English in Use/Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections

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ConjunctionEdit

A conjunction is a word used to connect words or sentences in construction, and to show the dependence of the terms so connected: as,

  • "You and he are happy, because you are good."—Murray.

Conjunctions are divided into two general classes, copulative and disjunctive; and a few of each class are particularly distinguished from the rest, as being corresponsive.

A copulative conjunction is a conjunction that denotes an addition, a cause, a consequence, or a supposition: as,

  • "He and I shall not dispute; for, if he has any choice, I shall readily grant it."

The copulatives: and, as, both, because, even, for, if, that, then, since, seeing, so.

A disjunctive conjunction is a conjunction that denotes opposition of meaning: as,

  • "Though he were dead, yet shall he live."—St. John's Gospel.
  • "Be not faithless, but believing."—Id.

The disjunctives: or, nor, either, neither, than, though, although, yet, but, except, whether, lest, unless, save, provided, notwithstanding, whereas.

The corresponsive conjunctions are those which are used in pairs, so that one refers or answers to the other: as,

  • "John came neither eating nor drinking."—Matt., xi, 18.
  • "But if I cast out devils by the spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come to you."--Ib., xii, 28.

The corresponsives: both, and; as, as; as, so; if, then; either, or; neither, nor; whether, or; though, yet; although, yet.

A short syntaxEdit

Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences, as "Between me and you," except the following cases: introducing a sentence, as "That you have wronged me," corresponding conjunctions, as "Neither sun nor stars," and either and neither, as "It is not dangerous neither."

InterjectionEdit

An interjection is a word that is uttered to indicate a strong or sudden emotion. The following are the principal interjections, arranged according to the emotions which they are intended to indicate:

  • Of joy; eigh! hey! io! yeah!
  • Of sorrow; oh! ah! hoo! alas! alack! lackaday! welladay! or welaway!
  • Of wonder; heigh! ha! strange! indeed!
  • Of wishing, earnestness, or vocative address; (often with a noun or pronoun in the nominative absolute;) O!
  • Of praise; well-done! good! bravo!
  • Of surprise with disapproval; whew! hoity-toity! hoida! zounds! what!
  • Of pain or fear; oh! ooh! ah! eh! O dear! Oh, no!
  • Of contempt; fudge! pugh! poh! pshaw! pish! tush! tut! humph! fine!
  • Of aversion; foh! faugh! fie! fy! foy!
  • Of expulsion; out! off! shoo! whew! begone! avaunt! aroynt!
  • Of calling aloud; ho! soho! what-ho! hollo! holla! hallo! halloo! hoy! ahoy! hey!
  • Of exultation; ah! aha! huzza! hey! heyday! hurrah!
  • Of laughter; ha, ha, ha; he, he, he; te-hee, te-hee.
  • Of salutation; welcome! hail! all-hail!
  • Of calling to attention; ho! lo! la! law! look! see! behold! hark!
  • Of calling to silence; hush! hist! whist! 'st! aw! mum! shhh! zip it!
  • Of dread or horror; oh! ha! hah! what!
  • Of languor or weariness; heigh-ho! heigh-ho-hum!
  • Of stopping; hold! soft! avast! whoh! halt!
  • Of parting; farewell! adieu! good-bye! good-day! see ya!
  • Of knowing or detecting; oho! ahah! ay-ay!
  • Of interrogating; eh? ha? hey? no?

A short syntaxEdit

Interjections are put absolute, either alone, or with other words, as "Ah Dennis!"

ReferencesEdit