Diplomatic History/Middle East
The relations between the Middle Eastern countries dates back from the Ancient times and to the pre-Islamic era. The Arabian Peninsula was known for its barren land, therefore agriculture was not significant in most part of the region. There was no central body governing the region, most areas were governed by tribes while few states had some sort of monarchy, like Abyssinia (now known as Ethiopia).
The pre-Islamic period in the Arab is also known as the Age of Ignorance. There was continuing rivalry within tribes which often led to bloodshed. The relations between fellow tribes and neighboring regions were cold and were based on trade. The relations could often get intense as due to some conflicts over trade routes or attacks on caravans. The most powerful of the tribe was the Quraish.
The formal diplomatic relations began after the migration of Muhammad to Medina and the Charter of Medina, which was the first ever written rules and constitution. The pagans of Mecca often sent delegations and influential people to come to compromise and diplomacy. Therefore, the beginning of Islamic period gave rise to formal diplomacy in the Arab World. Later, when the Islamic state expanded and areas such as Egypt, Syria, Iran and other neighboring states became part of it, governors and ministers were dispatched to them.