Czech/Printable version


Czech

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Czech in a Nutshell

Czech is an Indo-European, West Slavic Language, especially similar to Slovak, which means it is very likely for a native speaker of each to also understand some Russian, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, etc. Czech and Slovak are very similar languages, and at first glance, one may incorrectly think of them as being dialects of each other, in the same manner that one might compare Spanish and Catalan. Czech is spoken by 10 million people as a native language and at least 6 million as a de facto second language. Even before the birth of Czechoslovakia in 1918, Czechs and Slovaks have always understood each other without the need of a translator as both have been subjected to Austro-Hungarian domniation for many centuries until after the First World War.

The relatively hard parts of the language are, like all other Balto-Slavic Languages (except Bulgarian and Macedonian):

  • Declination (7 cases)
  • Several types and subtypes of endings for nouns and verbs

The easier parts may be:

  • Simple, regular pronunciation
  • Very simple and straightforward verb conjugations: Only one present tense (imperfective) two types of past and conditional tenses, a compound future (imprf.) a simple future (perf.). Verb are always found in pairs, imperfective on the left and the perfective on the right separated by a dash (usually, but NOT always, one adds a prefix to the imperfective infinitive to change it to perfective).



Lesson 1

We'll start with a simple dialogue between two friends. In Czech, there's a difference between formal and informal speech. The main difference is that when speaking to a person, you should use the second person of plural instead of the second person of singular. Another difference is in greetings. These differences will be discussed through all lessons, since there are many of them. In the following dialogue, the informal speech is used.

DialogueEdit

David: Čau, jak se jmenuješ?
Hi, what's your name?

Jana: Ahoj, já jsem Jana.
Hello, I am Jana.

David: Rád tě poznávám, Jano.
Nice to meet you, Jana.

Jana: Já tebe také. Jak se máš?
Nice to meet you too. How are you?

David: Mám se dobře, děkuji. A ty?
I am well, thanks. And you?

Jana: Já také.
Me too.

David: Promiň, musím jít. Měj se!
Sorry, I have to go. See you!

Jana: Měj se!
See you!

VocabularyEdit

ahoj hello, hi
čau hello, hi (there's no big difference to ahoj, the usage from person to person)
dobrý den good day (formal greeting) promiň sorry, excuse me
také also (or taky in spoken language)
I
jít to go

PhrasesEdit

Jak se máš? How are you?
Jak se jmenuješ? What's your name?
Rád(a) tě poznávám Nice to meet you (Rád is for male speakers, Ráda is for female speakers)
Já jsem __ I am __
Jmenuji se __ My name is __
Měj se! See you! (literally translates as have yourself)

Formal speechEdit

Here you will find the same dialogue as above, but changed into the formal way.

David: Dobrý den, jak se jmenujete?
Hi, what's your name?

Jana: Dobrý den, já jsem Jana.
Hello, I am Jana.

David: Rád Vás poznávám, Jano.
Nice to meet you, Jana.

Jana: Já Vás také. Jak se máte?
Nice to meet you too. How are you?

David: Mám se dobře, děkuji. A Vy?
I am well, thanks. And you?

Jana: Já také.
Me too.

David: Promiňte, musím jít. Mějte se!
Sorry, I have to go. See you!

Jana: Mějte se!
See you!

When to use the formal speechEdit

The formal speech is used as a default one. Example situations are:

  • In a shop
  • In a bank
  • In a school when speaking to a teacher as a student
  • In a workplace (to your colleagues, to your boss)

... and many more. Usually use it with people you don't know well.

When to use the informal speechEdit

  • With your friends
  • With young people (teenage and few years on)
  • With parents
  • With people you explicitly agree on using the informal speech (*)

(*) Even though the etiquette says you can use informal speech to people younger than you, it's more common to agree on this first. The older person (or the person with higher "level", i.e. your boss, your teacher, your customer, ...) is the one who must offer the usage of informal speech, otherwise it's considered impolite.



Numbers

Čísla - NumbersEdit

Numbers from 0 to 99Edit

0 nula
1 jedna
2 dva
3 tři
4 čtyři
5 pět
6 šest
7 sedm
8 osm
9 devět
10 deset

11 jedenáct
12 dvanáct
13 třináct
14 čtrnáct
15 patnáct
16 šestnáct
17 sedmnáct
18 osmnáct
19 devatenáct

20 dvacet
21 dvacet jedna
22 dvacet dva
30 třicet
31 třicet jedna
40 čtyřicet
41 čtyřicet jedna
50 padesát
60 šedesát
70 sedmdesát
80 osmdesát
90 devadesát
99 devadesát devět

100 and aboveEdit

100 sto
200 dvě stě
300 tři sta
400 čtyři sta
500 pět set
600 šest set
700 sedm set
800 osm set
900 devět set

1000 tisíc
2000 dva tisíce
3000 tři tisíce
4000 čtyři tisíce
5000 pět tisíc
6000 šest tisíc
7000 sedm tisíc
8000 osm tisíc
9000 devět tisíc

1 000 000 jeden milion

Řadové číslovky - OrdinalsEdit

1st první
2nd druhý
3rd třetí
4th čtvrtý
5th pátý
6th šestý
7th sedmý
8th osmý
9th devátý
10th desátý
11th jedenáctý
12th dvanáctý
13th třináctý
14th čtrnáctý
15th patnáctý
16th šestnáctý
17th sedmnáctý
18th osmnáctý
19th devatenáctý
20th dvacátý
21st dvacátý první
22nd dvacátý druhý
30th třicátý
40th čtyřicátý
50th padesátý
60th šedesátý
70th sedmdesátý
80th osmdesátý
90th devadesátý

100th stý
101st sto první
102nd sto druhý
1000th tisíctý

Note that every ordinal behaves like an adjective, therefore the ending applies only to masculine forms.

Basic arithmetic operationsEdit

plus - mínus - krát - dělenoEdit

1 + 7 = 8 ⇒ jedna plus sedm se rovná osm

6 − 6 = 0 ⇒ šest mínus šest se rovná nula

7 ⋅ 7 = 49 ⇒ sedm krát sedm se rovná čtyřicet devět

80 : 8 = 10 ⇒ osmdesát děleno osmi se rovná deset



Alphabet and Pronunciation

Czech alphabet consists of 42 normal Latin letters, some have an accent:

  • All vowels can be either short (aeiouy), or long with acute (čárka) (áéíóúůý). (This can denote a different word.)
  • The only difference between Ú and Ů is that Ú is used only at the beginning of a word (or a part of a word like: triangle = trojúhelník).
  • There are also "softened" versions of the letters D E N R S T Z, with a hook (háček): ˇ
  • The accents lengthen the vowels, but they do not imply stress. Stress is almost always on the first syllable. The same rules also apply in Slovak.

A Á B C Č D Ď E É Ě F G H Ch I Í J K L M N Ň O Ó P Q R Ř S Š T Ť U Ú Ů V W X Y Ý Z Ž

Stuck with Ď or Ť? Listen to this recording for help.
Stuck with Ř? Listen to this recording for help.

Note: Except for foreign words, the letters F G Ó Q W and X are almost never used .

Most of the letters are spelled similar way as in German. Note:

  • Ch is pronounced as "kh" and considered as one letter
  • C like in the 'zz' in pizza or German 'z' as in 'Zimmer'
  • Ď like between 'dz' and 'j' (/d͡ʑ/ or /ɟ/) or Polish 'dź'
  • E and G like in "beggar"
  • H like in "head"
  • J like the 'y' in "yeah"
  • Ň like in "menu" or the Spanish 'señor'
  • R somewhat harder than in English, a bit like in Spanish "arriba" initially and rolled in the middle of a word.
  • Ť like between 'ts' and 'ch' (/t͡ɕ/ or /c/) or Polish 'ć'

The pronunciation rarely changes depending on the position, except for:

  1. D, N, T are pronounced as Ď, Ň, Ť before I, Í, or Ě
    Note: This is the only reason why Ě is used. The letter itself is pronounced as E.
    Not quite true, consider following example: "válka měla mnoho obětí" and "těšila se domů na jeho objetí..." etc.
  2. Czech has word-final devoicing of consonants. This means that in speech, voiced consonants are pronounced as their voiceless counterparts: D → T, Ď → Ť, H → Ch, G → K, V → F, B → P, Z → S, Ž → Š.

Other notes:

  1. Y and Ý are mostly used to avoid palatizing the preceding consonant where I or Í would palatize the preceding consonant: dy is pronounced /dɪ/

Now you know almost everything. You can go to the Czech pronunciation page and hear it.



Basics

Personal pronounsEdit

In Czech there are ten personal pronouns. Czech uses two separate pronouns for English equivalent of you. Instead of that each 3rd person singular pronoun has its counterpart in plural (while English uses they in all those cases).

Let's see the table with primary forms (nominative) of Czech personal pronouns :

number person gender English Czech Pronunciation /IPA/
singular 1st mas., fem., neut. I [jaː]
2nd mas., fem., neut. you ty [tɪ]
3rd mas. he on [ɔn]
fem. she ona [ɔna]
neut. it ono [ɔnɔ]
plural 1st mas., fem., neut. we my [mɪ]
2nd mas., fem., neut. you vy [vɪ]
3rd mas. they oni [ɔɲɪ]
fem. they ony [ɔnɪ]
neut. they ona [ɔna]

For declination of Czech personal pronouns and for details about them see section Czech/Pronouns.

Important verbsEdit

To beEdit

To be is translated as být [biːt]. It is pronounced in the same way as English word beat.

English Czech Pronunciation /IPA/
singular 1st person I am já jsem [jaː sɛm]
2nd person you are ty jsi [tɪ sɪ]
3rd person he/she/it is on/ona/ono je [ɔn/ɔna/ɔnɔ jɛ]
plural 1st person we are my jsme [mɪ smɛ]
2nd person you are vy jste [vɪ stɛ]
3rd person they are oni/ony jsou [ɔɲɪ/ɔnɪ/ɔna soʊ̯]

To haveEdit

To have is translated as mít [miːt]. It is pronounced in the same way as English word meat.

English Czech Pronunciation /IPA/
singular 1st person I have já mám [jaː maːm]
2nd person you have ty máš [tɪ maːʃ]
3rd person he/she/it has on/ona/ono má [ɔn/ɔna/ɔnɔ maː]
plural 1st person we have my máme [mɪ maːmɛ]
2nd person you have vy máte [vɪ maːtɛ]
3rd person they have oni/ony mají [ɔɲɪ/ɔnɪ/ɔna majiː]



Nouns

Skloňování - declensionEdit

There are 7 grammar cases in Czech:

  1. Nominative
  2. Genitive
  3. Dative
  4. Accusative
  5. Vocative
  6. Locative
  7. Instrumental

Although it's common to refer to each by their ordinal name (i.e. "první pád" - first case would be Nominative).

Declension depends on the gender and on the number. For each type of declension, Czech has example words, which are listed below. All Czech words are declined the same way as these example words.

Rod mužský životný - masculine animateEdit

Sg. Nominative pán muž předseda soudce
Genitive pána muže předsedy soudce
Dative pánovi, pánu mužovi, muži předsedovi soudci, soudcovi
Accusative pána muže předsedu soudce
Vocative pane!
diváku!
muži! předsedo! soudce!
Locative pánovi, pánu mužovi, muži předsedovi soudci, soudcovi
Intrumental pánem mužem předsedou soudcem
Pl. Nominative pánové, páni mužové, muži předsedové soudci, soudcové
Genitive pánů mužů předsedů soudců
Dative pánům mužům předsedům soudcům
Accusative pány muže předsedy soudce
Vocative pánové! páni! mužové! muži! předsedové! soudci! soudcové!
Locative pánech
divácích
mužích předsedech
kolezích
soudcích
Intrumental pány muži předsedy soudci

Rod mužský neživotný - masculine inanimateEdit

Sg. Nominative hrad stroj
Genitive hradu
lesa
stroje
Dative hradu stroji
Accusative hrad stroj
Vocative hrade!
zámku!
stroji!
Locative hradu, hradě
lesu, lese
stroji
Intrumental hradem strojem
Pl. Nominative hrady stroje
Genitive hradů strojů
Dative hradům strojům
Accusative hrady stroje
Vocative hrady! stroje!
Locative hradech
zámcích
strojích
Intrumental hrady stroji

Rod ženský - feminineEdit

Sg. Nominative žena růže píseň kost
Genitive ženy růže písně kosti
Dative ženě
škole
růži písni kosti
Accusative ženu růži píseň kost
Vocative ženo!
růže! písni! kosti!
Locative ženě
škole
růži písni kosti
Intrumental ženou růží písní kostí
Pl. Nominative ženy růže písně kosti
Genitive žen růží písní kostí
Dative ženám růžím písním kostem
Accusative ženy růže písně kosti
Vocative ženy!
růže! písně! kosti!
Locative ženách růžích písních kostech
Intrumental ženami růžemi písněmi kostmi

Rod střední - neuterEdit

Sg. Nominative město moře kuře stavení
Genitive města moře kuřete stavení
Dative městu moři kuřeti stavení
Accusative město moře kuře stavení
Vocative město!
moře! kuře! stavení!
Locative městě, městu moři kuřeti stavení
Intrumental městem mořem kuřetem stavením
Pl. Nominative města moře kuřata stavení
Genitive měst moří kuřat stavení
Dative městům mořím kuřatům stavením
Accusative města moře kuřata stavení
Vocative města! moře! kuřata! stavení!
Locative městech mořích kuřatech staveních
Intrumental městy moři kuřaty staveními



Pronouns

Details on and declination of personal pronounsEdit

As other pronouns, also personal pronouns are declined in Czech language. As verbs used with pronouns are declined and it's easy for listener to guess person (first, second, third) and number (singular, plural), pronouns are not often use in their primary form - nominative. Examples with nominative written below are a little bit artificial structures. Czechs do not usually make sentences with nominative form of pronouns unless they want to emphasize the person.

IEdit

Pronoun [jaː] (I in English) substitutes speaker (first person) in a sentence.

form 1 form 2 Example Translation
nominative já [jaː] to umím. [jaː tɔ umiːm] I can do it.
genitive mě [mɲɛ] mne [mnɛ] Hráli si beze . [ˈɦraːlɪ sɪ ˈbɛzɛ mɲɛ] They played without me.
dative mně [mɲɛ] mi [mɪ] Maminko, povídej mi pohádku, prosím. [mamɪŋkɔ pɔviːdɛj mɪ poɦaːtkʊ prosiːm] Mum, tell me a fairytale, please.
accusative mě [mɲɛ] mne [mnɛ] Vidíš ? [vɪɟiːʃ mɲɛ] Can you see me?
vocative *
locative mně [mɲɛ] Povídali si o mně. [pɔviːdalɪ sɪ ɔmɲɛ] They talked about me.
instrumental mnou [mnɔʊ̯] Můžeš pracovat se mnou. [muːʒɛʃ prat͡sɔvat sɛ mnɔʊ̯] You can work with me.

* Vocative of is not used.

You (singular)Edit

Ty [tɪ] (you in English) is used to replace speaker's partner (second person, singular). It's mostly used in informal conversation, i.e. when speakers are friends or members of same family, when one speaker is significantly older than the other or when the speaker abuses their partner. In formal conversations pronoun vy [vɪ] is broadly used to address speaker's partner.

form 1 form 2 Example Translation
nominative ty [tɪ] Ty jsi náš hrdina. [tɪ jsɪ naːʃ hrɟɪna] You are our hero.
genitive tě [cɛ] tebe [tɛbɛ] Od tebe jsem nic nečekal. [ot tɛbɛ ˈjsɛm ˈɲɪt͡s nɛt͡ʃɛkal] I didn't expect anything from you.
dative ti [cɪ] tobě [tɔbjɛ] Táta ti to poví. [taːta cɪ tɔ pɔviː] Dad is going to tell you.
accusative tě [cɛ] tebe [tɛbɛ] Uděláš-li chybu, opravím . [uɟɛlaːʃ lɪ xɪbʊ ɔpraviːm cɛ] If you make mistake, I will correct you.
vocative ty [tɪ] Ty v tom modrém triku, pojď sem! [tɪ ftɔm mɔdrɛːm trɪkʊ pɔjc sɛm] You, the one in blue t-shirt, come here!
locative tobě [tɔbjɛ] Ta kniha je o tobě. [ta kɲɪɦa jɛ ɔtɔbjɛ] The book is about you.
instrumental tebou [tɛbɔʊ̯] Nad tebou je obloha. [nad tɛbɔʊ̯ jɛ ɔblɔɦa] There is the sky above you.

HeEdit

Pronoun on [ɔn] (he in English) is a substitution for third person, singular, masculine gender. It substitutes masculine singular nouns in sentences. Unlike English there is no influence of animacy or humanity to use this pronoun, only gender of the substituted noun is relevant. Therefore in Czech on substitutes nouns strom (a tree), stroj (a machine) or hrad (a castle) as well as lékař (a doctor), otec (a father), majitel (an owner) or herec (an actor).

form 1 form 2 form 3 form 4 form 5 Example Translation
nominative on [ɔn] Tu smlouvu podepsal on. [tʊ smlɔʊ̯vʊ pɔdɛpsal ɔn] It was he who signed the agreement.
genitive ho [ɦɔ] jej [jɛj] něj [ɲɛj] jeho [jɛɦɔ] něho [ɲɛɦɔ] Bez něj jsou Prokopovi ztraceni. [bɛzɲɛj sɔʊ̯ prɔkɔpɔvɪ strat͡sɛɲɪ] The Prokops are lost without him.
dative mu [mʊ] jemu [jɛmʊ] němu [ɲɛmʊ] Jakub mu dal míč. [jakʊp mʊ dal miːt͡ʃ] Jacob gave him a ball.
accusative ho [ɦɔ] jej [jɛj] něj [ɲɛj] jeho [jɛɦɔ] něho [ɲɛɦɔ] Jindřich jej provázel po celou cestu. [jɪndr̝ɪx jɛj prɔvaːzɛl pɔt͡sɛlɔʊ̯ t͡sɛstʊ] Henry has accompanied him all the way.
vocative *
locative něm [ɲɛm] Helena udržela tajemství - nic nám o něm neřekla. [ɦɛlɛna ʊdrʒɛla tajɛmstviː ɲɪt͡s naːm ɔɲɛm nɛr̝ɛkla] Helen kept the secret - she did not tell us anything about him.
instrumental jím [jiːm] ním [ɲiːm] Vstoupili s ním do první místnosti hradu. [fstɔʊ̯pɪlɪ sɲiːm dɔpr̩vɲiː miːsnɔscɪ ɦradʊ] They entered with him to first room of the castle.

* Vocative of on is not used.

SheEdit

Ona [ɔna] (she in English) is third person singular, feminine gender. Pronoun ona substitutes feminine nouns (animate and inanimate ones), i.e. it can be is used to replace nouns as kočka (a cat), láhev (a bottle), vnučka (a granddaughter ) or lampa (a lamp).

form 1 form 2 Example Translation
nominative ona [ɔna] To ona připravila ten dort. [tɔ ɔna pr̝ɪpravɪla tɛn dɔrt] It was she who made the cake.
genitive jí [jiː] ní [ɲiː] Vrátil se bez . [vraːtɪl sɛ bɛzɲiː] He came back without her.
dative jí [jiː] ní [ɲiː] Děda požádal vnuka, abych to dal. [djɛda pɔʒaːdal vnʊka abɪ jiː tɔ dal] My Granddad asked his grandson to give it to her.
accusative ji [jɪ] ni [ɲɪ] Petr ji požádal o pomoc. [pɛtr̩ jɪ pɔʒaːdal ɔpɔmɔt͡s] Peter asked her for help.
vocative *
locative ní [ɲiː] Nevěděli jsme o nic. [nɛvjɛdjɛlɪ smɛ ɔɲiː nɪt͡s] We didn't know anything about her.
instrumental jí [jiː] ní [ɲiː] Jan s ní procestoval celý svět. [jan sɲiː prɔt͡sɛstɔval t͡sɛliː svjɛt] John has travelled the whole world with her.

* Vocative of ona is not used.

ItEdit

Ono [ɔnɔ] (it in English) is a substitution for third person singular, neuter gender. It is used instead of neuter nouns, e.g. instead of auto (a car), vězení (a prison), zvíře (an animal).

form 1 form 2 form 3 form 4 form 5 Example Translation
nominative ono [ɔnɔ] Chytnul jsem kuře a ono mi uteklo. [xɪtnʊl sɛm kʊr̝ɛ a ɔnɔ mɪ ʊtɛklɔ] I caught a chicken and it has escaped.
genitive ho [ɦɔ] jej [jɛj] něj [ɲɛj] jeho [jɛɦɔ] něho [ɲɛɦɔ] Moře - spatřil jej jen jednou. [mɔr̝ɛ - spatr̝ɪl jɛj jɛn jɛdnɔʊ̯] A sea - he has seen it only once.
dative mu [mʊ] jemu [jɛmʊ] němu [ɲɛmʊ] Rodiče uviděli staveniště a šli k němu. [rɔɟɪt͡ʃɛ ʊvɪɟɛlɪ stavɛɲɪʃcɛ a ʃlɪ kɲɛmʊ] Parents saw construction site and went to it.
accusative ho [ɦɔ] je [jɛ] ně [ɲɛ] jej [jɛj] něj [ɲɛj] To je obilné pole? Ano, maluji jej. [tɔ jɛ ɔbɪlnɛː pɔlɛ - anɔ malʊjɪ jɛj] Is that cornfield? Yes it is - I just am painting it.
vocative *
locative něm [ɲɛm] Jiří si koupil sako, ale neřekl mi o něm. [jɪr̝iː sɪ kɔʊ̯pɪl sakɔ alɛ nɛr̝ɛkl mɪ ɔɲɛm] George bought a coat but he did not say to me about it.
instrumental jím [jiːm] ním [ɲiːm] Měli s sebou jasné světlo, došli s ním až do města. [mɲɛlɪ sɛbɔʊ̯ jasnɛː svjɛtlɔ dɔʃlɪ sɲiːm aʒ dɔ mɲɛsta] They had a bright light and went with it to the town.

* Vocative of ono is not used.

WeEdit

Pronoun my [mɪ] (we in English) substitutes first person plural.

form 1 Example Translation
nominative my [mɪ] My máme maso, ó, my se máme! [mɪ maːmɛ masɔ ɔː mɪ sɛ maːmɛ] We had meat, oh, we are so lucky!
genitive nás [naːs] Je nás na ten úkol málo. [jɛ naːs na tɛn uːkɔl maːlɔ] It's too little of us to manage the task.
dative nám [naːm] Jeho bratranec nám otevřel bránu. [jɛɦɔ bratranɛt͡s naːm otɛvr̝ɛl braːnʊ] His cousin has opened the gate for us.
accusative nás [naːs] Nás se to netýká. [naːsɛ tɔ nɛtiːkaː] It does not concern us.
vocative my [mɪ] My, hasiči, pojďme hasit! [mɪ ɦasɪt͡ʃɪ pɔjcmɛ ɦasɪt] We, firemen, let's quensch!
locative nás [naːs] Ten příběh vypráví o nás. [tɛn pr̝iːbjex vɪpraːviː ɔnaːs] The story talks about us.
instrumental námi [naːmɪ] Tomáš a Marie s námi pobyli týden u moře. [tɔmaːʃ a marɪɛ snaːmɪ pɔbɪlɪ tiːdɛn ʊmɔr̝ɛ] Thomas and Mary have stayed with us at the seaside for a week.

You (plural)Edit

Pronoun vy [vɪ] (you in English) substitutes second person plural. It is used not only to address a group of speaker's partners but also in formal speech called vykání. In that speech pronoun vy is used and verbs are declined in plural (except the declination in case of conditional and past tense).

English does not distinguish between you in singular and you in plural and it does not use vykání either. At English-to-Czech translation one must understand the context to use the appropriate forms of pronouns and verbs.

form 1 Example Translation
nominative vy [vɪ] Vy jste vyhráli pohár. [vɪ stɛ vɪɦraːlɪ pɔɦaːr] You have won the cup!
genitive vás [vaːs] Vás dva Jeroným potřebuje. [jɛ naːs na tɛn uːkɔl maːlɔ] Jerome needs the two of you.
dative vám [vaːm] Vám patří celé toto pole. [vaːm patr̝iː t͡sɛlɛː tɔtɔ pɔlɛ] This whole field belongs to you.
accusative vás [vaːs] Vás obdivuju, skládáte pěkné písně. [vaːs ɔpɟɪvʊjɪ sklaːdaːtɛ pjɛknɛː piːsɲɛ] I admire you, you compose very nice songs.
vocative vy [vɪ] Hej, vy tam - jděte z toho pozemku! [ɦɛɪ vɪ tam ɟɛtɛ stɔɦɔ pɔzɛmkʊ] Hey you there - leave that land!
locative vás [vaːs] Ta hra je o vás, o vašem pokrytectví. [ta ɦra jɛ ɔvaːs ɔvaʃɛm pɔkrɪtɛt͡stviː] The drama is about you, about your hypocrisy.
instrumental vámi [vaːmɪ] Váš vedoucí poletí do Londýna s vámi. [vaːʃ vɛdɔʊ̯t͡siː pɔlɛtiː dɔlɔndiːna svaːmɪ] Your boss is going to fly with you to London.

They (masculine)Edit

Pronoun oni [ɔnɪ] (they in English)

form 1 form 2 Example Translation
nominative oni [ɔɲɪ] Petr četl synům pohádku a oni poslouchali. [pɛtr t͡ʃɛtl sɪnuːm pɔɦaːtkʊ a ɔɲɪ pɔslɔʊ̯xalɪ] Peter read a tale to their sons and they listened to him.
genitive jich [jɪx] nich [ɲɪx] Mám mokré všechny své svetry a bez nich nemohu jít ven. [maːm mɔkrɛː vʃɛxnɪ svɛː svɛtrɪ a bɛsɲɪx nɛmɔɦʊ jiːt vɛn] All my sweaters are wet and I can't go outside without them.
dative jim [jɪm] nim [ɲɪm] Josef a Marek? Jim já důvěřuji. [jɔzɛf a marɛk jɪm jaː duːvjɛr̝ʊjɪ] Joseph and Mark? I trust them.
accusative je [jɛ] ně [ɲɛ] Vidíš ty žraloky? Ano! Vidím je! [vɪɟiːʃ tɪ rɪbɪ anɔ vɪɟiːm jɛ] Could you see the sharks? Yes! I can see them!
vocative *
locative nich [ɲɪx] Řekl mi o nich, že jsou dobří hráči. [r̝ɛkl mɪ ɔɲɪx ʒɛ sɔʊ̯ dɔbr̝iː ɦraːt͡ʃɪ] He told me about them that they were good players.
instrumental jimi [jɪmɪ] nimi [ɲɪmɪ] Zadíval se na míčky a pak jimi pohnul. [zaɟiːval sɛ na miːt͡ʃkɪ a pak jɪmɪ pɔɦnʊl] He took a look at the balls and then he moved with them.

* Vocative of oni is not used.

They (feminine)Edit

Pronoun ony [ɔnɪ] (they in English)

form 1 form 2 Example Translation
nominative ony [ɔnɪ] Tu tabuli pomalovaly ony - Petra s Monikou! [tʊ tabʊlɪ pɔmalɔvalɪ ɔnɪ pɛtra smɔnɪkoʊ̯] They scrawled over the blackboard, they - Petra and Monika.
genitive jich [jɪx] nich* [ɲɪx] Pavel má rád kočky. Bez nich by mu bylo smutno. [pavɛl maː kɔt͡ʃkɪ raːt bɛsnɪɣ bɪ mʊ bɪlɔ smʊtnɔ] Paul likes cats. He would feel lonely without them.
dative jim [jɪm] nim* [ɲɪm] Mým babičkám? Jim to jednoduše vysvětlím. [miːm babɪt͡ʃkaːm jɪm tɔ jɛdnɔdʊʃɛ vɪsvjɛtliːm] To my grandmothers? I will explain it to them easily.
accusative je [jɛ] ně* [ɲɛ] Koukej na ty lokomotivy! Vidíš je? [koʊ̯kɛj na tɪ lɔkɔmɔtɪvɪ vɪdiːʃ jɛ] Look at those locomotives! Can you see them?
vocative +
locative nich [ɲɪx] Max má dvě důvěrné přítelkyně. Neřekl mi o nich vůbec nic. [maks maː dvjɛ duːvjɛrnɛː pr̝iːtɛlkɪɲɛ nɛr̝ɛkl mɪ ɔnɪɣ vuːbɛc ŋɪc] Max has two intimate girlfriends. He did not say a word about them.
instrumental jimi [jɪmɪ] nimi* [ɲɪmɪ] Oblékni si tyto rukavice - práce ti s nimi půjde sama. [ɔblɛːkɲɪ sɪ tɪtɔ rʊkavɪcɛ praːt͡sɛ tɪ sɲɪmɪ puːjdɛ sama] Wear those gloves and your work will get easy with them.

* This form is used after preposition only.

+ Vocative of ony is not used.

They (neuter)Edit

Pronoun ona [ɔna] (they in English)

form 1 form 2 Example Translation
nominative ona [ɔna] Rodí se kuřata? Ona se nerodí, líhnou se. [rɔɟiː sɛ kʊr̝ata ɔna sɛ nɛrɔɟiː liːɦnɔʊ̯ sɛ] Are chickens born? They are not born, they are hatched.
genitive jich [jɪx] nich* [ɲɪx]
dative jim [jɪm] nim* [ɲɪm]
accusative je [jɛ] ně* [ɲɛ]
vocative +
locative nich* [ɲɪx]
instrumental jimi [jɪmɪ] nimi* [ɲɪmɪ]

* This form is used after preposition only.

+ Vocative of ona is not used.



Verbs

PresentEdit

Czech verbs in infinitive usually end by -t or -ti but we can find some with -ci or -ct which doesn't influence conjugation at all. However the most important verbs such as být (to be) are irregular so the best way to learn them is separately for ex. from this summary. To be able to conjugate regular ones we have to divide them in 5 classes based on their present form in the 3rd person of singular. Native speaker does it naturally and most of Czechs doesn't even know about existence of classes. Foreigner has to learn not just infinitives and their traductions but the present in 3rd p. of sg. If you know it, you can simply change the suffixe for other person.

Frequently-used verbs and their present form in 3rd p. of sgEdit

czech infinitive present form traduction (infi) class
číst on čte to read he's reading 1
jet/jít on jde to go he's going 1
psát on píše to write he's writing 1
žít on žije to live he's living 3
milovat on miluje to love he loves 3
stát on stojí to stand/to cost he's standing 4
spát on spí to sleep he's sleeping 4
jíst on jí to eat he's eating 4
volat on volá to call he's calling 5

1st class: -eEdit

nést - on nese (to carry)

sg pl
1st já nesu my neseme
2nd ty nes vy nesete
3rd on nese oni nesou

psát - on píše (to write)

sg pl
1st já píši my píšeme
2nd ty píš vy píšete
3rd on píše oni píší

2nd class: -neEdit

začít - on začne (to start)

sg pl
1st já začnu my začneme
2nd ty začneš vy začnete
3rd on začne oni začnou

3rd class: -jeEdit

kupovat - on kupuje (to buy)

sg pl
1st já kupuji my kupujeme
2nd ty kupuješ vy kupujete
3rd on kupuje oni kupu

4th class: -íEdit

prosit - on prosí (to beg)

sg pl
1st já prosím my prosíme
2nd ty prosíš vy prosíte
3rd on prosí oni prosí

5th class: -áEdit

dělat - on dělá (to do)

sg pl
1st já dělám my děláme
2nd ty děláš vy děláte
3rd on dělá oni dělají



Common phrases

Czech (Slavic)Edit

Translation Phrase Pronunciation IPA Remarks
Czech Česky CHEHskee /'ʧɛski/
Czech Republic Česká republika CHEHskah REHpublikah /'ʧɛskaː ɾɛpublika/
hello dobrý den DObree den /'dobɾiː dɛn/ Literal translation: Good

day

good-bye na shledanou na sKHLEdanow /nɐ 'sxlɛdanou/ Literal

translation: Until we see each other again

please prosím PROseem /'pɾosiːm/ Literal translation: I beg
thank you děkuji vám DYEkooyi vam /'ɟɛkuji vaːm/
that one tamten tamten /tamtɛn/
how much? kolik KOlik /'kolik/
English anglicky anglytskee /angliʦki/
yes ano /ano/ More often is said "jo" /jo/ (!)
no ne /ne/
sorry promiňte /pɾomiɲte/ Literal translation: Forgive
cheers Na zdraví /na zdɾaviː/ Literal translation: To health
I don't understand Nerozumím /nɛɾozumiːm/
Where's the bathroom? Kde je toaleta? /gdɛ jɛ toaleta/
Do you speak English? Mluvíte anglicky? /mluviːtɛ angliʦki/
I don't speak Czech Nemluvím česky /nɛmluviːm 'ʧɛski/
Do you speak Czech? Mluvíte česky? /mluviːtɛ 'ʧɛski/
Where can I find a restaurant? Kde najdu restauraci? /gdɛ najdu ɾɛstaurɐʦi/
Where is the nearest hospital? Kde je nejbližší nemocnice? /gdɛ jɛ nɛjbliʃiː nɛmoʦniʦɛ/