- Pteridospermatophyta: Seeds borne on fertile fronds
- 8: Seeds not borne on fertile fronds
- Gnetophyta: vessel elements present
- 14: vessel elements absent
10: Flowering Plant
- Monocot: Flower parts mostly in 3s or multiples of 3; leaves usually with parallel venation; plants mostly herbaceous; one seed leaf.
- Dicot: Flower parts mostly in 4s, 5s, or multiples of 4 or 5; Leaves usually with netted venation; plants herbaceous or woody; 2 seed leaves.
- Ginkgo biloba: Leaves have dichotomous venation (veins continuously divide into 2).
- Pinophyta: Leaves do not have dichotomous venation.
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