Check with friends or other dog owners. Asking around at a dog park or similar location could reveal a few local names to avoid.
Reputable veterinarians should not complain if you want to know details about their education.
A veterinarian's office should be able to give fees for vaccinations, office visits and other similar charges, and should at least be able to give an estimate for many other needs. Information like your dog's weight, reactions to kenneling/strangers/other dogs and eating habits may be required beforehand.
Bring vaccination information with you until your veterinarian's office has it in their computer system. If travelling or otherwise using a new veterinarian, have at least a phone number for any office that might have previous records of your dog. Bring along any medications you are giving your dog, except for normal flea and tick or heartworm medications (though know precisely what brands and schedules you are using for those).
Don't be afraid to ask questions. A reputable veterinarian will take the time to explain anything that confuses or worries you.
Know what the problem is and educate yourself on possible diseases and injuries. See Signs and symptoms.