Dutch Empire/Stadtholders of Holland
This is a list of Stadtholders of Holland since Independence was declared in 1581.
|William I of Orange
|William I of Orange, also known as William the Silent, was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the independence of the Dutch Republic. He was elected as Stadtholder in 1572, although Phillip II, the King of Spain, had appointed another one. William the Silent was assassinated in 1584. In the Netherlands, he is also known as the Vader des Vaderlands, "Father of the Fatherland", and the Dutch national anthem, Het Wilhelmus, is written in his honor.
|Maurits of Nassau
|Became stadtholder of Holland in 1585. He was appointed captain-general of the army in 1587. He led many campaigns that turned the tide of the revolt against Spain. Died in 1625.
|Frederik Hendrik of Orange
|Brother of Maurits of Nassau. Frederick Henry proved himself almost as good a general as his brother, and a far more capable statesman and politician. For twenty-two years he remained at the head of government in the United Provinces, and in his time the power of the stadtholderate reached its highest point. On Frederick Henry's death, he was buried with great pomp beside his father and brother at Delft.
|William II Prince of Orange
|Opposed acceptance of the Treaty of Münster, although it recognized the independence of the Netherlands. Died from smallpox in 1650.
|First Stadtholderless Period
|William III of Orange
|Became Stadtholder in 1672 after the murder of Johan de Witt. He led the Dutch in the Franco-Dutch War. He invaded England in 1688 and became king. He served as Stadtholder and king until his death in 1702.
|Second Stadtholderless Period
|William IV of Orange
|Was appointed Stadtholder after the French Army entered Flanders. He was very popular among the people, and served until his death in 1751.
|William V of Orange
|The last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. His reign was longer than any other Stadtholder of Holland. He became Stadtholder at age 3. He served at Stadtholder until 1795 when France invaded and conquered the country. In 1795 he fled to the safety of his former enemy, England. He died in exile at Brunswick, now in Germany in 1806.