England/British Empire/United Kingdom (English)Edit

  • Leader at 1901: Prime Minister Marquess of Salisbury;
    • Head of State: King Edward VII

Color: Dark Blue or Pink, in some versions (webDiplomacy.net, etc.)

Neighbors: France, Germany, Russia

Home supply centers: London, Liverpool, Edinburgh

England's defensive position is the strongest in the game besides Turkey, and landing an army on the British Isles will usually require at least three units--one convoyed army, one fleet to convoy, and one fleet to support the convoy. England's "back door" in the North Atlantic is, however, much more difficult to defend than Turkey's back door in Syria. England's position as an island means that it will have to maintain a large navy in order to achieve victory. England's position causes a bottleneck similar but less severe than the one Turkey faces, because sea routes can get troops quickly from the home centers to the Mediterranean, to Germany, and to St. Petersburg.

England has a limited choice of centers to make 18. Most simply, three home, Bre and Par, Bel, Hol, Den, Swe, Nwy, StP, Kie, and Ber are the 13 easiest, leaving 5 centers to get out of Spa, Por, Tun, Mun, Mar, Mos, and War. Mos and War are very difficult to get without German or Turkish help, and any centers further south are possible only with an extremely committed French ally.

Opening StrategyEdit

England can choose between commitment to an attack against France or to calmly pick up builds from Norway and possibly Belgium, and wait for 1902 to choose a side.

18 Center GoalEdit

3 home centers, Scandinavia, St. Petersburg, The Low Countries, Kiel, Berlin, Brest, Paris, and Iberia makes 15. Then three out of Munich, Marseilles, Tunis, Moscow, and Warsaw are required to convert to a victory. Any other supply centers are much too far away to be part of a normal victory--although once in a while, England will break into Italy or capture Sevastopol.

England's main choice is where to send her two fleets.

F LON - ENG, F EDI - NTH (Southern Opening)Edit

Provides the best anti-French possibilities.

Wales VariationEdit


Unequivocally anti-French. This move is risky, as failure to acquire the Channel in the spring will make this army useless in the autumn. Useful only when you expect to acquire the Channel, this move provides the strongest set of moves for a French campaign, as the army may be convoyed to Brest or Picardy (usually while NTH acquires Norway) OR may be used in a supported convoy to Belgium.

Yorkshire VariationEdit


A much safer prospect than the Wales Variation, and similarly less profitable as an anti-French maneuver. This opening is the opening of choice for an England only wishing to bounce in the Channel, as the army may then be convoyed to Norway or to Belgium. As an offensive opening, the Channel pressures the French homeland while providing support for a convoy to Belgium... or, perhaps, the opportunity to claim Norway with a convoy and Belgium with a fleet! Using your fleet in NTH to convoy your army also frees up the fleet in English Channel to capture the Mid-Atlantic Ocean in Fall 1901, putting France in an extremely awkward position for 1902.

F LON - NTH, F EDI - NWG (Northern Opening)Edit

Yorkshire VariationEdit


The soundest opening from the classical perspective of maximizing minimum gains, this is the only English opening that guarantees a build against all opposition. In brighter times, one may convoy with support to Norway or convoy to Belgium and claim Norway with a fleet; if France, Germany and Russia are determined to stop you, Yorkshire can cover London when France moves to the English Channel, and Norwegian Sea can support North Sea to Norway despite a Russian move Mos -> Stp -> Nor (though a German in this case would seize the North Sea, F Kie -> Den -> NTH; whether or not this is desirable is up for debate).

Edinburgh Variation (AKA "The Churchill Opening")Edit


In this Northern Opening variant, known simply as the Churchill Opening, and named after Sir Winston's plan to invade Norway in World War II, the English army is sent to Edinburgh. This opening sacrifices the ability to cover London for more convoying options in the autumn. For an England looking for two builds in a favorable diplomatic situation, this allows for Norway to be captured with an army and Belgium/Holland/Denmark with a fleet. London may still be covered by the North Sea, but Norway cannot be secured against Russian resistance if this happens. This move is superior to the Yorkshire Variation if and only if one guesses correctly on French intentions; if they go to the Channel, a build isn't guaranteed, but if they don't, England's options are greater.

F LON - ENG, F EDI - NWG (The Splits)Edit

Wales VariationEdit


The anti-French Split opening. If France goes to the Channel, England is in a very awkward position, having a useless army in Wales and facing the possibility of a German fleet standing it out of the North Sea in the autumn.

Edinburgh VariationEdit


The pro-French Split opening (or, at least, as pro-French as an opening to the Channel can be). Allows convoy to Norway, with England using the Channel fleet to influence Belgium or pressure Brest.