not
necesa adj necessary
neĝo n snow
nek conj nor
nek ... nek ... conj neither... nor...
nestabila adj unstable
ni pron we, us
nigra adj black
nokto n night
nomo n name
nombro n number, amount
norda adj north
nova adj new
novembro n November
nu int well!, now!
nubo n cloud
nul num zero
nun adv now
nur adv only


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ofta adj frequent, common
ok num eight
okazi vi to happen, to occur
oktobro n October
okulo n eye
okupi vt to occupy
ol conj than (in comparisions)
oni pron one, people, "they"
eo: Oni ne povas kontentigi la katon kaj kune la raton.
en: One cannot please both the cat and the rat.
onklo n uncle
opinii v to think, to have an opinion
ordo n order
ordoni vt to order, to command
orelo n ear
osto n bone
ovo n egg


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
paco n peace
pagi v to pay
pano n bread
papero n paper
pardoni vt to forgive, to excuse
paroli v to speak
parto n part
pasi v to pass
paŝi vi to step, to pace
patro n father
peco n piece, bit
peni v to try, to endeavour
pensi v to think
per prep by (means of), with
perdi vt to lose
permesi vt to allow, to permit
persono n person
peti vt to ask (for), to request
piedo n foot
pilko n ball (for playing)
plaĉi v to please, to be pleasing
plaĝo n beach
planko n floor
plej adv most (superlative)
plena adj full
plendi vi to complain
plezuro n pleasure, enjoyment
pli adv more (comparative)
plori vi to cry, to weep
plu adv further, more (adverb)
plumo n pen
pluvo n rain
popolo n people, nation
por prep for, in order to
pordo n door
porti vt to carry
post prep after, behind
postuli vt to demand, to require
povi vt to be able (to)
prava adj right, correct
precipa adj main, principal
premi vt to press, to squeeze
preni vt to take
preskaŭ adv almost
preta adj ready
preter prep beyond, past
prezenti vt to present
pri prep about, concerning
printempo n spring
pro prep because of, by reason of
problemo n problem
profunda adj deep
proksima adj near, close
propra adj (one's) own
provi vt to try, to test
punkto n point, period
pura adj clean, pure


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
rajto n a right
rakonti vt to tell, to narrate
rapida adj quick, fast
regi vt to rule, to control
renkonti vt to meet
respondi vt to answer
resti vt to remain, to continue to be
resto n rest, remainder
ricevi vt to receive
riĉa adj rich
ridi vi to laugh
rigardi vt to look (at)
rimarki vt to notice
rimedo n means, resource
ripozi vi to rest
rivero n river
robo n a dress
rompi vt to break
rondo n round, circle
rozo n rose
ruĝa adj red


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
s-ro n Mr.
sabato n Saturday
salti vi to jump
saluti vt to greet
sama adj same
sana adj healthy
sango n blood
sata adj full, not hungry
scii vt to know
se conj if
sed conj but
seĝo n chair
seka adj dry
sekvi vt to follow
semajno n week
sen prep without
sendi vt to send
senti vt to feel
sep num seven
septembro n September
serĉi vt to look for, to seek
servi v to serve
ses num six
si pron reflexive pronoun
eo: Li amas sin pli ol (li amas) ŝin.
en: He loves himself more than (he loves) her.
eo: Li aĉetis aŭton por si.
en: He bought a car for himself.
sidi vi to sit
silenti vi to be silent
simpla adj simple
sinjoro n mister, gentleman
skribi v to write
soifi vi to be thirsty
sola adj alone
solvi vt to solve
somero n summer
soni v to sound
speco n kind, sort
stacio n station (for bus, train, etc.)
stari vi to stand
stato n state, condition
strato n street
studi v to study
sub prep under, beneath
suferi vi to suffer
sufiĉa adj sufficient, enough
sukcesi vi to succeed
sukero n sugar
suno n sun
super prep over, above
supro n top, summit
sur prep on, upon


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ŝajni vt to seem, to appear to be
ŝanĝi vt to change
ŝati vt to have a high opinion of, to value, to like
eo: Mi ŝatas torton.
en: I like pie.
ŝi pron she
ŝipo n ship
ŝtono n stone


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
tablo n table
tago n day
tagmanĝo n lunch
tajpi v to type
tamen adv-conj however, nevertheless
taso n cup
tasko n task
teo n tea
teatro n a theater
tempo n time
teni vt to hold, to have
tero n earth, ground
timi vt to fear
tipo n type, sort
tiri vt to pull
tra prep through
tranĉi vt to cut
trankvila adj calm, quiet
trans prep across, on the other side of
tre adv very
tri num three
trinki vt to drink
tro too, too much
trovi vt to find
tuj adv immediately
turni vt to turn
tuŝi vt to touch
tuta adj whole, entire


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
unu num one
uono n wok
urbo n city, town
usono n United States of America, USA
utila adj useful
uzi vt to use


In modern Esperanto, use of the letter Ŭ as a standalone consonant has fallen out of favour. It used to be common to use it for loanwords and foreign names like Ŭaŝingtono (for "Washington"), but the modern preference is Vaŝingtono.

The only modern use for Ŭ is in diphthongs.

  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
ŭato n Watt
eo: Unu ŭato egalas al unu ĵulo en sekundo.
en: One Watt equals one Joule per second. (Lit: One Watt is equal to one Joule in a second.)
This way of saying "Watt" has fallen out of favour; vato is preferred.


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
vagono n train waggon, carriage
valoro n value
varma adj warm, hot
veki vt to awake (someone)
veni v to come
vendi vt to sell
vendredo n Friday
vento n wind
vera adj true, real
verda adj green
vespero n evening
vesto n garment, article of clothing
vetero n weather
veturi v to travel (by vehicle: to drive, to fly, etc.)
vi pron you
vidi v to see
vilaĝo n village
vino n wine
vintro n winter
viro n man
virino n woman
vitro n glass (substance)
vivi vi to live, to be alive
vizaĝo n face
viziti vt to visit
vojo n way, road
vojaĝi v to travel, to journey
voki vt to call
voli vt to want to
vorto n word
vortaro n dictionary, vocabulary


  Esperanto Part of speech   English Examples Notes
zorgi vt to care for, to take care of